Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: Coding techniques

7 Performance Evaluation of One and Two Dimensional Prime Codes for Optical Code Division Multiple Access Systems

Authors: Gurjit Kaur, Neena Gupta

Abstract:

In this paper, we have analyzed and compared the performance of various coding schemes. The basic ID prime sequence codes are unique in only dimension, i.e. time slots, whereas 2D coding techniques are not unique by their time slots but with their wavelengths also. In this research, we have evaluated and compared the performance of 1D and 2D coding techniques constructed using prime sequence coding pattern for Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) system on a single platform. Analysis shows that 2D prime code supports lesser number of active users than 1D codes, but they are having large code family and are the most secure codes compared to other codes. The performance of all these codes is analyzed on basis of number of active users supported at a Bit Error Rate (BER) of 10-9.

Keywords: CDMA, OCDMA, BER, OOC, PC, EPC, MPC, 2-D PC/PC, λc, λa.

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6 Combined Source and Channel Coding for Image Transmission Using Enhanced Turbo Codes in AWGN and Rayleigh Channel

Authors: N. S. Pradeep, M. Balasingh Moses, V. Aarthi

Abstract:

Any signal transmitted over a channel is corrupted by noise and interference. A host of channel coding techniques has been proposed to alleviate the effect of such noise and interference. Among these Turbo codes are recommended, because of increased capacity at higher transmission rates and superior performance over convolutional codes. The multimedia elements which are associated with ample amount of data are best protected by Turbo codes. Turbo decoder employs Maximum A-posteriori Probability (MAP) and Soft Output Viterbi Decoding (SOVA) algorithms. Conventional Turbo coded systems employ Equal Error Protection (EEP) in which the protection of all the data in an information message is uniform. Some applications involve Unequal Error Protection (UEP) in which the level of protection is higher for important information bits than that of other bits. In this work, enhancement to the traditional Log MAP decoding algorithm is being done by using optimized scaling factors for both the decoders. The error correcting performance in presence of UEP in Additive White Gaussian Noise channel (AWGN) and Rayleigh fading are analyzed for the transmission of image with Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) as source coding technique. This paper compares the performance of log MAP, Modified log MAP (MlogMAP) and Enhanced log MAP (ElogMAP) algorithms used for image transmission. The MlogMAP algorithm is found to be best for lower Eb/N0 values but for higher Eb/N0 ElogMAP performs better with optimized scaling factors. The performance comparison of AWGN with fading channel indicates the robustness of the proposed algorithm. According to the performance of three different message classes, class3 would be more protected than other two classes. From the performance analysis, it is observed that ElogMAP algorithm with UEP is best for transmission of an image compared to Log MAP and MlogMAP decoding algorithms.

Keywords: AWGN, BER, DCT, Fading, MAP, UEP.

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5 Equalization Algorithms for MIMO System

Authors: Said Elkassimi, Said Safi, B. Manaut

Abstract:

In recent years, multi-antenna techniques are being considered as a potential solution to increase the flow of future wireless communication systems. The objective of this article is to study the emission and reception system MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output), and present the different reception decoding techniques. First we will present the least complex technical, linear receivers such as the zero forcing equalizer (ZF) and minimum mean squared error (MMSE). Then a nonlinear technique called ordered successive cancellation of interferences (OSIC) and the optimal detector based on the maximum likelihood criterion (ML), finally, we simulate the associated decoding algorithms for MIMO system such as ZF, MMSE, OSIC and ML, thus a comparison of performance of these algorithms in MIMO context.

Keywords: Multiple Input Multiple Outputs (MIMO), ZF, MMSE, Ordered Interference Successive Cancellation (OSIC), ML, Interference Successive Cancellation (SIC).

