Search results for: constant current density
4059 The Photon-Drag Effect in Cylindrical Quantum Wire with a Parabolic Potential
Authors: Hoang Van Ngoc, Nguyen Thu Huong, Nguyen Quang Bau
Using the quantum kinetic equation for electrons interacting with acoustic phonon, the density of the constant current associated with the drag of charge carriers in cylindrical quantum wire by a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, a DC electric field and a laser radiation field is calculated. The density of the constant current is studied as a function of the frequency of electromagnetic wave, as well as the frequency of laser field and the basic elements of quantum wire with a parabolic potential. The analytic expression of the constant current density is numerically evaluated and plotted for a specific quantum wires GaAs/AlGaAs to show the dependence of the constant current density on above parameters. All these results of quantum wire compared with bulk semiconductors and superlattices to show the difference.
Keywords: Photon-drag effect, constant current density, quantum wire, parabolic potential.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1062
4058 Current Distribution and Cathode Flooding Prediction in a PEM Fuel Cell
Authors: A. Jamekhorshid, G. Karimi, I. Noshadi, A. Jahangiri
Abstract:Non-uniform current distribution in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells results in local over-heating, accelerated ageing, and lower power output than expected. This issue is very critical when fuel cell experiences water flooding. In this work, the performance of a PEM fuel cell is investigated under cathode flooding conditions. Two-dimensional partially flooded GDL models based on the conservation laws and electrochemical relations are proposed to study local current density distributions along flow fields over a wide range of cell operating conditions. The model results show a direct association between cathode inlet humidity increases and that of average current density but the system becomes more sensitive to flooding. The anode inlet relative humidity shows a similar effect. Operating the cell at higher temperatures would lead to higher average current densities and the chance of system being flooded is reduced. In addition, higher cathode stoichiometries prevent system flooding but the average current density remains almost constant. The higher anode stoichiometry leads to higher average current density and higher sensitivity to cathode flooding.
Keywords: Current distribution, Flooding, Hydrogen energysystem, PEM fuel cell.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2121
4057 Effect of Current Density, Temperature and Pressure on Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyser Stack
Authors: Na Li, Samuel Simon Araya, Søren Knudsen Kær
This study investigates the effects of operating parameters of different current density, temperature and pressure on the performance of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis stack. A 7-cell PEM water electrolysis stack was assembled and tested under different operation modules. The voltage change and polarization curves under different test conditions, namely current density, temperature and pressure, were recorded. Results show that higher temperature has positive effect on overall stack performance, where temperature of 80 ℃ improved the cell performance greatly. However, the cathode pressure and current density has little effect on stack performance.
Keywords: PEM electrolysis stack, current density, temperature, pressure.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 748
4056 Heating of High-Density Hydrogen by High- Current Arc Radiation
Authors: A. V. Budin, Ph. G. Rutberg, M. E. Pinchuk, A. A. Bogomaz, V. Yu. Svetova
Abstract:The investigation results of high-density hydrogen heating by high-current electric arc are presented at initial pressure from 5 MPa to 160 MPa with current amplitude up to 1.6 MA and current rate of rise 109-1011 A/s. When changing the initial pressure and current rate of rise, channel temperature varies from several electronvolts to hundreds electronvolts. Arc channel radius is several millimeters. But the radius of the discharge chamber greater than the radius of the arc channel on approximately order of magnitude. High efficiency of gas heating is caused by radiation absorption of hydrogen surrounding the arc. Current channel consist from vapor of the initiating wire. At current rate of rise of 109 A/s and relatively small current amplitude gas heating occurs due to radiation absorption in the band transparency of hydrogen by the wire vapours with photon energies less than 13.6 eV. At current rate of rise of 1011 A/s gas heating is due to hydrogen absorption of soft X-rays from discharge channel.
