Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 93

Search results for: Oxidative cyclization/dimerization.

93 Towards Synthesis of Atropodiastereomeric Indolostilbenes Hybrids: A New Class of Oligostilbenoids

Authors: K. Ahmad, M. Suhaimi, Mohamad N. Azmi, K. Awang, Mohd A. Nafiah

Abstract:

The conceptually construction of axially chiral indolostilbenesi.eN-(2-{(E)-2-[2'-(1-Acetyl-1H-indol-2-yl)-3'chloro-4,4',6,6'-tetramethoxy[1,1'-biphenyl]-2yl]ethenyl}phenyl)acetamide and N-(2-{(E)-2-[2'-(1-Acetyl-1H-indol-2-yl)-3'-chloro-2,4',6,6'-tetramethoxy[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl]ethenyl}phenyl) acetamide are described in this paper. These structure, were obtained by the tactical combination of palladium-catalyzed coupling which produced 10-acetamido-3,5-dimethoxystilbene, follow by FeCl3-induced oxidative cyclization/dimerisation. All structures were unambiguously confirmed by 1D (1H, 13C) and 2D NMR experiment, (COSY, HMQC, HMBC) and mass spectrometry.

Keywords: Indolostilbene, FeCl3-oxidative cyclization, Oligostilbenooids, Oxidative cyclization/dimerization.

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92 [Ti(OC4H9)4/2,5-Dimethoxytetrahydrofuran/ TEA/Ethylene Chlorobromide] as a Novel Homogeneous Catalyst System Effective for the Ethylene Dimerization Reaction

Authors: Seyed Hamed Mahdaviani, Davood Soudbar, Matin Parvari

Abstract:

In the present research, the titanium-catalyzed ethylene dimerization and more specifically, the concomitant byproducts and polymer formation have been studied in the presence of 2,5-dimethoxytetrahydrofuran as an electron donor compound in the combination with triethylaluminium (TEA) as activator. Then, we added ethylene chlorobromide as a new efficient promoter to the relevant catalyst system. Finally, the behavior of novel homogeneous [Titanium tetrabutoxide (Ti(OC4H9)4)/2,5-dimethoxytetrahydrofuran/ TEA/ethylene chlorobromide] was investigated in the various operating conditions for the optimum production of 1-butene. In the optimum conditions, a very high ethylene conversion (almost 90.77 %), a relative high selectivity to 1-butene (79.00 %), yield of reaction equal to 71.70 % and a significant productivity (turnover frequency equal to 1370 h-1) were achieved.

Keywords: Ethylene dimerization, 2, 5-dimethoxytetrahydrofuran, ethylene chlorobromide, polymeric compounds

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91 The Oxidative Damage Marker for Sodium Formate Exposure on Lymphocytes

Authors: Malinee Pongsavee

Abstract:

Sodium formate is the chemical substance used for food additive. Catalase is the important antioxidative enzyme in protecting the cell from oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The resultant level of oxidative stress in sodium formatetreated lymphocytes was investigated. The sodium formate concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/mL were treated in human lymphocytes for 12 hours. After 12 treated hours, catalase activity change was measured in sodium formate-treated lymphocytes. The results showed that the sodium formate concentrations of 0.4 and 0.6 mg/mL significantly decreased catalase activities in lymphocytes (P < 0.05). The change of catalase activity in sodium formate-treated lymphocytes may be the oxidative damage marker for detect sodium formate exposure in human.

Keywords: Sodium formate, catalase activity, oxidative damage marker, toxicity.

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90 Impact of Altered Behavioral Condition on Markers of Oxidative Stress and Different Biochemical Parameters

Authors: D. S. Mohale, A. V. Chandewar

Abstract:

Aim- Study was undertaken to investigate the effect of altered behavioral condition like depression on various oxidative stress markers and biochemical parameters in rats. Methods- Rats were subjected for short (21 days) and long term (84 days) social isolation; the rats displayed an increase in depression on force swim test relative to control. Various markers of oxidative stress like lipid per oxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), Supers oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and biochemical parameters like SGOT, SGPT, and blood glucose were determined. Results- There was significant increase in the level of LPO and decrease in the levels of GSH, SOD and CAT after long term isolation. Biochemical parameters were significantly altered after social isolation. Conclusion- Increased oxidative stress in depression which may leads to alteration of biochemical parameters.

Keywords: Depression, Glucose, LPO, Oxidative stress.

