Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30054
The Ongoing Impact of Secondary Stressors on Businesses in Northern Ireland Affected by Flood Events

Authors: Jill Stephenson, Marie Vaganay, Robert Cameron, Caoimhe McGurk, Neil Hewitt

Abstract:

Purpose: The key aim of the research was to identify the secondary stressors experienced by businesses affected by single or repeated flooding and to determine to what extent businesses were affected by these stressors, along with any resulting impact on health. Additionally the research aimed to establish the likelihood of businesses being re-exposed to the secondary stressors through assessing awareness of flood risk, implementation of property protection measures and level of community resilience. Design/methodology/approach: The chosen research method involved the distribution of a questionnaire survey to businesses affected by either single or repeated flood events. The questionnaire included the Impact of Event Scale (a 15-item self-report measure which assesses subjective distress caused by traumatic events). Findings: 55 completed questionnaires were returned by flood impacted businesses. 89% of the businesses had sustained internal flooding, while 11% had experienced external flooding. The results established that the key secondary stressors experienced by businesses, in order of priority, were: flood damage, fear of reoccurring flooding, prevention of access to the premise/closure, loss of income, repair works, length of closure and insurance issues. There was a lack of preparedness for potential future floods and consequent vulnerability to the emergence of secondary stressors among flood affected businesses, as flood resistance or flood resilience measures had only been implemented by 11% and 13% respectively. In relation to the psychological repercussions, the Impact of Event scores suggested that potential prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was noted among 8 out of 55 respondents (l5%). Originality/value: The results improve understanding of the enduring repercussions of flood events on businesses, indicating that not only residents may be susceptible to the detrimental health impacts of flood events and single flood events may be just as likely as reoccurring flooding to contribute to ongoing stress. Lack of financial resources is a possible explanation for the lack of implementation of property protection measures among businesses, despite 49% experiencing flooding on multiple occasions. Therefore it is recommended that policymakers should consider potential sources of financial support or grants towards flood defences for flood impacted businesses. Any form of assistance should be made available to businesses at the earliest opportunity as there was no significant association between the time of the last flood event and the likelihood of experiencing PTSD symptoms.

Keywords: Flood event, flood resilience, flood resistance, PTSD, secondary stressors.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1110928

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF

References:


[1] A. Van Der Veen, C. Logtmeijer, “Economic hotspots: visualizing vulnerability to flooding,” in Nat Hazards, vol. 36 (1-2), pp. 65-80, 2005.
[2] J. Chatterton, C. Viavattene, J. Morris, E. C. Penning-Rowsell, S. M. Tapsell, “The costs of the summer 2007 floods in England,” Bristol: Environment Agency, 2010.
[3] D. Crichton, A. Insurance, “Climate Change and its Effects on Small Businesses in the UK,” Axa Insurance, 2006.
[4] A. Asgary, M. I. Anjum, N. Azimi, “Disaster recovery and business continuity after the 2010 flood in Pakistan: Case of small businesses,” in International journal of disaster risk reduction, vol. 2, pp. 46-56, 2012.
[5] R. C. Runyan, “Small business in the face of crisis: Identifying barriers to recovery from a natural disaster,” in J Contingencies Crisis Manage, vol. 14 (1), pp. 12-26, 2006.
[6] G. Wedawatta, B. Ingirige, “Resilience and adaptation of small and medium-sized enterprises to flood risk,” in Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 21 (4), pp. 474-488, 2012.
[7] M. Zaman, “Impact of Recent Flood on the Economy of Small Business at Rockhampton,” in Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 65, pp. 116-126, 2012.
[8] M. Ahern, R. S. Kovats, P. Wilkinson, R. Few, F. Matthies, “Global health impacts of floods: epidemiologic evidence,” in Epidemiol Rev, vol. 27, pp. 36-46, 2005.
[9] T. H. Bich, L. N. Quang, L. T. T. Ha, T. T. D. Hanh, D. Guha-Sapir, “Impacts of flood on health: epidemiologic evidence from Hanoi, Vietnam,” in Glob Health Action, vol. 4, pp 6356, 2011.
[10] B. Carroll, H. Morbey, R. Balogh, G. Araoz, “Flooded homes, broken bonds, the meaning of home, psychological processes and their impact on psychological health in a disaster,” in Health Place, vol. 15 (2) pp. 540-547, 2009.
[11] W. Du, G. J. FitzGerald, M. Clark, X. Hou, “Health impacts of floods,” in Prehosp Disaster Med, vol. 25 (3), pp. 265-272, 2010.
[12] A. Joseph, “A critical synthesis of the intangible impacts of flooding on households,” in Proc. International Conference in Building Resilience: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Disaster Risk Reduction and the Development of Sustainable Communities; Sri Lanka, 2011.
[13] T. D. Kirsch, C. Wadhwani, L. Sauer, S. Doocy, C. Catlett, “Impact of the 2010 Pakistan floods on rural and urban populations at six months,” in PLoS currents, vol. 4, 2012.
[14] D. Lowe, K. L. Ebi, B. Forsberg, “Factors increasing vulnerability to health effects before, during and after floods,” in International journal of environmental research and public health, vol. 10 (12), pp. 7015- 7067, 2013.
[15] V. Mason, H. Andrews, D. Upton, “The psychological impact of exposure to floods,” in Psychol Health Med, vol. 15 (1), pp.61-73, 2010.
[16] S. Paranjothy, J. Gallacher, R. Amlot, G. J. Rubin, L. Page, T. Baxter, J. Wight, D. Kirrage, R. McNaught, P. SR, “Psychosocial impact of the summer 2007 floods in England” in BMC Public Health, vol. 11, pp.145, 2011.
[17] S. M. Tapsell, S. M. Tunstall, ““I wish I’d never heard of Banbury”: The relationship between ‘place’and the health impacts from flooding,” in Health Place, vol. 14 (2), pp. 133-154, 2008.
[18] T. R. Wind, M. Fordham, I. H. Komproe, “Social capital and postdisaster mental health,” in Glob Health Action, vol. 4, 2011.
[19] J. Stephenson, M. Vaganay, R. Cameron, “Impact of secondary stressors on urban and rural communities affected by repeated flooding and the potential resulting health implications,” in International Research Journal of Public and Environmental Health, vol. 2 (9), 2015.
[20] M. P. Acharya, R. G. Kalischuk, K. K. Klein, H. Bjornlund, “Health impacts of the 2005 flood events on feedlot farm families in southern Alberta, Canada,” in Proc. 4th International Conference on Sustainable Water Resources Management, Kos, Greece, May 2007.
[21] N. Bhattacharya-Mis, J. Lamond, “An investigation of patterns of response and recovery among flood-affected businesses in the UK: a case study in Sheffield and Wakefield,” in Proc. 4th International Conference on Flood Recovery, Innovation and Response, Poznan, 2014.
[22] C. E. Härtel, G. M. Latemore, “Mud and tears: The human face of disaster–A case study of the Queensland floods,” in Journal of Management & Organization, vol. 17 (6), pp. 864-872, 2011.
[23] Hoggart S, Hanley M, Parker DJ, Simmonds D, Bilton D, Filipova- Marinova M, et al. The consequences of doing nothing: the effects of seawater flooding on coastal zones. Coast Eng 2014;87:169-182.
[24] H. Kreibich, I. Seifert, A. H. Thieken, E. Lindquist, K. Wagner, B. Merz, “Recent changes in flood preparedness of private households and businesses in Germany,” in Regional environmental change, vol. 11 (1), pp. 59-71, 2011.
[25] N. S. Lam, K. Pace, R. Campanella, J. Lesage, H. Arenas, “Business return in New Orleans: decision making amid post-Katrina uncertainty,” in PLoS One, vol. 4 (8), 2009.
[26] K. E. McNamara, “A state of emergency: How local businesses experienced the 2012 flood in Fiji,” in Australian Journal of Emergency Management, vol. 28 (3), 2013.
[27] S. de Mel, D. McKenzie, C. Woodruff, “Mental health recovery and economic recovery after the tsunami: High-frequency longitudinal evidence from Sri Lankan small business owners,” in Soc Sci Med, vol. 66 (3), pp. 582-595, 2008.