Keywords: High-density hydrogen heating by high-current electric arc.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1464
4055 A Comparative Study on Optimized Bias Current Density Performance of Cubic ZnB-GaN with Hexagonal 4H-SiC Based Impatts
Authors: Arnab Majumdar, Srimani Sen
In this paper, a vivid simulated study has been made on 35 GHz Ka-band window frequency in order to judge and compare the DC and high frequency properties of cubic ZnB-GaN with the existing hexagonal 4H-SiC. A flat profile p+pnn+ DDR structure of impatt is chosen and is optimized at a particular bias current density with respect to efficiency and output power taking into consideration the effect of mobile space charge also. The simulated results obtained reveals the strong potentiality of impatts based on both cubic ZnB-GaN and hexagonal 4H-SiC. The DC-to-millimeter wave conversion efficiency for cubic ZnB-GaN impatt obtained is 50% with an estimated output power of 2.83 W at an optimized bias current density of 2.5×108 A/m2. The conversion efficiency and estimated output power in case of hexagonal 4H-SiC impatt obtained is 22.34% and 40 W respectively at an optimum bias current density of 0.06×108 A/m2.
Keywords: Cubic ZnB-GaN, hexagonal 4H-SiC, Double drift impatt diode, millimeter wave, optimized bias current density, wide band gap semiconductor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1160
4054 PSRR Enhanced LDO Regulator Using Noise Sensing Circuit
Authors: Min-ju Kwon, Chae-won Kim, Jeong-yun Seo, Hee-guk Chae, Yong-seo Koo
In this paper, we presented the LDO (low-dropout) regulator which enhanced the PSRR by applying the constant current source generation technique through the BGR (Band Gap Reference) to form the noise sensing circuit. The current source through the BGR has a constant current value even if the applied voltage varies. Then, the noise sensing circuit, which is composed of the current source through the BGR, operated between the error amplifier and the pass transistor gate of the LDO regulator. As a result, the LDO regulator has a PSRR of -68.2 dB at 1k Hz, -45.85 dB at 1 MHz and -45 dB at 10 MHz. the other performance of the proposed LDO was maintained at the same level of the conventional LDO regulator.
Keywords: LDO regulator, noise sensing circuit, current reference, pass transistor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 468
4053 Evaluation of Internal Ballistics of Multi-Perforated Grain in a Closed Vessel
Authors: B. A. Parate, C. P. Shetty
This research article describes the evaluation methodology of an internal ballistics of multi-perforated grain in a closed vessel (CV). The propellant testing in a CV is conducted to characterize the propellants and to ascertain the various internal ballistic parameters. The assessment of an internal ballistics plays a very crucial role for suitability of its use in the selection for a given particular application. The propellant used in defense sectors has to satisfy the user requirements as per laid down specifications. The outputs from CV evaluation of multi-propellant grain are maximum pressure of 226.75 MPa, differentiation of pressure with respect to time of 36.99 MPa/ms, average vivacity of 9.990×10-4/MPa ms, force constant of 933.9 J/g, rise time of 9.85 ms, pressure index of 0.878 including burning coefficient of 0.2919. This paper addresses an internal ballistic of multi-perforated grain, propellant selection, its calculation, and evaluation of various parameters in a CV testing. For the current analysis, the propellant is evaluated in 100 cc CV with propellant mass 20 g. The loading density of propellant is 0.2 g/cc. The method for determination of internal ballistic properties consists of burning of propellant mass under constant volume.
Keywords: Burning rate, closed vessel, force constant, internal ballistic, loading density, maximum pressure, multi-propellant grain, propellant, rise time, vivacity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 90
4052 A Simplified Approach for Load Flow Analysis of Radial Distribution Network
Authors: K. Vinoth Kumar, M.P. Selvan
Abstract:This paper presents a simple approach for load flow analysis of a radial distribution network. The proposed approach utilizes forward and backward sweep algorithm based on Kirchoff-s current law (KCL) and Kirchoff-s voltage law (KVL) for evaluating the node voltages iteratively. In this approach, computation of branch current depends only on the current injected at the neighbouring node and the current in the adjacent branch. This approach starts from the end nodes of sub lateral line, lateral line and main line and moves towards the root node during branch current computation. The node voltage evaluation begins from the root node and moves towards the nodes located at the far end of the main, lateral and sub lateral lines. The proposed approach has been tested using four radial distribution systems of different size and configuration and found to be computationally efficient.
