Search results for: Murray L. Ireland
29 A Post Keynesian Environmental Macroeconomic Model for Agricultural Water Sustainability under Climate Change in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia
Authors: Ke Zhao, Ballarat Colin Richardson, Jerry Courvisanos, John Crawford
Climate change has profound consequences for the agriculture of south-eastern Australia and its climate-induced water shortage in the Murray-Darling Basin. Post Keynesian Economics (PKE) macro-dynamics, along with Kaleckian investment and growth theory, are used to develop an ecological-economic system dynamics model of this complex nonlinear river basin system. The Murray- Darling Basin Simulation Model (MDB-SM) uses the principles of PKE to incorporate the fundamental uncertainty of economic behaviors of farmers regarding the investments they make and the climate change they face, particularly as regards water ecosystem services. MDB-SM provides a framework for macroeconomic policies, especially for long-term fiscal policy and for policy directed at the sustainability of agricultural water, as measured by socio-economic well-being considerations, which include sustainable consumption and investment in the river basin. The model can also reproduce other ecological and economic aspects and, for certain parameters and initial values, exhibit endogenous business cycles and ecological sustainability with realistic characteristics. Most importantly, MDBSM provides a platform for the analysis of alternative economic policy scenarios. These results reveal the importance of understanding water ecosystem adaptation under climate change by integrating a PKE macroeconomic analytical framework with the system dynamics modelling approach. Once parameterised and supplied with historical initial values, MDB-SM should prove to be a practical tool to provide alternative long-term policy simulations of agricultural water and socio-economic well-being.
Keywords: Agricultural water, Macroeconomic dynamics, Modeling, Investment dynamics, Sustainability, Unemployment, Economics, Keynesian, Kaleckian.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2051
28 A Numerical Model for Simulation of Blood Flow in Vascular Networks
Authors: Houman Tamaddon, Mehrdad Behnia, Masud Behnia
An accurate study of blood flow is associated with an accurate vascular pattern and geometrical properties of the organ of interest. Due to the complexity of vascular networks and poor accessibility in vivo, it is challenging to reconstruct the entire vasculature of any organ experimentally. The objective of this study is to introduce an innovative approach for the reconstruction of a full vascular tree from available morphometric data. Our method consists of implementing morphometric data on those parts of the vascular tree that are smaller than the resolution of medical imaging methods. This technique reconstructs the entire arterial tree down to the capillaries. Vessels greater than 2 mm are obtained from direct volume and surface analysis using contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT). Vessels smaller than 2mm are reconstructed from available morphometric and distensibility data and rearranged by applying Murray’s Laws. Implementation of morphometric data to reconstruct the branching pattern and applying Murray’s Laws to every vessel bifurcation simultaneously, lead to an accurate vascular tree reconstruction. The reconstruction algorithm generates full arterial tree topography down to the first capillary bifurcation. Geometry of each order of the vascular tree is generated separately to minimize the construction and simulation time. The node-to-node connectivity along with the diameter and length of every vessel segment is established and order numbers, according to the diameter-defined Strahler system, are assigned. During the simulation, we used the averaged flow rate for each order to predict the pressure drop and once the pressure drop is predicted, the flow rate is corrected to match the computed pressure drop for each vessel. The final results for 3 cardiac cycles is presented and compared to the clinical data.
Keywords: Blood flow, Morphometric data, Vascular tree, Strahler ordering system.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2015
27 The Effect of Leadership Styles on Continuous Improvement Teams
Authors: Paul W. Murray
This research explorers the relationship between leadership style and continuous improvement (CI) teams. CI teams have several features that are not always found in other types of teams, including multi-functional members, short time period for performance, positive and actionable results, and exposure to senior leadership. There is no one best style of leadership for these teams. Instead, it is important to select the best leadership style for the situation. The leader must have the flexibility to change styles and the skill to use the chosen style effectively in order to ensure the team’s success.
