Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30578
Unnoticeable Mumps Infection in India: Does MMR Vaccine Protect against Circulating Mumps Virus Genotype C?

Authors: Jeevan Malayan, Aparna Warrier, Padmasani Venkat Ramanan, Sanjeeva Reddy N, Elanchezhiyan Manickan


MMR vaccine failure had been reported globally and here we report that it occurs now in India. Samples were collected from clinically suspected mumps cases were subjected for anti mumps antibodies, virus isolation, RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic tree analysis. 56 samples collected from men and women belonging to various age groups. 30 had been vaccinated and the status of 26 patients was unknown. 28 out of 30 samples were found to be symptomatic and positive for Mumps IgM, indicating active mumps infection in 93.4% of the vaccinated population. A phylogenetic tree comparison of the clinical isolate is shown to be genotype C which is distinct from vaccine strain. Our study clearly sending warning signs that MMR vaccine is a failure and it needs to be revamped for the human use by increasing its efficacy and efficiency.

Keywords: Genotype C, Mumps virus, MMR vaccine, Sero types

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2054


[1] World Health Organization, "Mumps virus nomenclature update", Weekly epidemiological record., vol. 87, pp. 217-224, 2012.
[2] R.A. Lamb, G.D. Parks, "Paramyxoviridae", The Viruses and Their Replication, In Knipe DM, et al. (ed), Fields virology, 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 1449-1469, 2007.
[3] L, Jin, Rima B, Brown D, Orvell C, Tecle T, Afzal M. "Proposal for genetic characterisation of wild-type mumps strains: preliminary standardisation of the nomenclature", Arch. Virol., vol. 150, pp. 1903- 1909, 2005.
[4] World Health Organization, "Mumps reported cases", Last update,14-Jul 2012
[5] World Health Organization, "Immunization profile", India Last update,14-Jul-2012.
[6] Jelena Ivancic, Dubravko Forcic, Tanja Kosutic Gulija, Renata Zgorelec, Leonida Repalust, Marijana Baricevic,, "Genetic characterization of a mumps virus isolate during passaging in the amniotic cavity of embryonated chicken eggs", Virus Research, vol. 99, pp. 121-129, 2004.
[7] Koichiro Tamura, Daniel Peterson, Nicholas Peterson, Glen Stecher, Masatoshi Nei, and Sudhir Kumar, "MEGA5: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Using Maximum Likelihood, Evolutionary Distance, and Maximum Parsimony Methods", Mol. Biol. Evol, vol. 28(10), pp. 2731-2739. 2011.
[8] Immunization Schedule, "Department of public health & preventive medicine, Health and family welfare department", Government of Tamilnadu, (
[9] Li Jin, Stuart Beard, and David W. G. Brown, "Genetic Heterogeneity of Mumps Virus in the United Kingdom: Identification of Two New Genotypes", The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 180: pp. 829-33, 1999.
[10] J.E. Echevarría, A. Castellanos, J.C. Sanz, M.V. Martínez de Aragón, I. Peña Rey, M. Mosquera,, "Mumps Virus Genotyping: Basis and Known Circulating Genotypes", The Open Vaccine Journal, vol. 3, pp. 37-41, 2010.
[11] A. R. Stevenn, A.L. Malen, J. S. Christian, Z. Cheryl, N. Laurie, K. Bert, et al, "Recent Mumps Outbreaks in Vaccinated Populations: No Evidence of Immune Escape", Journal of Virology, vol. 86, pp. 615-620, 2012.
[12] H. D. Gustavo, M. Patricia Quinlisk, A. P. Amy, E. Albert, L. H. Meghan, M. Jennifer, H. Schwartz,, "Recent Resurgence of Mumps in the United States", N Engl J Med, vol. 358, pp.1580-9, 2008.
[13] S.T. Ghatage, M.K. Grish, "An Outbreak of Mumps Meningoencephalitis in Sangli District", Indian Pediatrics, vol. 44, pp. 235, 2007.
[14] M.G. Geeta, P. Krishna Kumar, "Mumps-Need for Urgent Action", Indian Pediatrics, vol. 41, pp. 1181-82, 2004.
[15] T. Jacob John, "An outbreak of Mumps in Thiruvananthapuram District", Indian Pediatr, vol. 41, pp. 298-300, 2004.
[16] CDC Update, "International Task Force for Disease Eradication, 1990 and 1991", Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, vol. 41(03), pp. 40-42, 1992.
[17] K.R. Amritha, "Sharp rise in mumps cases in district"
[cited Feb 03, 2012]. 226432-60-122.html.
[18] K.E. Vandana, G. Arunkumar, B. Indira, "Role of laboratory in rapid diagnosis of atypical mumps", Braz J Infect Dis, vol. 14(2), pp. 201-202, 2010.
[19] A. Pearce, D. Elliman, C. Law, H. Bedford, "Does primary immunization status predict MMR uptake?" Arch Dis Child, vol. 94, pp. 49-51, 2009.
[20] L. Yan, S. Ma, L. Longding, Z. Hongling, W. Lichun, J. Li,, "Identification and development of a promising novel mumps vaccine candidate strain", Microbes and Infection, vol. 12, pp. 1178-1187, 2010.