Keywords: constant current load, constant impedance load, constant power load, forward–backward sweep, load flow analysis, radial distribution system.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2546
4051 Discrete Estimation of Spectral Density for Alpha Stable Signals Observed with an Additive Error
Authors: R. Sabre, W. Horrigue, J. C. Simon
This paper is interested in two difficulties encountered in practice when observing a continuous time process. The first is that we cannot observe a process over a time interval; we only take discrete observations. The second is the process frequently observed with a constant additive error. It is important to give an estimator of the spectral density of such a process taking into account the additive observation error and the choice of the discrete observation times. In this work, we propose an estimator based on the spectral smoothing of the periodogram by the polynomial Jackson kernel reducing the additive error. In order to solve the aliasing phenomenon, this estimator is constructed from observations taken at well-chosen times so as to reduce the estimator to the field where the spectral density is not zero. We show that the proposed estimator is asymptotically unbiased and consistent. Thus we obtain an estimate solving the two difficulties concerning the choice of the instants of observations of a continuous time process and the observations affected by a constant error.
Keywords: Spectral density, stable processes, aliasing, periodogram.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 487
4050 Compressive Strength and Capillary Water Absorption of Concrete Containing Recycled Aggregate
Authors: Yeşim Tosun, Remzi Şahin
Abstract:This paper presents results of compressive strength, capillary water absorption, and density tests conducted on concrete containing recycled aggregate (RCA) which is obtained from structural waste generated by the construction industry in Turkey. In the experiments, 0%, 15%, 30%, 45% and 60% of the normal (natural) coarse aggregate was replaced by the recycled aggregate. Maximum aggregate particle sizes were selected as 16 mm, 22,4 mm and 31,5 mm; and 0,06%, 0,13% and 0,20% of air-entraining agent (AEA) were used in mixtures. Fly ash and superplasticizer were used as a mineral and chemical admixture, respectively. The same type (CEM I 42.5) and constant dosage of cement were used in the study. Water/cement ratio was kept constant as 0.53 for all mixture. It was concluded that capillary water absorption, compressive strength, and density of concrete decreased with increasing RCA ratio. Increasing in maximum aggregate particle size and amount of AEA also affect the properties of concrete significantly.
Keywords: Capillary water absorption, compressive strength, density, recycled concrete aggregates.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2702
4049 Influence of Paralleled Capacitance Effect in Well-defined Multiple Value Logical Level System with Active Load
Authors: Chih Chin Yang, Yen Chun Lin, Hsiao Hsuan Cheng
Abstract:Three similar negative differential resistance (NDR) profiles with both high peak to valley current density ratio (PVCDR) value and high peak current density (PCD) value in unity resonant tunneling electronic circuit (RTEC) element is developed in this paper. The PCD values and valley current density (VCD) values of the three NDR curves are all about 3.5 A and 0.8 A, respectively. All PV values of NDR curves are 0.40 V, 0.82 V, and 1.35 V, respectively. The VV values are 0.61 V, 1.07 V, and 1.69 V, respectively. All PVCDR values reach about 4.4 in three NDR curves. The PCD value of 3.5 A in triple PVCDR RTEC element is better than other resonant tunneling devices (RTD) elements. The high PVCDR value is concluded the lower VCD value about 0.8 A. The low VCD value is achieved by suitable selection of resistors in triple PVCDR RTEC element. The low PV value less than 1.35 V possesses low power dispersion in triple PVCDR RTEC element. The designed multiple value logical level (MVLL) system using triple PVCDR RTEC element provides equidistant logical level. The logical levels of MVLL system are about 0.2 V, 0.8 V, 1.5 V, and 2.2 V from low voltage to high voltage and then 2.2 V, 1.3 V, 0.8 V, and 0.2 V from high voltage back to low voltage in half cycle of sinusoid wave. The output level of four levels MVLL system is represented in 0.3 V, 1.1 V, 1.7 V, and 2.6 V, which satisfies the NMP condition of traditional two-bit system. The remarkable logical characteristic of improved MVLL system with paralleled capacitor are with four significant stable logical levels about 220 mV, 223 mV, 228 mV, and 230 mV. The stability and articulation of logical levels of improved MVLL system are outstanding. The average holding time of improved MVLL system is approximately 0.14 μs. The holding time of improved MVLL system is fourfold than of basic MVLL system. The function of additional capacitor in the improved MVLL system is successfully discovered.
Keywords: Capacitance, Logical level, Constant current sourceProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1247
4048 Enhancement of Pulsed Eddy Current Response Based on Power Spectral Density after Continuous Wavelet Transform Decomposition
Authors: A. Benyahia, M. Zergoug, M. Amir, M. Fodil
The main objective of this work is to enhance the Pulsed Eddy Current (PEC) response from the aluminum structure using signal processing. Cracks and metal loss in different structures cause changes in PEC response measurements. In this paper, time-frequency analysis is used to represent PEC response, which generates a large quantity of data and reduce the noise due to measurement. Power Spectral Density (PSD) after Wavelet Decomposition (PSD-WD) is proposed for defect detection. The experimental results demonstrate that the cracks in the surface can be extracted satisfactorily by the proposed methods. The validity of the proposed method is discussed.