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4 Unequal Error Protection of Facial Features for Personal ID Images Coding

Authors: T. Hirner, J. Polec

Abstract:

This paper presents an approach for an unequal error protection of facial features of personal ID images coding. We consider unequal error protection (UEP) strategies for the efficient progressive transmission of embedded image codes over noisy channels. This new method is based on the progressive image compression embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) algorithm and UEP technique with defined region of interest (ROI). In this case is ROI equal facial features within personal ID image. ROI technique is important in applications with different parts of importance. In ROI coding, a chosen ROI is encoded with higher quality than the background (BG). Unequal error protection of image is provided by different coding techniques and encoding LL band separately. In our proposed method, image is divided into two parts (ROI, BG) that consist of more important bytes (MIB) and less important bytes (LIB). The proposed unequal error protection of image transmission has shown to be more appropriate to low bit rate applications, producing better quality output for ROI of the compresses image. The experimental results verify effectiveness of the design. The results of our method demonstrate the comparison of the UEP of image transmission with defined ROI with facial features and the equal error protection (EEP) over additive white gaussian noise (AWGN) channel.

Keywords: Embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW), equal error protection (EEP), facial features, personal ID images, region of interest (ROI), unequal error protection (UEP)

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3 Unequal Error Protection for Region of Interest with Embedded Zerotree Wavelet

Authors: T. Hirner, J. Polec

Abstract:

This paper describes a new method of unequal error protection (UEP) for region of interest (ROI) with embedded zerotree wavelet algorithm (EZW). ROI technique is important in applications with different parts of importance. In ROI coding, a chosen ROI is encoded with higher quality than the background (BG). Unequal error protection of image is provided by different coding techniques. In our proposed method, image is divided into two parts (ROI, BG) that consist of more important bytes (MIB) and less important bytes (LIB). The experimental results verify effectiveness of the design. The results of our method demonstrate the comparison of the unequal error protection (UEP) of image transmission with defined ROI and the equal error protection (EEP) over multiple noisy channels.

Keywords: embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW), equal error protection (EEP), region of interest (ROI), RS code, unequal error protection (UEP)

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2 Design of Encoding Calculator Software for Huffman and Shannon-Fano Algorithms

Authors: Wilson Chanhemo, Henry. R. Mgombelo, Omar F Hamad, T. Marwala

Abstract:

This paper presents a design of source encoding calculator software which applies the two famous algorithms in the field of information theory- the Shannon-Fano and the Huffman schemes. This design helps to easily realize the algorithms without going into a cumbersome, tedious and prone to error manual mechanism of encoding the signals during the transmission. The work describes the design of the software, how it works, comparison with related works, its efficiency, its usefulness in the field of information technology studies and the future prospects of the software to engineers, students, technicians and alike. The designed “Encodia" software has been developed, tested and found to meet the intended requirements. It is expected that this application will help students and teaching staff in their daily doing of information theory related tasks. The process is ongoing to modify this tool so that it can also be more intensely useful in research activities on source coding.

Keywords: Coding techniques, Coding algorithms, Codingefficiency, Encodia, Encoding software.

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1 Bandwidth Efficient Diversity Scheme Using STTC Concatenated With STBC: MIMO Systems

Authors: Sameru Sharma, Sanjay Sharma, Derick Engles

Abstract:

Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems are widely in use to improve quality, reliability of wireless transmission and increase the spectral efficiency. However in MIMO systems, multiple copies of data are received after experiencing various channel effects. The limitations on account of complexity due to number of antennas in case of conventional decoding techniques have been looked into. Accordingly we propose a modified sphere decoder (MSD-1) algorithm with lower complexity and give rise to system with high spectral efficiency. With the aim to increase signal diversity we apply rotated quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) constellation in multi dimensional space. Finally, we propose a new architecture involving space time trellis code (STTC) concatenated with space time block code (STBC) using MSD-1 at the receiver for improving system performance. The system gains have been verified with channel state information (CSI) errors.

Keywords: Channel State Information , Diversity, Multi-Antenna, Rotated Constellation, Space Time Codes.

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