Keywords: Leadership style, Lean Manufacturing, Teams, Cross-functional.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3770
26 A Comparison of Inverse Simulation-Based Fault Detection in a Simple Robotic Rover with a Traditional Model-Based Method
Authors: Murray L. Ireland, Kevin J. Worrall, Rebecca Mackenzie, Thaleia Flessa, Euan McGookin, Douglas Thomson
Abstract:Robotic rovers which are designed to work in extra-terrestrial environments present a unique challenge in terms of the reliability and availability of systems throughout the mission. Should some fault occur, with the nearest human potentially millions of kilometres away, detection and identification of the fault must be performed solely by the robot and its subsystems. Faults in the system sensors are relatively straightforward to detect, through the residuals produced by comparison of the system output with that of a simple model. However, faults in the input, that is, the actuators of the system, are harder to detect. A step change in the input signal, caused potentially by the loss of an actuator, can propagate through the system, resulting in complex residuals in multiple outputs. These residuals can be difficult to isolate or distinguish from residuals caused by environmental disturbances. While a more complex fault detection method or additional sensors could be used to solve these issues, an alternative is presented here. Using inverse simulation (InvSim), the inputs and outputs of the mathematical model of the rover system are reversed. Thus, for a desired trajectory, the corresponding actuator inputs are obtained. A step fault near the input then manifests itself as a step change in the residual between the system inputs and the input trajectory obtained through inverse simulation. This approach avoids the need for additional hardware on a mass- and power-critical system such as the rover. The InvSim fault detection method is applied to a simple four-wheeled rover in simulation. Additive system faults and an external disturbance force and are applied to the vehicle in turn, such that the dynamic response and sensor output of the rover are impacted. Basic model-based fault detection is then employed to provide output residuals which may be analysed to provide information on the fault/disturbance. InvSim-based fault detection is then employed, similarly providing input residuals which provide further information on the fault/disturbance. The input residuals are shown to provide clearer information on the location and magnitude of an input fault than the output residuals. Additionally, they can allow faults to be more clearly discriminated from environmental disturbances.
Keywords: Fault detection, inverse simulation, rover, ground robot.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 814
25 A Third Drop Level For TCP-RED Congestion Control Strategy
Authors: Nabhan Hamadneh, Michael Dixon, Peter Cole, David Murray
Abstract:This work presents the Risk Threshold RED (RTRED) congestion control strategy for TCP networks. In addition to the maximum and minimum thresholds in existing RED-based strategies, we add a third dropping level. This new dropping level is the risk threshold which works with the actual and average queue sizes to detect the immediate congestion in gateways. Congestion reaction by RTRED is on time. The reaction to congestion is neither too early, to avoid unfair packet losses, nor too late to avoid packet dropping from time-outs. We compared our novel strategy with RED and ARED strategies for TCP congestion handling using a NS-2 simulation script. We found that the RTRED strategy outperformed RED and ARED.
Keywords: AQM, congestion control, RED, TCP.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1376
24 Edit Distance Algorithm to Increase Storage Efficiency of Javanese Corpora
Authors: Aji P. Wibawa, Andrew Nafalski, Neil Murray, Wayan F. Mahmudy
Abstract:Since the one-to-one word translator does not have the facility to translate pragmatic aspects of Javanese, the parallel text alignment model described uses a phrase pair combination. The algorithm aligns the parallel text automatically from the beginning to the end of each sentence. Even though the results of the phrase pair combination outperform the previous algorithm, it is still inefficient. Recording all possible combinations consume more space in the database and time consuming. The original algorithm is modified by applying the edit distance coefficient to improve the data-storage efficiency. As a result, the data-storage consumption is 90% reduced as well as its learning period (42s).
Keywords: edit distance coefficient, Javanese, parallel text alignment, phrase pair combinationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1599
23 Parallel Text Processing: Alignment of Indonesian to Javanese Language
Authors: Aji P. Wibawa, Andrew Nafalski, Neil Murray, Wayan F. Mahmudy
Parallel text alignment is proposed as a way of aligning bahasa Indonesia to words in Javanese. Since the one-to-one word translator does not have the facility to translate pragmatic aspects of Javanese, the parallel text alignment model described uses a phrase pair combination. The algorithm aligns the parallel text automatically from the beginning to the end of each sentence. Even though the results of the phrase pair combination outperform the previous algorithm, it is still inefficient. Recording all possible combinations consume more space in the database and time consuming. The original algorithm is modified by applying the edit distance coefficient to improve the data-storage efficiency. As a result, the data-storage consumption is 90% reduced as well as its learning period (42s).
Keywords: Parallel text alignment, phrase pair combination, edit distance coefficient, Javanese-Indonesian language.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2372
22 Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM): A Simplified Alternative for Implementing SCRM for Small and Medium Enterprises
Authors: Paul W. Murray, Marco Barajas
Recent changes in supply chains, especially globalization and collaboration, have created new risks for enterprises of all sizes. A variety of complex frameworks, often based on enterprise risk management strategies have been presented under the heading of Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM). The literature on promotes the benefits of a robust SCRM strategy; however, implementing SCRM is difficult and resource demanding for Large Enterprises (LEs), and essentially out of reach for Small & Medium Enterprises (SMEs). This research debunks the idea that SCRM is necessary for all enterprises and instead proposes a simple and effective Vendor Selection Template (VST). Empirical testing and a survey of supply chain practitioners provide a measure of validation to the VST. The resulting VSTis a valuable contribution because is easy to use, provides practical results, and is sufficiently flexible to be universally applied to SMEs.