Keywords: NDT, pulsed eddy current, continuous wavelet transform, Mexican hat wavelet mother, defect detection, power spectral density.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 598
4047 Characterization of Pure Nickel Coatings Fabricated under Pulse Current Conditions
Authors: M. Sajjadnejad, H. Omidvar, M. Javanbakht, A. Mozafari
Abstract:Pure nickel coatings have been successfully electrodeposited on copper substrates by the pulse plating technique. The influence of current density, duty cycle and pulse frequency on the surface morphology, crystal orientation, and microhardness was determined. It was found that the crystallite size of the deposit increases with increasing current density and duty cycle. The crystal orientation progressively changed from a random texture at 1 A/dm2 to (200) texture at 10 A/dm2. Increasing pulse frequency resulted in increased texture coefficient and peak intensity of (111) reflection. An increase in duty cycle resulted in considerable increase in texture coefficient and peak intensity of (311) reflection. Coatings obtained at high current densities and duty cycle present a mixed morphology of small and large grains. Maximum microhardness of 193 Hv was achieved at 4 A/dm2, 10 Hz and duty cycle of 50%. Nickel coatings with (200) texture are ductile while (111) texture improves the microhardness of the coatings.
Keywords: Current density, Duty cycle, Microstructure, Nickel, Pulse frequency.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2113
4046 The Influence of Low Power Microwave Radiation on the Growth Rate of Listeria Monocytogenes
Authors: Renzo Carta, Francesco Desogus
Abstract:Variations in the growth rate constant of the Listeria monocytogenes bacterial species were determined at 37°C in irradiated environments and compared to the situation of a nonirradiated environment. The bacteria cells, contained in a suspension made of a nutrient solution of Brain Heart Infusion, were made to grow at different frequency (2.30e2.60 GHz) and power (0e400 mW) values, in a plug flow reactor positioned in the irradiated environment. Then the reacting suspension was made to pass into a cylindrical cuvette where its optical density was read every 2.5 minutes at a wavelength of 600 nm. The obtained experimental data of optical density vs. time allowed the bacterial growth rate constant to be derived; this was found to be slightly influenced by microwave power, but not by microwave frequency; in particular, a minimum value was found for powers in the 50e150 mW field.
Keywords: Growth rate constant, irradiated environment, Listeria monocytogenes, microwaves, plug flow reactor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1436
4045 The Mechanical and Electrochemical Properties of DC-Electrodeposited Ni-Mn Alloy Coating with Low Internal Stress
Authors: Chun-Ying Lee, Kuan-Hui Cheng, Mei-Wen Wu
Abstract:The nickel-manganese (Ni-Mn) alloy coating prepared from DC electrodeposition process in sulphamate bath was studied. The effects of process parameters, such as current density and electrolyte composition, on the cathodic current efficiency, microstructure, internal stress and mechanical properties were investigated. Because of its crucial effect on the application to the electroforming of microelectronic components, the development of low internal stress coating with high leveling power was emphasized. It was found that both the coating’s manganese content and the cathodic current efficiency increased with the raise in current density. In addition, the internal stress of the deposited coating showed compressive nature at low current densities while changed to tensile one at higher current densities. Moreover, the metallographic observation, X-ray diffraction measurement, and polarization curve measurement were conducted. It was found that the Ni-Mn coating consisted of nano-sized columnar grains and the maximum hardness of the coating was associated with (111) preferred orientation in the microstructure. The grain size was refined along with the increase in the manganese content of the coating, which accordingly, raised its hardness and resistance to annealing softening. In summary, the Ni-Mn coating prepared at lower current density of 1-2 A/dm2 had low internal stress, high leveling power, and better corrosion resistance.