[28] O. Singh, H. Singh, “The response of farmers to the flood hazard under rice–wheat ecosystem in Somb basin of Haryana, India: an empirical study,” in Nat Hazards, vol. 75 (1), pp. 795-811, 2015.
[29] D. T. Flynn, “The impact of disasters on small business disaster planning: A case study,” in Disasters, vol. 31 (4), pp. 508-515, 2007.
[30] Aviva, “Guidance for Businesses - Managing your Flood Risk,” Aviva, Available at: http://www.aviva.co.uk/risksolutions/help/faq/answer/1773/. Accessed November/12, 2015.
[31] HSE, “Recovering your business safely after flooding,” HSE, Available at: http://www.hse.gov.uk/business/recovering-your-business.htm. Accessed November/12, 2015.
[32] TUC, “Health and safety issues in flooded areas,” TUC, Available at: https://www.tuc.org.uk/healthandsafety/flooding. Accessed November/12, 2015.
[33] J. Mouthaan, M. Sijbrandij, J. B. Reitsma, B. P. Gersons, M. Olff, “Comparing screening instruments to predict posttraumatic stress disorder,” in PLOS ONE, vol. 9 (5), 2014.
[34] H. J. Boon, “Disaster resilience in a flood-impacted rural Australian town,” in Nat Hazards, vol. 71 (1) pp. 683-701, 2014.
[35] F. C. Dane, “Evaluating research: Methodology for people who need to read research,” Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2010.
[36] M. Denscombe, “The good research guide: for small-scale social research projects,” Maidenhead:: Open University Press, 2014.
[37] G. Craparo, P. Faraci, G. Rotondo, A. Gori, “The impact of event scale– revised: psychometric properties of the italian version in a sample of flood victims,” in Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment, vol. 9, pp1427-1432, 2013.
[38] S. B. Reed, “Measuring the emotional impact of an event” Available at: http://psychotherapy-center.com/counseling-issues/trauma-andstressors/ ptsd-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-therapy/measuring-theemotional- impact-of-an-event/. Accessed November 2007, 2015.
[39] C. Davis, “SPSS step by step: essentials for social and political science,” Bristol: Policy Press, 2013.
[40] I. E. Augustine, A. T. Akinlolu, “Flood disaster: An empirical survey of causative factors and preventive measures in Kaduna, Nigeria,” in International Journal of Environment and Pollution Research, vol. 3 (3) pp. 53-66, 2015.
[41] N. Bhattacharya-Mis, R. Joseph, D. Proverbs, J. Lamond, “Grass-root preparedness against potential flood risk among residential and commercial property holders,” in International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 6 (1) pp. 44-56, 2015.
[42] D. Megha, B. Rajiv, “A Methodology for Ranking of Causes of Delay for Residential Construction Projects in Indian Context,” in International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, vol. 3 (3), pp. 396-404, 2013.
[43] H. Abdi, L. J. Williams, “Principal component analysis,” in Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Statistics, vol.2 (4) pp. 433- 459, 2010.
[44] J. A. McCord, M. McCord, P. T. Davis, M. Haran, W. J. Rodgers, G. Holt, “Understanding delays in housing construction: evidence from Northern Ireland” in Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction, vol. 20 (3), 2015.
[45] A. H. Thieken, M. Müller, H. Kreibich, B. Merz, “Flood damage and influencing factors: New insights from the August 2002 flood in Germany,” in Water Resour Res, vol. 41 (12), 2005.
[46] B. Williams, T. Brown, A. Onsman, “Exploratory factor analysis: A five-step guide for novices,” in Australasian Journal of Paramedicine, vol. 8 (3), 2012.
[47] S. A. Meda, M. C. Stevens, M. N. Potenza, B. Pittman, R. Gueorguieva, M. M. Andrews, A. D. Thomas, C. Muska, J. L. Hylton, G. D. Pearlson, “Investigating the behavioral and self-report constructs of impulsivity domains using principal component analysis” in Behav Pharmacol, vol. 20 (5-6), pp. 390-399, 2009.
[48] N. Bhattacharya-Mis, J. Lamond, “Socio-economic complexities of flood memory in building resilience: An overview of research,” in Procedia Economics and Finance, vol. 18, pp. 111-119, 2014.
[49] J. Brown, “Choosing the Right Number of Components or Factors in PCA and EFA” in JALT Testing & Evaluation SIG Newsletter, vol. 13 (2) pp. 19-23, 2009.
[50] N. Hanebutte, C. S. Taylor, R. R. Dumke, “Techniques of successful application of factor analysis in software measurement,” in Empirical Software Engineering, vol. 8 (1), pp. 43-57, 2003.
[51] S. Feng, H. Tan, A. Benjamin, S. Wen, A. Liu, J. Zhou, S. Li, T. Yang, Y. Zhang, X. Li, G. Li, “Social support and posttraumatic stress disorder among flood victims in Hunan, China,” in Ann Epidemiol, vol. 17 (10), pp. 827-833, 2007.
[52] A. Liu, H. Tan, J. Zhou, S. Li, T. Yang, J. Wang, J. Liu, X. Tang, Z. Sun, S. W. Wen, “An epidemiologic study of posttraumatic stress disorder in flood victims in Hunan China,” in Canadian J Psychiatry, vol. 51, pp. 350-354, 2006.
[53] C. McMillen, C. North, M. Mosley, E. Smith, “Untangling the psychiatric comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder in a sample of flood survivors,” in Compr Psychiatry, vol. 43 (6), pp. 478-485, 2002.
[54] F. H. Norris, A. D. Murphy, C. K. Baker, J. L. Perilla, “Postdisaster PTSD over four waves of a panel study of Mexico's 1999 flood,” in J Trauma Stress, vol. 17 (4), pp. 283-292, 2004.
[55] S. Tunstall, S. Tapsell, C. Green, P. Floyd, C. George, “The health effects of flooding: social research results from England and Wales” in J Water Health, vol. 4, pp.365-380, 2006.