Keywords: Multiple Regression Analysis, Supply Chain Management, Risk Assessment, Vendor Selection.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2713
21 Corporate Fraud: An Analysis of Malaysian Securities Commission Enforcement Releases
Authors: Raziah Bi Mohamed Sadique, Jamal Roudaki, Murray B. Clark, Norhayati Alias
Abstract:Economic crime (i.e. corporate fraud) has a significant impact on business. This study analyzes the fraud cases reported by the Malaysian Securities Commission. Frauds involving market manipulation and/or illegal share trading are the most common types of fraud reported over the 6 years analyzed. The highest number of frauds reported involved investment and fund holding companies. Alarmingly the results indicate quite a high number of frauds cases are committed by management. The higher number of Chinese perpetrators may be due to fact that they are the dominant group in Malaysian business. The result also shows that more than half of companies involved with fraud are privately held companies in the investment/fund/finance sector. The results of this study highlight general characteristic of perpetrators (person and company) that commit fraud which could help the regulators in their monitoring and enforcement activities. To investors, this would help in analyzing their business investment or portfolio risk.
Keywords: Corporate fraud, economic crime, fraudcharacteristic, perpetratorsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5126
20 Perceptions of Cybersecurity in Government Organizations: Case Study of Bhutan
Authors: Pema Choejey, David Murray, Chun Che Fung
Bhutan is becoming increasingly dependent on Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs), especially the Internet for performing the daily activities of governments, businesses, and individuals. Consequently, information systems and networks are becoming more exposed and vulnerable to cybersecurity threats. This paper highlights the findings of the survey study carried out to understand the perceptions of cybersecurity implementation among government organizations in Bhutan. About 280 ICT personnel were surveyed about the effectiveness of cybersecurity implementation in their organizations. A questionnaire based on a 5 point Likert scale was used to assess the perceptions of respondents. The questions were asked on cybersecurity practices such as cybersecurity policies, awareness and training, and risk management. The survey results show that less than 50% of respondents believe that the cybersecurity implementation is effective: cybersecurity policy (40%), risk management (23%), training and awareness (28%), system development life cycle (34%); incident management (26%), and communications and operational management (40%). The findings suggest that many of the cybersecurity practices are inadequately implemented and therefore, there exist a gap in achieving a required cybersecurity posture. This study recommends government organizations to establish a comprehensive cybersecurity program with emphasis on cybersecurity policy, risk management, and awareness and training. In addition, the research study has practical implications to both government and private organizations for implementing and managing cybersecurity.
Keywords: Awareness and training, cybersecurity, cybersecurity policy, risk management, security risks.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1188
19 Innovative Activity and Firm Performance: The Case of Eurozone Periphery
Authors: Ilias A. Makris
In this work, we attempt to analyze the contribution of innovative activities to firm performance and growth. We examine economic data from some of the economies that were heavily affected by current economic crisis: the countries of southern Europe (Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain) and Ireland. Following literature, an appropriate econometric model is developed and several indicators are tested in order to disclose possible relation with innovative activity. Findings confirm the crucial effect of innovative process in economic activity, in firm and country level.
Keywords: Eurozone Periphery, Firm Performance, Innovative activity, R&D.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1673
18 Sensitivity Analysis of Real-Time Systems
Authors: Benjamin Gorry, Andrew Ireland, Peter King
Abstract:Verification of real-time software systems can be expensive in terms of time and resources. Testing is the main method of proving correctness but has been shown to be a long and time consuming process. Everyday engineers are usually unwilling to adopt formal approaches to correctness because of the overhead associated with developing their knowledge of such techniques. Performance modelling techniques allow systems to be evaluated with respect to timing constraints. This paper describes PARTES, a framework which guides the extraction of performance models from programs written in an annotated subset of C.
Keywords: Performance Modelling, Real-time, SensitivityAnalysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1406
17 Steps towards the Development of National Health Data Standards in Developing Countries: An Exploratory Qualitative Study in Saudi Arabia
Authors: Abdullah I. Alkraiji, Thomas W. Jackson, Ian R. Murray
The proliferation of health data standards today is somewhat overlapping and conflicting, resulting in market confusion and leading to increasing proprietary interests. The government role and support in standardization for health data are thought to be crucial in order to establish credible standards for the next decade, to maximize interoperability across the health sector, and to decrease the risks associated with the implementation of non-standard systems. The normative literature missed out the exploration of the different steps required to be undertaken by the government towards the development of national health data standards. Based on the lessons learned from a qualitative study investigating the different issues to the adoption of health data standards in the major tertiary hospitals in Saudi Arabia and the opinions and feedback from different experts in the areas of data exchange and standards and medical informatics in Saudi Arabia and UK, a list of steps required towards the development of national health data standards was constructed. Main steps are the existence of: a national formal reference for health data standards, an agreed national strategic direction for medical data exchange, a national medical information management plan and a national accreditation body, and more important is the change management at the national and organizational level. The outcome of this study can be used by academics and practitioners to develop the planning of health data standards, and in particular those in developing countries.