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89 Detection of Oxidative Stress Induced by Mobile Phone Radiation in Tissues of Mice using 8-Oxo-7, 8-Dihydro-2'-Deoxyguanosine as a Biomarker

Authors: Ahmad M. Khalil, Ahmad M. Alshamali, Marwan H. Gagaa

Abstract:

We investigated oxidative DNA damage caused by radio frequency radiation using 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'- deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) generated in mice tissues after exposure to 900 MHz mobile phone radio frequency in three independent experiments. The RF was generated by a Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) signal generator. The radio frequency field was adjusted to 25 V/m. The whole body specific absorption rate (SAR) was 1.0 W/kg. Animals were exposed to this field for 30 min daily for 30 days. 24 h post-exposure, blood serum, brain and spleen were removed and DNA was isolated. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure 8-oxodG concentration. All animals survived the whole experimental period. The body weight of animals did not change significantly at the end of the experiment. No statistically significant differences observed in the levels of oxidative stress. Our results are not in favor of the hypothesis that 900 MHz RF induces oxidative damage.

Keywords: Mice, Mobile phone radiation, oxidative stress, 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine

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88 Sulfur Removal of Hydrocarbon Fuels Using Oxidative Desulfurization Enhanced by Fenton Process

Authors: Mahsa Ja’fari, Mohammad R. Khosravi-Nikou, Mohsen Motavassel

Abstract:

A comprehensive development towards the production of ultra-clean fuels as a feed stoke is getting to raise due to the increasing use of diesel fuels and global air pollution. Production of environmental-friendly fuels can be achievable by some limited single methods and most integrated ones. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) presents vast ranges of technologies possessing suitable characteristics with regard to the Fenton process. Using toluene as a model fuel feed with dibenzothiophene (DBT) as a sulfur compound under various operating conditions is the attempt of this study. The results showed that this oxidative process followed a pseudo-first order kinetics. Removal efficiency of 77.43% is attained under reaction time of 40 minutes with (Fe+2/H2O2) molar ratio of 0.05 in acidic pH environment. In this research, temperature of 50 °C represented the most influential role in proceeding the reaction.

Keywords: Design of experiment, dibenzothiophene, optimization, oxidative desulfurization.

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87 Interspecific Variation in Heat Stress Tolerance and Oxidative Damage among 15 C3 Species

Authors: Wagdi S. Soliman, Shu-ichi Sugiyama

Abstract:

The C3 plants are frequently suffering from exposure to high temperature stress which limits the growth and yield of these plants. This study seeks to clarify the physiological mechanisms of heat tolerance in relation to oxidative stress in C3 species. Fifteen C3 species were exposed to prolonged moderately high temperature stress 36/30°C for 40 days in a growth chamber. Chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) showed great difference among species at 40 days of the stress. The species showed decreases in Fv/Fm and increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) content under stress condition as well as negative correlation between Fv/Fm and MDA (r = -0.61*) at 40 days of the stress. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content before and after stress in addition to its response under stress showed great differences among species. The results suggest that the difference in heat tolerance among C3 species is closely associated with the ability to suppress oxidative damage but not with the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which is regulated by complex network.

Keywords: C3 species, Fv/Fm, heat stress, oxidative stress.

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86 Effects of Ciprofloxacin and Levofloxacin Administration on Some Oxidative Stress Markers in the Rat

Authors: Olusegun K. Afolabi, Emmanuel B. Oyewo

Abstract:

Fluoroquinolones are a group of antibiotics widely used because of their broad spectrum activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin were administered to rats at therapeutic doses to evaluate their effects on plasma arylesterase activity, as well as, on hepatic advanced oxidized protein products (AOPPs) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, as measures of oxidative stress. Ciprofloxacin (80 mg/kg body weight) and levofloxacin (40 mg/kg body weight) were administered to male albino rats for 7 and 14 days. The data obtained demonstrated that plasma arylesterase activity was significantly decreased by both drugs with ciprofloxacin administration inhibiting the activity by 29% and 30% while Levofloxacin treatment resulted in 35% and 30% inhibition, after 7 and 14 days treatment respectively. Hepatic AOPP and MDA levels were both elevated by these antibiotics. This study supplies further evidence that fluoroquinolones at therapeutic doses promote oxidative stress.

Keywords: Arylesterase, Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Oxidative Stress.

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85 Novel Methods for Desulfurization of Fuel Oils

Authors: H. Hosseini

Abstract:

Because of the requirement for low sulfur content of fuel oils, it is necessary to develop alternative methods for desulfurization of heavy fuel oil. Due to the disadvantages of HDS technologies such as costs, safety and green environment, new methods have been developed. Among these methods is ultrasoundassisted oxidative desulfurization. Using ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization, compounds such as benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene can be oxidized. As an alternative method is sulfur elimination of heavy fuel oil by using of activated carbon in a packed column in batch condition. The removal of sulfur compounds in this case to reach about 99%. The most important property of activated carbon is ability of it for adsorption, which is due to high surface area and pore volume of it.

Keywords: Desulfurization, Fuel oil, Activated carbon, Ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization.

