An Evaluation of the Feasibility of Several Industrial Wastes and Natural Materials as Precursors for the Production of Alkali Activated Materials
In order to face current compelling environmental problems affecting the planet, the construction industry needs to adapt. It is widely acknowledged that there is a need for durable, high-performance, low-greenhouse gas emission binders that can be used as an alternative to Portland cement (PC) to lower the environmental impact of construction. Alkali activated materials (AAMs) are considered a more sustainable alternative to PC materials. The binders of AAMs result from the reaction of an alkali metal source and a silicate powder or precursor which can be a calcium silicate or an aluminosilicate-rich material. This paper evaluates the particle size, specific surface area, chemical and mineral composition and amorphousness of silicate materials (most industrial waste locally produced in Ireland and Saudi Arabia) to develop alkali-activated binders that can replace PC resources in specific applications. These include recycled ceramic brick, bauxite, illitic clay, fly ash and metallurgical slag. According to the results, the wastes are reactive and comply with building standards requirements. The study also evidenced that the reactivity of the Saudi bauxite (with significant kaolinite) can be enhanced on thermal activation; and high calcium in the slag will promote reaction; which should be possible with low alkalinity activators. The wastes evidenced variable water demands that will be taken into account for mixing with the activators. Finally, further research is proposed to further determine the reactive fraction of the clay-based precursors.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3607621Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 411
 European Environmental Agency, “Economic losses from climate-related extremes,” 2019. https://www.eea.europa.eu/downloads/92dcd5aa70764b63b092ee9ee5777fbb/1519722091/assessment-1.
 P. Wallemacq and R. House, “Economic losses, poverty & disasters: 1998-2017,” UNDRR and CRED. p. 31, 2018.
 L. Wood, “Global PET Bottle Market Report 2019: Industry Trends, Share, Size, Growth, Opportunity and Forecasts 2011-2018 & 2019-2024,” Research and Markets, 2019. (Online) Available: https://www.globenewswire.com/news-release/2019/02/26/1742189/0/en/Global-PET-Bottle-Market-Report-2019-Industry-Trends-Share-Size-Growth-Opportunity-and-Forecasts-2011-2018-2019-2024.html.
 N. Van Chanh, B. D. Trung, and D. Van Tuan, “Recent research geopolymer concrete,” Int. Conf. Asian Concr. Fed., vol. 18, pp. 235–241, 2008.
 V. Supraja and M. Kanta Rao, “Experimental study on geopolymer concrete incorporating GGBS,” International Journal of Electronics, Communication & Soft Computing Science and Engineering, vol. 2, no. 2. pp. 11–15, 2011.
 C. D. Lawrence, “The production of low-energy cements,” Lea’s Chem. Cem. Concr, pp. 421–470, 2007.
 LINGL I. 10011, “Laboratory Report,” 2018.
 EN15167-1:2006 Ground granulated blast furnace slag for use in concrete, mortar and grout. Definitions, specifications and conformity criteria.
 J. L. Provis and J. S. J. van Deventer, STAR 224-AAM Alkali Activated Materials. 2014.
 Ma’aden, “Delivering Results Responsibly, Ma’aden Annual Report,” 2017.
 EN 196-6: 2018 “Determination of fineness and density”.
 M. Steveson and K. Sagoe-Crentsil, “Relationships between composition, structure and strength of inorganic polymers,” J. Mater. Sci., vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 2023–2036, 2005.
 C. A. Strydom and J. C. Swanepoel, “Utilisation of fly ash in a geopolymeric material,” Appl. Geochemistry, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1143–1148, 2002.
 S. Andini, R. Cioffi, F. Colangelo, T. Grieco, F. Montagnaro, and L. Santoro, “Coal fly ash as raw material for the manufacture of geopolymer-based products,” Waste Manag., vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 416–423, 2008.
 Liew, Y. M., Kamarudin, H., Mustafa Al Bakri, A. M., et al., “Optimization of solids-to-liquid and alkali activator ratios of calcined kaolin geopolymeric powder,” Constr. Build. Mater, vol. 37, pp. 440–451, 2012.
 D. L. Bish and J. E. Post, Modern powder diffraction, vol. 20. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2018.
 EN 1015-3, “Methods of Test for Mortar for Masonry.” 1999.
 G. Li and X. Wu, “Influence of fly ash and its mean particle size on certain engineering properties of cement composite mortars,” Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 1128–1134, 2005.
 Heah, C. Y., Kamarudin, H., Al Bakri, A. M., Bnhussain, M., Luqman, M., Nizar, I. K. & Liew, Y. M. (2012) ‘Study on solids-to-liquid and alkaline activator ratios on kaolin-based geopolymers’, Construction and Building Materials. Elsevier Ltd, 35, pp. 912–922. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.04.102.
 Y. M. Liew, C. Y. Heah, A. B. Mohd Mustafa, and H. Kamarudin, “Structure and properties of clay-based geopolymer cements: A review,” Prog. Mater. Sci., vol. 83, pp. 595–629, 2016.