Keywords: Interoperability, Case Study, Health Data Standards, Medical Data Exchange, Saudi Arabia.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1881
16 Using Partnerships to Achieve National Goals
Authors: Pamela L. Eddy
Abstract:Ireland developed a National Strategy 2030 that argued for the creation of a new form of higher education institution, a Technological University. The research reported here reviews the first stage of this partnership development. The study found that national policy can create system capacity and change, but that individual partners may have more to gain or lose in collaborating. When presented as a zero-sum activity, fear among partners is high. The level of knowledge and networking within the higher education system possessed by each partner contributed to decisions to participate or not in a joint proposal for collaboration. Greater success resulted when there were gains for all partners. This research concludes that policy mandates can provide motivation to collaborate, but that the partnership needs to be built more on shared values versus coercion by mandates.
Keywords: Leadership, Partnerships, Policy, Strategic Planning.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1442
15 Soil Moisture Content in Hill-Filed Side Slope
Authors: A. Aboufayed
Abstract:The soil moisture content is an important property of the soil. The results of mean weekly gravimetric soil moisture content, measured for the three soil layers within the A horizon, showed that it was higher for the top 5 cm over the whole period of monitoring (15/7/2004 up to 10/11/05) with the variation becoming greater during winter time. This reflects the pattern of rainfall in Ireland which is spread over the whole year and shows that light rainfall events during summer time were compensated by loss through evapotranspiration, but only in the top 5 cm of soil. This layer had the highest porosity and highest moisture holding capacity due to the high content of organic matter. The gravimetric soil moisture contents of the top 5 cm and the underlying 5-15 and 15-25 cm layers show that bottom site of the Hill Field had higher soil moisture content than the middle and top sites during the whole period of monitoring.
Keywords: Soil, Soil moisture, Gravimetric soil moisture content.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2144
14 A Survey of IMRT and VMAT in UK
Authors: A. Taqaddas
Purpose: This E-survey was carried out to facilitate the implementation and Education of VMAT (Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy) in Radiotherapy-RT departments and reasons for not using IMRT (Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy). VMAT Skills in demand were also identified. Method: E-Survey was distributed to NHS hospitals across UK by email. Thirty NHS and related centres in England, 21 in Scotland, 3 in Ireland and 1 in Wales were contacted. This Survey was intended for those working in RT and Medical Physics and who were responsible for Treatment Planning and training. Results: This E-survey have indicated pathways adopted by staff to acquire VMAT skills, strategies to efficiently implement VMAT in RT departments and for obtaining VMAT Education. Conclusion: Despite poor survey response this survey has managed to highlight requirements for education and implementation of VMAT that are also applicable to IMRT. Other RT centres in world can also find these results useful.
Keywords: IMRT, Radiotherapy, Treatment Planning, VMAT.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2370
13 Analysis of Phosphate in Wastewater Using an Autonomous Microfluidics-Based Analyser
Authors: John Cleary, Conor Slater, Dermot Diamond
Abstract:A portable sensor for the analysis of phosphate in aqueous samples has been developed. The sensor incorporates microfluidic technology, colorimetric detection, and wireless communications into a compact and rugged portable device. The detection method used is the molybdenum yellow method, in which a phosphate-containing sample is mixed with a reagent containing ammonium metavanadate and ammonium molybdate in an acidic medium. A yellow-coloured compound is generated and the absorption of this compound is measured using a light emitting diode (LED) light source and a photodiode detector. The absorption is directly proportional to the phosphate concentration in the original sample. In this paper we describe the application of this phosphate sensor to the analysis of wastewater at a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Co. Kildare, Ireland.
Keywords: Microfluidic, phosphate, sensor, wastewater.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2021
12 Comparative Evaluation of the Biopharmaceutical and Chemical Equivalence of the Some Commercial Brands of Paracetamol Tablets
Authors: Raniah Al-Shalabi, Omaima Al- Gohary, Samar Afify, Eram Eltahir
Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) tablets are popular OTC products among patients as analgesics and antipyretics. Paracetamol is marketed by a lot of suppliers around the world. The aim of the present investigation was to compare between many types of paracetamol tablets obtained from different suppliers (six brands produced by different pharmaceutical companies in middle east countries, and Panadol® manufactured in Ireland), by different quality control tests according to USP pharmacopeia.Using Non official tests-hardness and friability; official tests- disintegration, dissolution, and drug content. Additionally, evaluate the influence of temperatures 4°C, 25°C and 40°C at 75% relative humidity on the stability of the same brands in their original packaging has been conducted for two months. The results revealed that all paracetamol tablet brands complied with the official USP specifications. In conclusion, paracetamol tablets preferred to be stored at 25°C. All the tested brands being biopharmaceutically and chemically equivalent.