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84 Ameliorative Effect of Calocybe indica, a Tropical Indian Edible Mushroom on Hyperglycemia Induced Oxidative Stress

Authors: Shanmugasundaram Krishnakumari, Paramasivam Rajeswari, Subramanian Kathiravan

Abstract:

Mushrooms are a group of fleshy macroscopic fungi. They have been valued throughout the world as both edible and medicine. They are highly nutritious with good amount of quality proteins, vitamins and minerals. An edible mushroom, Calocybe indica was selected to validate its nutritional and medicinal properties. Since tissue damage in hyperglycemia has been related to oxidative stress, we evaluated the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status in the serum, liver and kidney since they are the target organs in diabetic complications. From the results, increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidants might be related to the causation of diabetes mellitus. The treatment in the diabetic rats with the Calocybe indica showed an increase in the antioxidant system and decrease in the production of free radicals. The mushrooms which contain antioxidant phytochemicals has potential free radical scavenging capacity and hence can induce the antioxidant system in the body significantly reduces the generated free radicals thereby maintaining the normal levels of the antioxidants

Keywords: Antioxidants, Calocybe indica, diabetes mellitus, edible mushroom, oxidative stress.

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83 Olive Leaves Extract Restored the antioxidant Perturbations in Red Blood Cells Hemolysate in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Ismail I. Abo Ghanema, Kadry M. Sadek

Abstract:

Oxidative stress and overwhelming free radicals associated with diabetes mellitus are likely to be linked with development of certain complication such as retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. Treatment of diabetic subjects with antioxidant may be of advantage in attenuating these complications. Olive leaf (Oleaeuropaea), has been endowed with many beneficial and health promoting properties mostly linked to its antioxidant activity. This study aimed to evaluate the significance of supplementation of Olive leaves extract (OLE) in reducing oxidative stress, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in Sterptozotocin (STZ)- induced diabetic rats. After induction of diabetes, a significant rise in plasma glucose, lipid profiles except High density lipoproteincholestrol (HDLc), malondialdehyde (MDA) and significant decrease of plasma insulin, HDLc and Plasma reduced glutathione GSH as well as alteration in enzymatic antioxidants was observed in all diabetic animals. During treatment of diabetic rats with 0.5g/kg body weight of Olive leaves extract (OLE) the levels of plasma (MDA) ,(GSH), insulin, lipid profiles along with blood glucose and erythrocyte enzymatic antioxidant enzymes were significantly restored to establish values that were not different from normal control rats. Untreated diabetic rats on the other hand demonstrated persistent alterations in the oxidative stress marker (MDA), blood glucose, insulin, lipid profiles and the antioxidant parameters. These results demonstrate that OLE may be of advantage in inhibiting hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress induced by diabetes and suggest that administration of OLE may be helpful in the prevention or at least reduced of diabetic complications associated with oxidative stress.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, olive leaves, oxidative stress, red blood cells

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82 Carotenoid Potential to Protect Cow-s Milk Fat Against Oxidative Deterioration

Authors: U. Antone, V. Sterna, J. Zagorska

Abstract:

Milk from differently fed cows (supplemented with carotenoids from carrots or palm oil product Carotino CAF 100) was obtained in a conventional dairy farm to assess the carotenoid potential to protect milk fat against oxidation. The extracted anhydrous milk fat (AMF) was tested by peroxide value, and Rancimat tests. Temperature, and light stimulation for reaction acceleration was used. The oxidative stability enhancement by carotenoids was detected in peroxide value test – the strongest effect was observed in palm oil, following by carrot supplemented group, compared to control group, whose feed was unchanged. Rancimat accelerated oxidation test results did not show any superiority of the oxidative stability of the AMF samples from milk of the carotenoidsupplemented cow groups. The average oxidation stability of AMF dark-stored samples was 12.59 ± 0.294 h, and it was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that of AMF light-affected samples, i.e. 2.60 ± 0.191 h.

Keywords: antioxidants, dairy products, forages, lipid aging, peroxide

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81 Effect of Gold Loading on CeO2–Fe2O3 for Oxidative Steam Reforming of Methanol

Authors: Umpawan Satitthai, Apanee Luengnaruemitchai, Erdogan Gulari

Abstract:

In this study, oxidative steam reforming of methanol (OSRM) over a Au/CeO2–Fe2O3 catalyst prepared by a depositionprecipitation (DP) method was studied to produce hydrogen in order to feed a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC). The support (CeO2, Fe2O3, and CeO2–Fe2O3) were prepared by precipitation and co-precipitation methods. The impact of the support composition on the catalytic performance was studied by varying the Ce/(Ce+Fe) atomic ratio, it was found that the 1%Au/CF(0.25) calcined at 300 °C exhibited the highest catalytic activity in the whole temperature studied. In addition, the effect of Au content was investigated and 3%Au/CF(0.25) exhibited the highest activity under the optimum condition in the temperature range of 200 °C to 400 °C. The catalysts were characterized by various techniques: XRD, TPR, XRF, and UV-vis.