Keywords: DC plating, internal stress, leveling power, Ni-Mn coating.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1863
4044 Recovery of Copper and DCA from Simulated Micellar Enhanced Ultrafiltration (MEUF)Waste Stream
Authors: Chuan-Kun Liu, Chi-Wang Li
Abstract:Simultaneous recovery of copper and DCA from simulated MEUF concentrated stream was investigated. Effects of surfactant (DCA) and metal (copper) concentrations, surfactant to metal molar ratio (S/M ratio), electroplating voltage, EDTA concentration, solution pH, and salt concentration on metal recovery and current efficiency were studied. Electric voltage of -0.5 V was shown to be optimum operation condition in terms of Cu recovery, current efficiency, and surfactant recovery. Increasing Cu recovery and current efficiency were observed with increases of Cu concentration while keeping concentration of DCA constant. However, increasing both Cu and DCA concentration while keeping S/M ratio constant at 2.5 showed detrimental effect on Cu recovery at DCA concentration higher than 15 mM. Cu recovery decreases with increasing pH while current efficiency showed an opposite trend. It is believed that conductivity is the main cause for discrepancy of Cu recovery and current efficiency observed at different pH. Finally, it was shown that EDTA had adverse effect on both Cu recovery and current efficiency while addition of NaCl salt had negative impact on current efficiency at concentration higher than 8000 mg/L.
Keywords: metal recovery, MEUF waste, surfactant, electroplating.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1462
4043 Improved Small-Signal Characteristics of Infrared 850 nm Top-Emitting Vertical-Cavity Lasers
Authors: Ahmad Al-Omari, Osama Khreis, Ahmad M. K. Dagamseh, Abdullah Ababneh, Kevin Lear
Abstract:High-speed infrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes (VCSELs) with Cu-plated heat sinks were fabricated and tested. VCSELs with 10 mm aperture diameter and 4 mm of electroplated copper demonstrated a -3dB modulation bandwidth (f-3dB) of 14 GHz and a resonance frequency (fR) of 9.5 GHz at a bias current density (Jbias) of only 4.3 kA/cm2, which corresponds to an improved f-3dB2/Jbias ratio of 44 GHz2/kA/cm2. At higher and lower bias current densities, the f-3dB2/ Jbias ratio decreased to about 30 GHz2/kA/cm2 and 18 GHz2/kA/cm2, respectively. Examination of the analogue modulation response demonstrated that the presented VCSELs displayed a steady f-3dB/ fR ratio of 1.41±10% over the whole range of the bias current (1.3Ith to 6.2Ith). The devices also demonstrated a maximum modulation bandwidth (f-3dB max) of more than 16 GHz at a bias current less than the industrial bias current standard for reliability by 25%.
Keywords: Current density, High-speed VCSELs, Modulation bandwidth, Small-Signal Characteristics, Thermal impedance, Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 841
4042 Study of Temperature Difference and Current Distribution in Parallel-Connected Cells at Low Temperature
Authors: Sara Kamalisiahroudi, Jun Huang, Zhe Li, Jianbo Zhang
Two types of commercial cylindrical lithium ion batteries (Panasonic 3.4 Ah NCR-18650B and Samsung 2.9 Ah INR-18650), were investigated experimentally. The capacities of these samples were individually measured using constant current-constant voltage (CC-CV) method at different ambient temperatures (-10°C, 0°C, 25°C). Their internal resistance was determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and pulse discharge methods. The cells with different configurations of parallel connection NCR-NCR, INR-INR and NCR-INR were charged/discharged at the aforementioned ambient temperatures. The results showed that the difference of internal resistance between cells much more evident at low temperatures. Furthermore, the parallel connection of NCR-NCR exhibits the most uniform temperature distribution in cells at -10°C, this feature is quite favorable for the safety of the battery pack.
Keywords: Batteries in parallel connection, internal resistance, low temperature, temperature difference, current distribution.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3058
4041 The Light-Effect in Cylindrical Quantum Wire with an Infinite Potential for the Case of Electrons: Optical Phonon Scattering
Authors: Hoang Van Ngoc, Nguyen Vu Nhan, Nguyen Quang Bau
The light-effect in cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential for the case of electrons, optical phonon scattering, is studied based on the quantum kinetic equation. The density of the direct current in a cylindrical quantum wire by a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, a DC electric field, and an intense laser field is calculated. Analytic expressions for the density of the direct current are studied as a function of the frequency of the laser radiation field, the frequency of the linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, the temperature of system, and the size of quantum wire. The density of the direct current in cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential for the case of electrons – optical phonon scattering is nonlinearly dependent on the frequency of the linearly polarized electromagnetic wave. The analytic expressions are numerically evaluated and plotted for a specific quantum wire, GaAs/GaAsAl.