Keywords: Non official tests-hardness and friability, official tests –disintegration, dissolution, and drug content.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3136
11 A Design of an Augmented Reality Based Virtual Heritage Application
Authors: Stephen Barnes, Ian Mills, Frances Cleary
Augmented and Virtual Reality based applications offer many benefits for the heritage and tourism sector. This technology provides a platform to showcase the regions of interest to people without the need for them to be physically present, which has had a positive impact on enticing tourists to visit those locations. However, the technology also provides the opportunity to present historical artefacts in a form that accurately represents their original, intended appearance. Three sites of interest were identified in the Lingaun Valley in South East Ireland wherein virtual representations of site specific artefacts of interest were created via a multidisciplinary team encompassing archaeology, art history, 3D modelling, design and software development. The collated information has been presented to users via an Augmented Reality mobile based application that provides information in an engaging manner that encourages an interest in history as well as visits to the sites in the Lingaun Valley.
Keywords: Augmented Reality, Virtual Heritage, 3D modelling, archaeology, virtual representation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 97
10 Streamwise Vorticity in the Wake of a Sliding Bubble
Authors: R. O’Reilly Meehan, D. B. Murray
Abstract:In many practical situations, bubbles are dispersed in a liquid phase. Understanding these complex bubbly flows is therefore a key issue for applications such as shell and tube heat exchangers, mineral flotation and oxidation in water treatment. Although a large body of work exists for bubbles rising in an unbounded medium, that of bubbles rising in constricted geometries has received less attention. The particular case of a bubble sliding underneath an inclined surface is common to two-phase flow systems. The current study intends to expand this knowledge by performing experiments to quantify the streamwise flow structures associated with a single sliding air bubble under an inclined surface in quiescent water. This is achieved by means of two-dimensional, two-component particle image velocimetry (PIV), performed with a continuous wave laser and high-speed camera. PIV vorticity fields obtained in a plane perpendicular to the sliding surface show that there is significant bulk fluid motion away from the surface. The associated momentum of the bubble means that this wake motion persists for a significant time before viscous dissipation. The magnitude and direction of the flow structures in the streamwise measurement plane are found to depend on the point on its path through which the bubble enters the plane. This entry point, represented by a phase angle, affects the nature and strength of the vortical structures. This study reconstructs the vorticity field in the wake of the bubble, converting the field at different instances in time to slices of a large-scale wake structure. This is, in essence, Taylor’s ”frozen turbulence” hypothesis. Applying this to the vorticity fields provides a pseudo three-dimensional representation from 2-D data, allowing for a more intuitive understanding of the bubble wake. This study provides insights into the complex dynamics of a situation common to many engineering applications, particularly shell and tube heat exchangers in the nucleate boiling regime.
Keywords: Bubbly flow, particle image velocimetry, two-phase flow, wake structures.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1445
9 Probabilistic Modelling of Marine Bridge Deterioration
Authors: P.C. Ryan, A.J. O' Connor
Abstract:Chloride induced corrosion of steel reinforcement is the main cause of deterioration of reinforced concrete marine structures. This paper investigates the relative performance of alternative repair options with respect to the deterioration of reinforced concrete bridge elements in marine environments. Focus is placed on the initiation phase of reinforcement corrosion. A laboratory study is described which involved exposing concrete samples to accelerated chloride-ion ingress. The study examined the relative efficiencies of two repair methods, namely Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) concrete and a concrete which utilised Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Cement (GGBS) as a partial cement replacement. The mix designs and materials utilised were identical to those implemented in the repair of a marine bridge on the South East coast of Ireland in 2007. The results of this testing regime serve to inform input variables employed in probabilistic modelling of deterioration for subsequent reliability based analysis to compare the relative performance of the studied repair options.