Keywords: CeO2, Fe2O3, Gold catalyst, Hydrogen production, Methanol, Oxidative steam reforming.

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80 Phyllantus niruri Protects against Fe2+ and SNP Induced Oxidative Damage in Mitochondrial Enriched Fractions of Rats Brain

Authors: Olusola Olalekan Elekofehinti, Isaac Gbadura Adanlawo, Joao Batista Teixeira Rocha

Abstract:

The potential neuroprotective effect of Phyllantus nuriri against Fe2+ and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced oxidative stress in mitochondria of rats brain was evaluated. Cellular viability was assessed by MTT reduction, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured using the probe 2,7-dichlorofluoresce indiacetate (DCFH-DA). Glutathione content was measured using dithionitrobenzoic acid (DTNB). Fe2+ (10μM) and SNP (5μM) significantly decreased mitochondrial activity, assessed by MTT reduction assay, in a dose-dependent manner, this occurred in parallel with increased glutathione oxidation, ROS production and lipid peroxidation end-products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS). The co-incubation with methanolic extract of Phyllantus nuriri (10-200 μg/ml) reduced the disruption of mitochondrial activity, gluthathione oxidation, ROS production as well as the increase in TBARS levels caused by both Fe2+ and SNP in a dose dependent manner. HPLC analysis of the extract revealed the presence of gallic acid (20.540.01), caffeic acid (7.930.02), rutin (25.310.05), quercetin (31.280.03) and kaemferol (14.360.01). This result suggests that these phytochemicals account for the protective actions of P. niruri against Fe2+ and SNP -induced oxidative stress. Our results show that P. nuriri consist important bioactive molecules in the search for an improved therapy against the deleterious effects of Fe2+, an intrinsic producer of reactive oxygen species (ROS), that leads to neuronal oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.

Keywords: Phyllantus niruri, mitochondria, antioxidant, oxidative stress, synaptosome.

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79 Blood Elements Activation in Hemodialysis – Animal Model Studies

Authors: Karolina Grzeszczuk-Kuć, Jolanta Bujok, Tomasz Walski, Małgorzata Komorowska

Abstract:

Haemodialysis (HD) is a procedure saving patient lives around the world, unfortunately it brings numerous complications. Oxidative stress is one of the major factors which lead to erythrocytes destruction during extracorporeal circulation. Repeated HD procedures destroy blood elements and the organism is not able to keep up with their production. 30 HD procedures on healthy sheep were performed to evaluate effects of such treatment. Oxidative stress study was performed together with an analysis of basic blood parameters and empirical assessment of dialyzer condition after the procedure. A reversible decline in absolute leukocyte count, during first 30 min of HD, was observed. Blood clots were formed in the area of the blood inlet and outlet of the dialyzer. Our results are consistent with outcomes presented throughout the literature specifically with respect to the effects observed in humans and will provide a basis to evaluate methods for blood protection during haemodialysis.

Keywords: Animal model, blood components, haemodialysis, leukocytes, oxidative stress, sheep.

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78 Biodegradable Surfactants for Advanced Drug Delivery Strategies

Authors: C. Hönnscheidt, R. Krull

Abstract:

Oxidative stress makes up common incidents in eukaryotic metabolism. The presence of diverse components disturbing the equilibrium during oxygen metabolism increases oxidative damage unspecifically in living cells. Body´s own ubiquinone (Q10) seems to be a promising drug in defending the heightened appearance of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Though, its lipophilic properties require a new strategy in drug formulation to overcome their low bioavailability. Consequently, the manufacture of heterogeneous nanodispersions is in focus for medical applications. The composition of conventional nanodispersions is made up of a drug-consisting core and a surfactive agent, also named as surfactant. Long-termed encapsulation of the surfactive components into tissues might be the consequence of the use during medical therapeutics. The potential of provoking side-effects is given by their nonbiodegradable properties. Further improvements during fabrication process use the incorporation of biodegradable components such as modified γ-polyglutamic acid which decreases the potential of prospective side-effects.

Keywords: Biopolymers, γ-Polyglutamic acid, Oxidative stress, Ubiquinone.