Keywords: The light-effect, cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential, the density of the direct current, electrons - optical phonon scattering.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 775
4040 Controlling Water Temperature during the Electrocoagulation Process Using an Innovative Flow Column-Electrocoagulation Reactor
Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Alkhaddar, Montserrat Ortoneda Pedrola
Abstract:A flow column has been innovatively used in the design of a new electrocoagulation reactor (ECR1) that will reduce the temperature of water being treated; where the flow columns work as a radiator for the water being treated. In order to investigate the performance of ECR1 and compare it to that of traditional reactors; 600 mL water samples with an initial temperature of 350C were pumped continuously through these reactors for 30 min at current density of 1 mA/cm2. The temperature of water being treated was measured at 5 minutes intervals over a 30 minutes period using a thermometer. Additional experiments were commenced to investigate the effects of initial temperature (15-350C), water conductivity (0.15 – 1.2 S) and current density (0.5 -3 mA/cm2) on the performance of ECR1. The results obtained demonstrated that the ECR1, at a current density of 1 mA/cm2 and continuous flow model, reduced water temperature from 350C to the vicinity of 280C during the first 15 minutes and kept the same level till the end of the treatment time. While, the temperature increased from 28.1 to 29.80C and from 29.8 to 31.90C in the batch and the traditional continuous flow models respectively. In term of initial temperature, ECR1 maintained the temperature of water being treated within the range of 22 to 280C without the need for external cooling system even when the initial temperatures varied over a wide range (15 to 350C). The influent water conductivity was found to be a significant variable that affect the temperature. The desirable value of water conductivity is 0.6 S. However, it was found that the water temperature increased rapidly with a higher current density.
Keywords: Water temperature, flow column, electrocoagulation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2246
4039 Influence of Crystal Orientation on Electromechanical Behaviors of Relaxor Ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) Terpolymer
Authors: Qing Liu, Jean-Fabien Capsal, Claude Richard
In this current contribution, authors are dedicated to investigate influence of the crystal lamellae orientation on electromechanical behaviors of relaxor ferroelectric Poly (vinylidene fluoride –trifluoroethylene -chlorotrifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE)) films by control of polymer microstructure, aiming to picture the full map of structure-property relationship. In order to define their crystal orientation films, terpolymer films were fabricated by solution-casting, stretching and hot-pressing process. Differential scanning calorimetry, impedance analyzer, and tensile strength techniques were employed to characterize crystallographic parameters, dielectric permittivity, and elastic Young’s modulus respectively. In addition, large electrical induced out-of-plane electrostrictive strain was obtained by cantilever beam mode. Consequently, as-casted pristine films exhibited surprisingly high electrostrictive strain 0.1774% due to considerably small value of elastic Young’s modulus although relatively low dielectric permittivity. Such reasons contributed to large mechanical elastic energy density. Instead, due to 2 folds increase of elastic Young’s modulus and less than 50% augmentation of dielectric constant, fullycrystallized film showed weak electrostrictive behavior and mechanical energy density as well. And subjected to mechanical stretching process, Film C exhibited stronger dielectric constant and out-performed electrostrictive strain over Film B because edge-on crystal lamellae orientation induced by uniaxially mechanical stretch. Hot-press films were compared in term of cooling rate. Rather large electrostrictive strain of 0.2788% for hot-pressed Film D in quenching process was observed although its dielectric permittivity equivalent to that of pristine as-casted Film A, showing highest mechanical elastic energy density value of 359.5 J/m3. In hot-press cooling process, dielectric permittivity of Film E saw values at 48.8 concomitant with ca.100% increase of Young’s modulus. Films with intermediate mechanical energy density were obtained.
Keywords: Crystal orientation, electrostrictive strain, mechanical energy density, permittivity, relaxor ferroelectric.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1534
4038 The Analysis of Photoconductive Semiconductor Switch Operation in the Frequency of 10 GHz
Authors: Morteza Fathipour, Seyed Nasrolah Anousheh, Kaveh Ghiafeh Davoudi, Vala Fathipour
Abstract:A device analysis of the photoconductive semiconductor switch is carried out to investigate distribution of electric field and carrier concentrations as well as the current density distribution. The operation of this device was then investigated as a switch operating in X band. It is shown that despite the presence of symmetry geometry, switch current density of the on-state steady state mode is distributed asymmetrically throughout the device.