Keywords: Deterioration, Marine Bridges, Reinforced Concrete, Reliability, Chloride-ion IngressProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1884
8 Enforcement of Decisions of Ombudsmen and the South African Public Protector: Muzzling the Watchdogs
Authors: Roxan Venter
Ombudsmen often face the challenge of a lack of authority to have their decisions and recommendations enforced. This lack of authority may be seen as one of the major obstacles in the way of the effectiveness of the institutions of Ombudsman and also the South African Public Protector. The paper will address the current legal position in South Africa with regard to the status of the decisions and recommendations of the South African Public Protector and the enforcement thereof. In addition, the paper will compare the South African position with the experiences of other jurisdictions, including Scandinavian countries like Sweden, Denmark and Norway, but also New Zealand and Northern Ireland, with regard to the enforcement of the decisions of Ombudsmen. Finally, the paper will make recommendations with regard to the enhancement of the power and authority of Ombudsmen in order to effectively enforce their decisions. It is submitted that the creation of the office of Ombudsman, and the Public Protector in the South African system, is an essential tool to ensure the protection of society against governmental abuse of power and it is therefore imperative to ensure that these watchdogs of democracy are not muzzled by a lack of powers of enforcement.
Keywords: Enforcement of decisions of Ombudsmen, Governmental control, Ombudsman, South African Public Protector.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1623
7 Localized and Time-Resolved Velocity Measurements of Pulsatile Flow in a Rectangular Channel
Authors: R. Blythman, N. Jeffers, T. Persoons, D. B. Murray
Abstract:The exploitation of flow pulsation in micro- and mini-channels is a potentially useful technique for enhancing cooling of high-end photonics and electronics systems. It is thought that pulsation alters the thickness of the hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layers, and hence affects the overall thermal resistance of the heat sink. Although the fluid mechanics and heat transfer are inextricably linked, it can be useful to decouple the parameters to better understand the mechanisms underlying any heat transfer enhancement. Using two-dimensional, two-component particle image velocimetry, the current work intends to characterize the heat transfer mechanisms in pulsating flow with a mean Reynolds number of 48 by experimentally quantifying the hydrodynamics of a generic liquid-cooled channel geometry. Flows circulated through the test section by a gear pump are modulated using a controller to achieve sinusoidal flow pulsations with Womersley numbers of 7.45 and 2.36 and an amplitude ratio of 0.75. It is found that the transient characteristics of the measured velocity profiles are dependent on the speed of oscillation, in accordance with the analytical solution for flow in a rectangular channel. A large velocity overshoot is observed close to the wall at high frequencies, resulting from the interaction of near-wall viscous stresses and inertial effects of the main fluid body. The steep velocity gradients at the wall are indicative of augmented heat transfer, although the local flow reversal may reduce the upstream temperature difference in heat transfer applications. While unsteady effects remain evident at the lower frequency, the annular effect subsides and retreats from the wall. The shear rate at the wall is increased during the accelerating half-cycle and decreased during deceleration compared to steady flow, suggesting that the flow may experience both enhanced and diminished heat transfer during a single period. Hence, the thickness of the hydrodynamic boundary layer is reduced for positively moving flow during one half of the pulsation cycle at the investigated frequencies. It is expected that the size of the thermal boundary layer is similarly reduced during the cycle, leading to intervals of heat transfer enhancement.
Keywords: Heat transfer enhancement, particle image velocimetry, localized and time-resolved velocity, photonics and electronics cooling, pulsating flow, Richardson’s annular effect.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2180
6 Degree of Milling Effects on the Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) Flours, Physicochemical Properties and Kinetics of Starch Digestion
Authors: Brou K., Guéhi T., Konan A. G., Gbakayoro J. B., Gnakri D.
Two types of crushing were applied to grains of red sorghum: manual crushing using a mortar and pestle of kitchen and mechanical crushing using a hammer mill. The flours obtained at the end of these various crushing were filtered and subdivided in different fractions according to the diameters of the mesh of the sieves (0.16mm; 0.25mm; 0.315mm; 0.4mm, and 0.63mm…). Some physical, chemical and nutritional traits of these flours were evaluated using Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). In vitro digestibility of these flours was also studied with freezing of flour 1% like substrate and α-amylase from B. licheniformis (E.C.22.214.171.124; Megazyme, Wicklow, Ireland). The results revealed that the batches of flours which have the finest diameters as 0.16mm; 0.25mm are the richest one in nutrients and are also the most digestible. Also mechanical crushing is the best mean to obtain significant amount of flours. In conclusion, the type of crushing and the size of the particles have an impact on the final concentration of some nutrients of the flours obtained. Indeed, the finest particles (0.16mm – 0.25mm 0.315mm) obtained after sifting of the flours are more nutritive and have a better digestibility than others size. So the finest particles could be advised for management of cereals namely the sorghum for the production of the infantile foods.