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77 Role of Oxidative DNA Damage in Pathogenesis of Diabetic Neuropathy

Authors: Ireneusz Majsterek, Anna Merecz, Agnieszka Sliwinska, Marcin Kosmalski, Jacek Kasznicki, Jozef Drzewoski

Abstract:

Oxidative stress is considered to be the cause for onset and the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and complications including neuropathy. It is a deleterious process that can be an important mediator of damage to cell structures: protein, lipids and DNA. Data suggest that in patients with diabetes and diabetic neuropathy DNA repair is impaired, which prevents effective removal of lesions. Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the association of the hOGG1 (326 Ser/Cys) and XRCC1 (194 Arg/Trp, 399 Arg/Gln) gene polymorphisms whose protein is involved in the BER pathway with DNA repair efficiency in patients with diabetes type 2 and diabetic neuropathy compared to the healthy subjects. Genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP analysis in 385 subjects, including 117 with type 2 diabetes, 56 with diabetic neuropathy and 212 with normal glucose metabolism. The polymorphisms studied include codon 326 of hOGG1 and 194, 399 of XRCC1 in the base excision repair (BER) genes. Comet assay was carried out using peripheral blood lymphocytes from the patients and controls. This test enabled the evaluation of DNA damage in cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide alone and in the combination with the endonuclease III (Nth). The results of the analysis of polymorphism were statistically examination by calculating the odds ratio (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using the ¤ç2-tests. Our data indicate that patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (including those with neuropathy) had higher frequencies of the XRCC1 399Arg/Gln polymorphism in homozygote (GG) (OR: 1.85 [95% CI: 1.07-3.22], P=0.3) and also increased frequency of 399Gln (G) allele (OR: 1.38 [95% CI: 1.03-1.83], P=0.3). No relation to other polymorphisms with increased risk of diabetes or diabetic neuropathy. In T2DM patients complicated by neuropathy, there was less efficient repair of oxidative DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in both the presence and absence of the Nth enzyme. The results of our study suggest that the XRCC1 399 Arg/Gln polymorphism is a significant risk factor of T2DM in Polish population. Obtained data suggest a decreased efficiency of DNA repair in cells from patients with diabetes and neuropathy may be associated with oxidative stress. Additionally, patients with neuropathy are characterized by even greater sensitivity to oxidative damage than patients with diabetes, which suggests participation of free radicals in the pathogenesis of neuropathy.

Keywords: Diabetic neuropathy, oxidative stress, gene polymorphisms, oxidative DNA damage.

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76 Intervention of Sambucus Nigra Polyphenolic Extract in Experimental Arterial Hypertension

Authors: Manuela Ciocoiu, Laur Badescu, Oana Badulescu, Magda Badescu

Abstract:

The research focuses on the effects of polyphenols extracted from Sambucus nigra fruit, using an experimental arterial hypertension pattern, as well as their influence on the oxidative stress. The results reveal the normalization of the reduced glutathion concentration, as well as a considerable reduction in the malondialdehide serum concentration by the polyphenolic protection. The rat blood pressure values were recorded using a CODATM system, which uses a non-invasive blood pressure measuring method. All the measured blood pressure components revealed a biostatistically significant (p<0.05) blood pressure drop between the AHT and the AHT+P groups. The results prove that oxidative stress is considerably lower, statistically speaking, in rats with hypertension but also provided with natural polyphenolic protection from Sambucus nigra fruits than in the rats belonging to the control group. In addition to the demonstrated antioxidant effects, natural polyphenols also have other biological properties that might contribute to the cardioprotective effects.

Keywords: Arterial hypertension, Oxidative stress, Sambucus nigra

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75 Effect of Packaging Methods and Storage Time on Oxidative Stability of Traditional Fermented Sausage

Authors: Vladimir M. Tomović, Branislav V. Šojić, Predrag M. Ikonić, Ljiljana S. Petrović, Anamarija I. Mandić, Natalija R. Džinić, Snežana B. Škaljac, Tatjana A. Tasić, Marija R. Jokanović

Abstract:

In this paper influence of packaging method (vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging) on lipid oxidative stability and sensory properties of odor and taste of the traditional sausage Petrovská klobása were examined. These parameters were examined during storage period (7 months). In the end of storage period, vacuum packed sausage showed better oxidative stability. Propanal content was significantly lower (P<0.05) in vacuum packed sausage compared to these values in unpacked and modified atmosphere packaging sausage. Hexanal content in vacuum packed sausage was 1.85 μg/g, in MAP sausage 2.98 μg/g and in unpacked sausage 4.94 μg/g. After 2 and 7 months of storage, sausages packed in vacuum had the highest grades for sensory properties of odor and taste.

Keywords: Lipid oxidation, MAP, sensory properties, traditional sausage, vacuum.