Keywords: Band X, Gallium-Arsenide, Mixed mode, PCSS, Photoconductivity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1637
4037 Density Functional Calculations of 27Al, 11B,and 14N and NQR Parameters in the (6, 0) BN_AlN Nanotube Junction
Authors: Morteza Farahani, Ahmad Seif, Asadallah Boshra, Hossein Aghaie
Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to calculate aluminum-27, boron-11, and nitrogen-14 quadrupole coupling constant (CQ) in the representative considered model of (6, 0) boron nitride-aluminum nitride nanotube junction (BN-AlNNT) for the first time. To this aim, 1.3 nm length of BNAlN consisting of 18 Al, 18 B, and 36 N atoms was selected where the end atoms capped by hydrogen atoms. The calculated CQ values for optimized BN-AlNNT system reveal different electrostatic environment in the mentioned system. The calculations were performed using the Gaussian 98 package of program.
Keywords: Nanotube Junction, Density functional, Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1581
4036 Study of the Transport of Multivalent Metal Cations through Cation-Exchange Membranes by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
Authors: V. Pérez-Herranz, M. Pinel, E. M. Ortega, M. García-Gabaldón
In the present work, Electrochemical Impedance Spectrocopy (EIS) is applied to study the transport of different metal cations through a cation-exchange membrane. This technique enables the identification of the ionic-transport characteristics and to distinguish between different transport mechanisms occurring at different current density ranges. The impedance spectra are dependent on the applied dc current density, on the type of cation and on the concentration. When the applied dc current density increases, the diameter of the impedance spectra loops increases because all the components of membrane system resistance increase. The diameter of the impedance plots decreases in the order of Na(I), Ni(II) and Cr(III) due to the increased interactions between the negatively charged sulfonic groups of the membrane and the cations with greater charge. Nyquist plots are shifted towards lower values of the real impedance, and its diameter decreases with the increase of concentration due to the decrease of the solution resistance.
Keywords: Ion-exchange Membranes, Electrochemical Impedance Espectroscopy, Multivalent Metal Cations.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1753
4035 Behavior of Current in a Semiconductor Nanostructure under Influence of Embedded Quantum Dots
Authors: H. Paredes Gutiérrez, S. T. Pérez-Merchancano
Motivated by recent experimental and theoretical developments, we investigate the influence of embedded quantum dot (EQD) of different geometries (lens, ring and pyramidal) in a double barrier heterostructure (DBH). We work with a general theory of quantum transport that accounts the tight-binding model for the spin dependent resonant tunneling in a semiconductor nanostructure, and Rashba spin orbital to study the spin orbit coupling. In this context, we use the second quantization theory for Rashba effect and the standard Green functions method. We calculate the current density as a function of the voltage without and in the presence of quantum dots. In the second case, we considered the size and shape of the quantum dot, and in the two cases, we worked considering the spin polarization affected by external electric fields. We found that the EQD generates significant changes in current when we consider different morphologies of EQD, as those described above. The first thing shown is that the current decreases significantly, such as the geometry of EQD is changed, prevailing the geometrical confinement. Likewise, we see that the current density decreases when the voltage is increased, showing that the quantum system studied here is more efficient when the morphology of the quantum dot changes.
Keywords: Quantum semiconductors, nanostructures, quantum dots, spin polarization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 795
4034 A Study on the Effects of Thermodynamic Nonideality and Mass Transfer on Multi-phase Hydrodynamics Using CFD Methods
Authors: Irani, Mohammad, Bozorgmehry Boozarjomehry, Ramin, Pishvaie Mahmoud Reza, Ahmad Tavasoli
Considering non-ideal behavior of fluids and its effects on hydrodynamic and mass transfer in multiphase flow is very essential. Simulations were performed that takes into account the effects of mass transfer and mixture non-ideality on hydrodynamics reported by Irani et al. In this paper, by assuming the density of phases to be constant and Raullt-s law instead of using EOS and fugacity coefficient definition, respectively for both the liquid and gas phases, the importance of non-ideality effects on mass transfer and hydrodynamic behavior was studied. The results for a system of octane/propane (T=323 K, P =445 kpa) also indicated that the assumption of constant density in simulation had major role to diverse from experimental data. Furthermore, comparison between obtained results and the previous report indicated significant differences between experimental data and simulation results with more ideal assumptions.