Keywords: Nutrients, digestibility, crush, flour, milling, granulometry.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1916
5 A Comparison of Tsunami Impact to Sydney Harbour, Australia at Different Tidal Stages
Authors: Olivia A. Wilson, Hannah E. Power, Murray Kendall
Sydney Harbour is an iconic location with a dense population and low-lying development. On the east coast of Australia, facing the Pacific Ocean, it is exposed to several tsunamigenic trenches. This paper presents a component of the most detailed assessment of the potential for earthquake-generated tsunami impact on Sydney Harbour to date. Models in this study use dynamic tides to account for tide-tsunami interaction. Sydney Harbour’s tidal range is 1.5 m, and the spring tides from January 2015 that are used in the modelling for this study are close to the full tidal range. The tsunami wave trains modelled include hypothetical tsunami generated from earthquakes of magnitude 7.5, 8.0, 8.5, and 9.0 MW from the Puysegur and New Hebrides trenches as well as representations of the historical 1960 Chilean and 2011 Tohoku events. All wave trains are modelled for the peak wave to coincide with both a low tide and a high tide. A single wave train, representing a 9.0 MW earthquake at the Puysegur trench, is modelled for peak waves to coincide with every hour across a 12-hour tidal phase. Using the hydrodynamic model ANUGA, results are compared according to the impact parameters of inundation area, depth variation and current speeds. Results show that both maximum inundation area and depth variation are tide dependent. Maximum inundation area increases when coincident with a higher tide, however, hazardous inundation is only observed for the larger waves modelled: NH90high and P90high. The maximum and minimum depths are deeper on higher tides and shallower on lower tides. The difference between maximum and minimum depths varies across different tidal phases although the differences are slight. Maximum current speeds are shown to be a significant hazard for Sydney Harbour; however, they do not show consistent patterns according to tide-tsunami phasing. The maximum current speed hazard is shown to be greater in specific locations such as Spit Bridge, a narrow channel with extensive marine infrastructure. The results presented for Sydney Harbour are novel, and the conclusions are consistent with previous modelling efforts in the greater area. It is shown that tide must be a consideration for both tsunami modelling and emergency management planning. Modelling with peak tsunami waves coinciding with a high tide would be a conservative approach; however, it must be considered that maximum current speeds may be higher on other tides.
Keywords: Emergency management, Sydney, tide-tsunami interaction, tsunami impact.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1091
4 An Evaluation of the Feasibility of Several Industrial Wastes and Natural Materials as Precursors for the Production of Alkali Activated Materials
Authors: O. Alelweet, S. Pavia
In order to face current compelling environmental problems affecting the planet, the construction industry needs to adapt. It is widely acknowledged that there is a need for durable, high-performance, low-greenhouse gas emission binders that can be used as an alternative to Portland cement (PC) to lower the environmental impact of construction. Alkali activated materials (AAMs) are considered a more sustainable alternative to PC materials. The binders of AAMs result from the reaction of an alkali metal source and a silicate powder or precursor which can be a calcium silicate or an aluminosilicate-rich material. This paper evaluates the particle size, specific surface area, chemical and mineral composition and amorphousness of silicate materials (most industrial waste locally produced in Ireland and Saudi Arabia) to develop alkali-activated binders that can replace PC resources in specific applications. These include recycled ceramic brick, bauxite, illitic clay, fly ash and metallurgical slag. According to the results, the wastes are reactive and comply with building standards requirements. The study also evidenced that the reactivity of the Saudi bauxite (with significant kaolinite) can be enhanced on thermal activation; and high calcium in the slag will promote reaction; which should be possible with low alkalinity activators. The wastes evidenced variable water demands that will be taken into account for mixing with the activators. Finally, further research is proposed to further determine the reactive fraction of the clay-based precursors.
Keywords: Reactivity, water demand, alkali-activated materials, brick, bauxite, illitic clay, fly ash, slag.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 608
3 Guidelines for Sustainable Urban Mobility in Historic Districts from International Experiences
Authors: Tamer ElSerafi
In recent approaches to heritage conservation, the whole context of historic areas becomes as important as the single historic building. This makes the provision of infrastructure and network of mobility an effective element in the urban conservation. Sustainable urban conservation projects consider the high density of activities, the need for a good quality access system to the transit system, and the importance of the configuration of the mobility network by identifying the best way to connect the different districts of the urban area through a complex unique system that helps the synergic development to achieve a sustainable mobility system. A sustainable urban mobility is a key factor in maintaining the integrity between socio-cultural aspects and functional aspects. This paper illustrates the mobility aspects, mobility problems in historic districts, and the needs of the mobility systems in the first part. The second part is a practical analysis for different mobility plans. It is challenging to find innovative and creative conservation solutions fitting modern uses and needs without risking the loss of inherited built resources. Urban mobility management is becoming an essential and challenging issue in the urban conservation projects. Depending on literature review and practical analysis, this paper tries to define and clarify the guidelines for mobility management in historic districts as a key element in sustainability of urban conservation and development projects. Such rules and principles could control the conflict between the socio–cultural and economic activities, and the different needs for mobility in these districts in a sustainable way. The practical analysis includes a comparison between mobility plans which have been implemented in four different cities; Freiburg in Germany, Zurich in Switzerland and Bray Town in Ireland. This paper concludes with a matrix of guidelines that considers both principles of sustainability and livability factors in urban historic districts.