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74 Oxidative and Hormonal Disruptions Underlie Bisphenol A - Induced Testicular Toxicity in Male Rabbits

Authors: Kadry M. Sadek, Tarek K. Abouzed, Mousa A. Ayoub

Abstract:

The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as bisphenol A (BPA), in the environment can cause serious health problems. However, there are controversial opinions. This study investigated the reproductive, metabolic, oxidative and immunologic-disrupting effects of bisphenol A in male rabbits. Rabbits were divided into five groups. The first four rabbit groups were administered oral BPA (1, 10, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day) for ten weeks. The fifth group was administered corn oil as the vehicle. BPA significantly decreased serum testosterone, estradiol and the free androgen index (FAI) and significantly increased sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) compared with the placebo group. The higher doses of BPA showed a significant decrease in follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). A significant increase in blood glucose levels was identified in the BPA groups. The non-significant difference in insulin levels is a novel finding. The cumulative testicular toxicity of BPA was clearly demonstrated by the dose-dependent decrease in absolute testes weight, primary measures of semen quality and a significant increase in testicular malonaldehyde (MDA). Moreover, BPA significantly decreased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and significantly increased immunoglobulin G (IgG) at the highest concentration. Our results suggest that BPA, especially at higher doses, is associated with many adverse effects on metabolism, oxidative stress, immunity, sperm quality and markers of androgenic action.

Keywords: Bisphenol A, oxidative stress, rabbits, semen quality, steroidogenesis.

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73 In vitro Effects of Berberine on the Vitality and Oxidative Profile of Bovine Spermatozoa

Authors: Eva Tvrdá, Hana Greifová, Peter Ivanič, Norbert Lukáč

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose- and time-dependent in vitro effects of berberine (BER), a natural alkaloid with numerous biological properties on bovine spermatozoa during three time periods (0 h, 2 h, 24 h). Bovine semen samples were diluted and cultivated in physiological saline solution containing 0.5% DMSO together with 200, 100, 50, 10, 5, and 1 μmol/L BER. Spermatozoa motility was assessed using the computer assisted semen analyzer. The viability of spermatozoa was assessed by the metabolic (MTT) assay, production of superoxide radicals was quantified using the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, and chemiluminescence was used to evaluate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cell lysates were prepared and the extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was evaluated using the TBARS assay. The results of the movement activity showed a significant increase in the motility during long term cultivation in case of concentrations ranging between 1 and 10 μmol/L BER (P < 0.01; P < 0.001; 24 h). At the same time, supplementation of 1, 5 and 10 μmol/L BER led to a significant preservation of the cell viability (P < 0.001; 24 h). BER addition at a range of 1-50 μmol/L also provided a significantly higher protection against superoxide (P < 0.05) and ROS (P < 0.001; P < 0.01) overgeneration as well as LPO (P < 0.01; P<0.05) after a 24 h cultivation. We may suggest that supplementation of BER to bovine spermatozoa, particularly at concentrations ranging between 1 and 50 μmol/L, may offer protection to the motility, viability and oxidative status of the spermatozoa, particularly notable at 24 h.

Keywords: Berberine, bulls, motility, oxidative profile, spermatozoa, viability.

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72 Changes to Oxidative Stress Levels Following Exposure to Formaldehyde in Lymphocytes

Authors: Malinee Pongsavee

Abstract:

Formaldehyde is the illegal chemical substance used for food preservation in fish and vegetable. It can promote carcinogenesis. Superoxide dismutases are the important antioxidative enzymes that catalyze the dismutation of superoxide anion into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The resultant level of oxidative stress in formaldehyde-treated lymphocytes was investigated. The formaldehyde concentrations of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 120μmol/L were treated in human lymphocytes for 12 hours. After 12 treated hours, the superoxide dismutase activity change was measured in formaldehyde-treated lymphocytes. The results showed that the formaldehyde concentrations of 60, 80 and 120μmol/L significantly decreased superoxide dismutase activities in lymphocytes (P < 0.05). The change of superoxide dismutase activity in formaldehyde-treated lymphocytes may be the biomarker for detect cellular injury, such as damage to DNA, due to formaldehyde exposure.

Keywords: Formaldehyde, lymphocytes, superoxide dismutase activity.

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71 Aqueous Extract of Flacourtia indica Prevents Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rat

Authors: Gnanaprakash K, Madhusudhana Chetty C, Ramkanth S, Alagusundaram M, Tiruvengadarajan VS, Angala Parameswari S, Mohamed Saleem TS

Abstract:

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a well-known hepatotoxin and exposure to this chemical is known to induce oxidative stress and causes liver injury by the formation of free radicals. Flacourtia indica commonly known as 'Baichi' has been reported as an effective remedy for the treatment of a variety of diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Flacourtia indica against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. Animals were pretreated with the aqueous extract of Flacourtia indica (250 & 500 mg/kg body weight) for one week and then challenged with CCl4 (1.5 ml/kg bw) in olive oil (1:1, v/v) on 7th day. Serum marker enzymes (ALP, AST, ALT, Total Protein & Total Bilirubin) and TBARS level (Marker for oxidative stress) were estimated in all the study groups. Alteration in the levels of biochemical markers of hepatic damage like AST, ALT, ALP, Total Protein, Total Bilirubin and lipid peroxides (TBARS) were tested in both CCl4 treated and extract treated groups. CCl4 has enhanced the AST, ALT, ALP and the Lipid peroxides (TBARS) in liver. Treatment of aqueous extract of Flacourtia indica leaves (250 & 500 mg/kg) exhibited a significant protective effect by altering the serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, Total Protein, Total Bilirubin and liver TBARS. These biochemical observations were supported by histopathological study of liver sections. From this preliminary study it has been concluded that the aqueous extract of the leaves of Flacourtia indica protects liver against oxidative damages and could be used as an effective protector against CCl4 induced hepatic damage. Our findings suggested that Flacourtia indica possessed good hepatoprotective activity

Keywords: Carbon Tetrachloride, Flacourtia indica, Hepatoprotective activity, Oxidative stress

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70 Hepatoprotective Effect of Oleuropein against Cisplatin-Induced Liver Damage in Rat

Authors: Salim Cerig, Fatime Geyikoglu, Murat Bakir, Suat Colak, Merve Sonmez, Kubra Koc

Abstract:

Cisplatin (CIS) is one of the most effective an anticancer drug and also toxic to cells by activating oxidative stress. Oleuropein (OLE) has key role against oxidative stress in mammalian cells, but the role of this antioxidant in the toxicity of CIS remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of OLE on CIS-induced liver damages in male rats. With this aim, male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of eight groups: Control group; the group treated with 7 mg/kg/day CIS; the groups treated with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day OLE (i.p.); and the groups treated with OLE for three days starting at 24 h following CIS injection. After 4 days of injections, serum was provided to assess the blood AST, ALT and LDH values. The liver tissues were removed for histological, biochemical (TAC, TOS and MDA) and genotoxic evaluations. In the CIS treated group, the whole liver tissue showed significant histological changes. Also, CIS significantly increased both the incidence of oxidative stress and the induction of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). Moreover, the rats taking CIS have abnormal results on liver function tests. However, these parameters reached to the normal range after administration of OLE for 3 days. Finally, OLE demonstrated an acceptable high potential and was effective in attenuating CIS-induced liver injury. In this trial, the 200 mg/kg dose of OLE firstly appeared to induce the most optimal protective response.

Keywords: Antioxidant response, cisplatin, histology, liver, oleuropein, 8-OhdG.

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69 Synthesis and Antimicrobial Profile of Newer Schiff Bases and Thiazolidinone Derivatives

Authors: N. K. Fuloria, S. Fuloria, R. Gupta

Abstract:

Esterification of p-bromo-m-cresol led to formation of 2-(4-bromo-3-methylphenoxy)acetate (1). 2-(4-Bromo-3-methyl phenoxy)acetohydrazide (2) is derived from Compound (1) by hydrazination. Compound (2) was reacted with different aromatic aldehydes to yield N-(substituted benzylidiene)-2-(4-bromo-3-methyl phenoxy)acetamide(3a-c). Cyclization of compound (3a-c) with thioglycolic acid yielded 2-(4-bromo-3-methylphenoxy)-N-(4-oxo-2- arylthiazolidin-3-yl) acetamide (4a-c). The newly synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of spectral studies and evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities.

Keywords: Imines, Thiazolidinone, Schiff base, Antimicrobial.

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68 Copolymers of Pyrrole and α,ω-Dithienyl Terminated Poly(ethylene glycol)

Authors: Nesrin Köken, Esin A. Güvel, Nilgün Kızılcan

Abstract:

This work presents synthesis of α,ω-dithienyl terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEGTh) capable for further chain extension by either chemical or electrochemical polymeriztion. PEGTh was characterized by FTIR and 1H-NMR. Further copolymerization of PEGTh and pyrrole (Py) was performed by chemical oxidative polymerization using ceric (IV) salt as an oxidant (PPy-PEGTh). PEG without end group modification was used directly to prepare copolymers with Py by Ce (IV) salt (PPy-PEG). Block copolymers with mole ratio of pyrrole to PEGTh (PEG) 50:1 and 10:1 were synthesized. The electrical conductivities of copolymers PPy-PEGTh and PPy-PEG were determined by four point probe technique. Influence of the synthetic route and content of the insulating segment on conductivity and yield of the copolymers were investigated.

Keywords: Chemical oxidative polymerization, conducting copolymer, poly(ethylene glycol), polypyrrole.