 X. Feng and B. Clark, “Evaluation of the physical and chemical properties of fly ash products for use in Portland cement concrete,” World Coal Ash Conf., pp. 1–8, 2011.
 Lee, S., Seo, M. D., Kim, Y. J., Park, H. H., Kim, T. N., Hwang, Y., & Cho, S. B. “Unburned carbon removal effect on compressive strength development in a honeycomb briquette ash-based geopolymer,” Int. J. Miner. Process. vol. 97, no. 1–4, pp. 20–25, 2010.
 A. Fernandez-Jimenez and A. Palomo, “Characterisation of fly ashes. Potential reactivity as alkaline cements,” Fuel, vol. 82, pp. 2259–2265, 2003.
 Adam, A. “Strength and Durability Properties of Alkali Activated Slag and Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete,” Chemical Engineering, no. August. p. 219, 2009.
 Diaz, E. I., E. N. Allouche, and Sven Eklund, “Factors affecting the suitability of fly ash as source material for geopolymers,” Fuel, vol. 89, no. 5, pp. 992–996, 2010.
 L. M. Keyte, “Fly ash glass chemistry and inorganic polymer cements,” in Geopolymers, Elsevier, 2009, pp. 15–36.
 Liew, Y. M., Kamarudin, H., Mustafa Al Bakri, A. M., et al. (2012b) ‘Optimization of solids-to-liquid and alkali activator ratios of calcined kaolin geopolymeric powder’, Construction and Building Materials. Elsevier Ltd, 37, pp. 440–451. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.07.075.
 J. Davidovits, “Geopolymers: inorganic polymeric new materials,” J. Therm. Anal., vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1633–1656, 1991.
 Ha, T. H., Muralidharan, S., Bae, J. H., Ha, Y. C., Lee, H. G., Park, K. W., & Kim, D. K. “Effect of unburnt carbon on the corrosion performance of fly ash cement mortar,” Constr. Build. Mater. vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 509–515, 2005.
 EN 196-2: 2018 “Determination of fineness and density”.
 M. E. Nordberg, “Chemical Durability.” Corning Glass Works Library: 13pp, 1964.
 M. Criado, A. Palomo, and A. Fernández-Jiménez, “Alkali activation of fly ashes. Part 1: Effect of curing conditions on the carbonation of the reaction products,” Fuel, vol. 84, no. 16, pp. 2048–2054, 2005.
 Fernández-Jimenez A.; Palomo A.; Alonso M. M.; De La Torre A. G.; López-Olmo G.; Aranda M. A.G. (2006) “Quantitative determination of phases in the alkali activation of fly ash. Part I”. Potential ash reactivity, Fuel, Vol: 85, Issue: 5, 625-634. DOI10.1016/j.fuel.2005.08.014.
 W. K. W. Lee and J. S. J. Van Deventer, “Structural reorganisation of class F fly ash in alkaline silicate solutions,” Colloids Surfaces a Physicochem. Eng. Asp, vol. 211, no. 1, pp. 49–66, 2002.
 R. Walker and S. Pavía, Physical properties and reactivity of pozzolans, and their influence on the properties of lime pozzolan pastes, Materials and Structures, 44, 2011, 1139 1150.
 T. Peters and R. Iberg, “Mineralogical changes during firing of calcium-rich brick clays,” Ceram. Bull., vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 503–509, 1978.
 Grapes R. (2006) Pyrometamorphism. Elsevier.
 M. Maggetti, “Phase analysis and its significance for technology and origin,” in Archaeological ceramics, 1982, pp. 121–133.
 R. A. Sayanam, A. K. Kalsotra, S. K. Mehta, R. S. Singh, and G. Mandal, “Studies on thermal transformations and pozzolanic activities of clay from Jammu region (India),” J. Therm. Anal., vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 99–106, 1989.
 I. Garcia-Lodeiro, A. Palomo, and A. Fernández-Jiménez, “An overview of the chemistry of alkali-activated cement-based binders,” in Handbook of alkali-activated cements, mortars and concretes, Elsevier, 2015, pp. 19–47.
 EN 197-1: 2011 “Cement. Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements”.
 EN 450-1: 2012 Fly ash for concrete.
 P. V Krivenko, “Fly ash-alkali cements and concretes,” in Proceed. 4th CANMET-ACI Intern. Conf. on Fly Ash, Silica Fume, Slag and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete, Istanbul, 1992, pp. 721–734.
 Komljenović M. (2015), “Mechanical strength and Young's modulus of alkali-activated cement-based binders”. In: Handbook of alkali- activated Cements, mortars and concretes. Ed by F. Pacheco-Torgal, J.A. Labrincha, C. Leonelli, A. Palomo and P. Chindaprasirt. Woodhead Publishing Series in Civil and Structural Engineering. No 54. Elsevier. UK. 171-215.
 Pers. comm J. Reddy, Ecocem, Jan 2010.