Keywords: Sustainable mobility, urban mobility, mobility management, historic districts.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 800
2 Potential of Irish Orientated Strand Board in Bending Active Structures
Authors: M. Collins, B. O’Regan, T. Cosgrove
To determine the potential of a low cost Irish engineered timber product to replace high cost solid timber for use in bending active structures such as gridshells a single Irish engineered timber product in the form of orientated strand board (OSB) was selected. A comparative study of OSB and solid timber was carried out to determine the optimum properties that make a material suitable for use in gridshells. Three parameters were identified to be relevant in the selection of a material for gridshells. These three parameters are the strength to stiffness ratio, the flexural stiffness of commercially available sections, and the variability of material and section properties. It is shown that when comparing OSB against solid timber, OSB is a more suitable material for use in gridshells that are at the smaller end of the scale and that have tight radii of curvature. Typically, for solid timber materials, stiffness is used as an indicator for strength and engineered timber is no different. Thus, low flexural stiffness would mean low flexural strength. However, when it comes to bending active gridshells, OSB offers a significant advantage. By the addition of multiple layers, an increased section size is created, thus endowing the structure with higher stiffness and higher strength from initial low stiffness and low strength materials while still maintaining tight radii of curvature. This allows OSB to compete with solid timber on large scale gridshells. Additionally, a preliminary sustainability study using a set of sustainability indicators was carried out to determine the relative sustainability of building a large-scale gridshell in Ireland with a primary focus on economic viability but a mention is also given to social and environmental aspects. For this, the Savill garden gridshell in the UK was used as the functional unit with the sustainability of the structural roof skeleton constructed from UK larch solid timber being compared with the same structure using Irish OSB. Albeit that the advantages of using commercially available OSB in a bending active gridshell are marginal and limited to specific gridshell applications, further study into an optimised engineered timber product is merited.
Keywords: Bending active gridshells, High end timber structures, Low cost material, Sustainability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1603
1 The Ongoing Impact of Secondary Stressors on Businesses in Northern Ireland Affected by Flood Events
Authors: Jill Stephenson, Marie Vaganay, Robert Cameron, Caoimhe McGurk, Neil Hewitt
Purpose: The key aim of the research was to identify the secondary stressors experienced by businesses affected by single or repeated flooding and to determine to what extent businesses were affected by these stressors, along with any resulting impact on health. Additionally the research aimed to establish the likelihood of businesses being re-exposed to the secondary stressors through assessing awareness of flood risk, implementation of property protection measures and level of community resilience. Design/methodology/approach: The chosen research method involved the distribution of a questionnaire survey to businesses affected by either single or repeated flood events. The questionnaire included the Impact of Event Scale (a 15-item self-report measure which assesses subjective distress caused by traumatic events). Findings: 55 completed questionnaires were returned by flood impacted businesses. 89% of the businesses had sustained internal flooding, while 11% had experienced external flooding. The results established that the key secondary stressors experienced by businesses, in order of priority, were: flood damage, fear of reoccurring flooding, prevention of access to the premise/closure, loss of income, repair works, length of closure and insurance issues. There was a lack of preparedness for potential future floods and consequent vulnerability to the emergence of secondary stressors among flood affected businesses, as flood resistance or flood resilience measures had only been implemented by 11% and 13% respectively. In relation to the psychological repercussions, the Impact of Event scores suggested that potential prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was noted among 8 out of 55 respondents (l5%). Originality/value: The results improve understanding of the enduring repercussions of flood events on businesses, indicating that not only residents may be susceptible to the detrimental health impacts of flood events and single flood events may be just as likely as reoccurring flooding to contribute to ongoing stress. Lack of financial resources is a possible explanation for the lack of implementation of property protection measures among businesses, despite 49% experiencing flooding on multiple occasions. Therefore it is recommended that policymakers should consider potential sources of financial support or grants towards flood defences for flood impacted businesses. Any form of assistance should be made available to businesses at the earliest opportunity as there was no significant association between the time of the last flood event and the likelihood of experiencing PTSD symptoms.
Keywords: Flood event, flood resilience, flood resistance, PTSD, secondary stressors.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1549