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67 Speciation of Iron (III) Oxide Nanoparticles and Other Paramagnetic Intermediates during High-Temperature Oxidative Pyrolysis of 1-Methylnaphthalene

Authors: Michael P. Herring, Lavrent Khachatryan, Barry Dellinger

Abstract:

Low Temperature Matrix Isolation - Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (LTMI-EPR) Spectroscopy was utilized to identify the species of iron oxide nanoparticles generated during the oxidative pyrolysis of 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN). The otherwise gas-phase reactions of 1--MN were impacted by a polypropylenimine tetra-hexacontaamine dendrimer complexed with iron (III) nitrate nonahydrate diluted in air under atmospheric conditions. The EPR fine structure of Fe (III)2O3 nanoparticles clusters, characterized by gfactors of 2.00, 2.28, 3.76 and 4.37 were detected on a cold finger maintained at 77 K after accumulation over a multitude of experiments. Additionally, a high valence Fe (IV) paramagnetic intermediate and superoxide anion-radicals, O2•- adsorbed on nanoparticle surfaces in the form of Fe (IV) --- O2•- were detected from the quenching area of Zone 1 in the gas-phase.

Keywords: Cryogenic trapping, EPFRs, dendrimer, Fe2O3 doped silica, soot.

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66 The Oxidative Stress and the Antioxidant Defense of the Lower Vegetables towards an Environmental Pollution

Authors: Fadila Khaldi, Nedjoud Grara, Houria Berrebbah, Mohamed Réda Djebar

Abstract:

The use of bioindicators plants (lichens, bryophytes and Sphagnum....) in monitoring pollution by heavy metals has been the subject of several works. However, few studies have addressed the impact of specific type-s pollutants (fertilizers, pesticides.) on these organisms. We propose in this work to make the highlighting effect of NPKs (NPK: nitrogen-phosphate-potassium-sulfate (NP2O5K2O) (15,15,15), at concentrations of 10, 20, 30 , 40 and 50mM/L) on the activity of detoxification enzymes (GSH/GST, CAT, APX and MDA) of plant bioindicators (mosses and lichens) after treatment for 3 and 7 days. This study shows the important role of the defense system in the accumulation and tolerance to chemical pollutants through the activation of enzymatic (GST (glutathione-S-transferase, APX (ascorbat peroxidase), CAT (catalase)) and nonenzymatic biomarkers (GSH (glutathione), MDA (malondialdehyde)) against oxidative stress generated by the NPKs.

Keywords: NPKs, Bioindicators, lower plants, GSH / GST, CAT, APX and MDA.

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65 Heterophase Polymerization of Pyrrole and Thienyl End Capped Ethoxylated Nonyl Phenol by Iron (III) Chloride

Authors: Görkem Ülkü, Esin A. Güvel, Nesrin Köken, Nilgün Kızılcan

Abstract:

This study presents synthesis of novel block copolymers of thienyl end capped ethoxylated nonyl phenol and pyrrole via chemical oxidative polymerization. Ethoxylated nonyl phenol (ENP) was reacted with 2-thiophenecarbonyl chloride in order to synthesize a macromonomer containing thienyl end-group (ENPThC). Then copolymers of ENP-ThC and pyrrole were synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization using iron (III) chloride as an oxidant. ENP-ThC served both as a macromonomer and an emulsifier for pyrrole with poor solubility in water. The synthesized block copolymers (ENP-ThC-b-PPy) were characterized by spectroscopic analysis and the electrical conductivities were investigated with 4-point probe technique.

Keywords: End capped polymer, ethoxylated nonyl phenol, heterophase polymerization, polypyrrole.

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64 Shannon-Weaver Biodiversity of Neutrophils in Fractal Networks of Immunofluorescence for Medical Diagnostics

Authors: N.E.Galich

Abstract:

We develop new nonlinear methods of immunofluorescence analysis for a sensitive technology of respiratory burst reaction of DNA fluorescence due to oxidative activity in the peripheral blood neutrophils. Histograms in flow cytometry experiments represent a fluorescence flashes frequency as functions of fluorescence intensity. We used the Shannon-Weaver index for definition of neutrophils- biodiversity and Hurst index for definition of fractal-s correlations in immunofluorescence for different donors, as the basic quantitative criteria for medical diagnostics of health status. We analyze frequencies of flashes, information, Shannon entropies and their fractals in immunofluorescence networks due to reduction of histogram range. We found the number of simplest universal correlations for biodiversity, information and Hurst index in diagnostics and classification of pathologies for wide spectra of diseases. In addition is determined the clear criterion of a common immunity and human health status in a form of yes/no answers type. These answers based on peculiarities of information in immunofluorescence networks and biodiversity of neutrophils. Experimental data analysis has shown the existence of homeostasis for information entropy in oxidative activity of DNA in neutrophil nuclei for all donors.

Keywords: blood and cells fluorescence in diagnostics ofdiseases, cytometric histograms, entropy and information in fractalnetworks of oxidative activity of DNA, long-range chromosomalcorrelations in living cells.

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