Keywords: Multiphase flow, VOF, mass transfer, Raoult's law, non-ideal thermodynamic, CFD.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1823
4033 Development of a Brain Glutamate Microbiosensor
Authors: Kartika S. Hamdan, Zainiharyati M. Zain, Mohamed I. A. Halim, Jafri M. Abdullah, Robert D. O'Neill
This work attempts to improve the permselectivity of poly-ortho-phenylenediamine (PPD) coating for glutamate biosensor applications on Pt microelectrode, using constant potential amperometry and cyclic voltammetry. Percentage permeability of the modified PPD microelectrode was carried out towards hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ascorbic acid (AA) whereas permselectivity represents the percentage interference by AA in H2O2 detection. The 50-μm diameter Pt disk microelectrode showed a good permeability value toward H2O2 (95%) and selectivity against AA (0.01%) compared to other sizes of electrode studied here. The electrode was further modified with glutamate oxidase (GluOx) that was immobilized and cross linked with glutaraldehyde (GA, 0.125%), resulting in Pt/PPD/GluOx-GA electrode design. The maximum current density Jmax and apparent Michaelis constant, KM, obtained on Pt/PPD/GluOx-GA electrodes were 48 μA cm-2 and 50 μM, respectively. The linear region slope (LRS) was 0.96 μA cm-2 mM-1. The detection limit (LOD) for glutamate was 3.0 ± 0.6 μM. This study shows a promising glutamate microbiosensor for brain glutamate detection.
Keywords: Brain, Glutamate, Microbiosensor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1704
4032 A Comparative Studies on Methanesulfonic and p-Touluene Sulfonic Acid Incorporated Polyacrylamide Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Tin-Air Battery
Authors: S. Sumathi, V. Sethuprakhash, W. J. Basirun
This study was focused on polymer electrolytes containing methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and p-toluene sulfonic acid (pTSA) mixed with polyacrylamide (PAAm) respectively. Impedance Spectroscopy technique has been employed to compare the ionic conductivity of these polymer electrolytes. The ionic conductivity of the PAAm hydrogel electrolytes increase upon adding the sulfonic acids. Ionic conductivity of PAAm-pTSA is higher than PAAm-MSA. The electrochemical performance evaluations were done with the tin-air cells discharge at zero current for 30minutes and at constant current density of 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15mA/cm2. The tin-air cell of PAAm-MSA produce higher specific discharge capacity compared to PAAm-pTSA. Open-circuit voltage measurement revealed a higher voltage for tin-air cell of PAAm-MSA which is 1.27V.
Keywords: Methane sulfonic acid, polyacrylamide, polymer gel electrolytes, p-toluene sulfonic acid.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3504
4031 Orthogonal Polynomial Density Estimates: Alternative Representation and Degree Selection
Authors: Serge B. Provost, Min Jiang
Abstract:The density estimates considered in this paper comprise a base density and an adjustment component consisting of a linear combination of orthogonal polynomials. It is shown that, in the context of density approximation, the coefficients of the linear combination can be determined either from a moment-matching technique or a weighted least-squares approach. A kernel representation of the corresponding density estimates is obtained. Additionally, two refinements of the Kronmal-Tarter stopping criterion are proposed for determining the degree of the polynomial adjustment. By way of illustration, the density estimation methodology advocated herein is applied to two data sets.
Keywords: kernel density estimation, orthogonal polynomials, moment-based methodologies, density approximation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2220
4030 Close Loop Controlled Current Nerve Locator
Authors: H. A. Alzomor, B. K. Ouda, A. M. Eldeib
Successful regional anesthesia depends upon precise location of the peripheral nerve or nerve plexus. Locating peripheral nerves is preferred to be done using nerve stimulation. In order to generate a nerve impulse by electrical means, a minimum threshold stimulus of current “rheobase” must be applied to the nerve. The technique depends on stimulating muscular twitching at a close distance to the nerve without actually touching it. Success rate of this operation depends on the accuracy of current intensity pulses used for stimulation .In this paper, we will discuss a circuit and algorithm for closed loop control for the current, theoretical analysis and test results is discussed and results is compared to previous techniques.
Keywords: Close Loop Control, Constant Current, Nerve Locator.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1295