Search results for: Induced packet loss
1593 Delay and Packet Loss Analysis for Handovers between MANETs and NEMO Networks
Authors: Jirawat Thaenthong, Steven Gordon
Abstract:MANEMO is the integration of Network Mobility (NEMO) and Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET). A MANEMO node has an interface to both a MANET and NEMO network, and therefore should choose the optimal interface for packet delivery, however such a handover between interfaces will introduce packet loss. We define the steps necessary for a MANEMO handover, using Mobile IP and NEMO to signal the new binding to the relevant Home Agent(s). The handover steps aim to minimize the packet loss by avoiding waiting for Duplicate Address Detection and Neighbour Unreachability Detection. We present expressions for handover delay and packet loss, and then use numerical examples to evaluate a MANEMO handover. The analysis shows how the packet loss depends on level of nesting within NEMO, the delay between Home Agents and the load on the MANET, and hence can be used to developing optimal MANEMO handover algorithms.
Keywords: IP mobility, handover, MANET, network mobilityProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1973
1592 Performance Evaluation of the OCDM/WDM Technique for Optical Packet Switches
Authors: V. Eramo, L. Piazzo, M. Listanti, A. Germoni, A Cianfrani
The performance of the Optical Code Division Multiplexing/ Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM/OCDM) technique for Optical Packet Switch is investigated. The impact on the performance of the impairment due to both Multiple Access Interference and Beat noise is studied. The Packet Loss Probability due to output packet contentions is evaluated as a function of the main switch and traffic parameters when Gold coherent optical codes are adopted. The Packet Loss Probability of the OCDM/WDM switch can reach 10-9 when M=16 wavelengths, Gold code of length L=511 and only 24 wavelength converters are used in the switch.
Keywords: Optical code division multiplexing, bufferless optical packet switch, performance evaluation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1330
1591 Characterization and Modeling of Packet Loss of a VoIP Communication
Authors: L. Estrada, D. Torres, H. Toral
Abstract:In this work, a characterization and modeling of packet loss of a Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) communication is developed. The distributions of the number of consecutive received and lost packets (namely gap and burst) are modeled from the transition probabilities of two-state and four-state model. Measurements show that both models describe adequately the burst distribution, but the decay of gap distribution for non-homogeneous losses is better fit by the four-state model. The respective probabilities of transition between states for each model were estimated with a proposed algorithm from a set of monitored VoIP calls in order to obtain representative minimum, maximum and average values for both models.
Keywords: Packet loss, gap and burst distribution, Markovchain, VoIP measurements.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1589
1590 Modeling and Analysis of Adaptive Buffer Sharing Scheme for Consecutive Packet Loss Reduction in Broadband Networks
Authors: Sakshi Kausha, R.K Sharma
Abstract:High speed networks provide realtime variable bit rate service with diversified traffic flow characteristics and quality requirements. The variable bit rate traffic has stringent delay and packet loss requirements. The burstiness of the correlated traffic makes dynamic buffer management highly desirable to satisfy the Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. This paper presents an algorithm for optimization of adaptive buffer allocation scheme for traffic based on loss of consecutive packets in data-stream and buffer occupancy level. Buffer is designed to allow the input traffic to be partitioned into different priority classes and based on the input traffic behavior it controls the threshold dynamically. This algorithm allows input packets to enter into buffer if its occupancy level is less than the threshold value for priority of that packet. The threshold is dynamically varied in runtime based on packet loss behavior. The simulation is run for two priority classes of the input traffic – realtime and non-realtime classes. The simulation results show that Adaptive Partial Buffer Sharing (ADPBS) has better performance than Static Partial Buffer Sharing (SPBS) and First In First Out (FIFO) queue under the same traffic conditions.
Keywords: Buffer Management, Consecutive packet loss, Quality-of-Service, Priority based packet discarding, partial buffersharing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1518
1589 Signing the First Packet in Amortization Scheme for Multicast Stream Authentication
Authors: Mohammed Shatnawi, Qusai Abuein, Susumu Shibusawa
Abstract:Signature amortization schemes have been introduced for authenticating multicast streams, in which, a single signature is amortized over several packets. The hash value of each packet is computed, some hash values are appended to other packets, forming what is known as hash chain. These schemes divide the stream into blocks, each block is a number of packets, the signature packet in these schemes is either the first or the last packet of the block. Amortization schemes are efficient solutions in terms of computation and communication overhead, specially in real-time environment. The main effictive factor of amortization schemes is it-s hash chain construction. Some studies show that signing the first packet of each block reduces the receiver-s delay and prevents DoS attacks, other studies show that signing the last packet reduces the sender-s delay. To our knowledge, there is no studies that show which is better, to sign the first or the last packet in terms of authentication probability and resistance to packet loss. In th is paper we will introduce another scheme for authenticating multicast streams that is robust against packet loss, reduces the overhead, and prevents the DoS attacks experienced by the receiver in the same time. Our scheme-The Multiple Connected Chain signing the First packet (MCF) is to append the hash values of specific packets to other packets,then append some hashes to the signature packet which is sent as the first packet in the block. This scheme is aspecially efficient in terms of receiver-s delay. We discuss and evaluate the performance of our proposed scheme against those that sign the last packet of the block.
Keywords: multicast stream authentication, hash chain construction, signature amortization, authentication probability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1413
1588 DODR : Delay On-Demand Routing
Authors: Dong Wan-li, Gu Nai-jie, Tu Kun, Bi Kun, Liu Gang
As originally designed for wired networks, TCP (transmission control protocol) congestion control mechanism is triggered into action when packet loss is detected. This implicit assumption for packet loss mostly due to network congestion does not work well in Mobile Ad Hoc Network, where there is a comparatively high likelihood of packet loss due to channel errors and node mobility etc. Such non-congestion packet loss, when dealt with by congestion control mechanism, causes poor TCP performance in MANET. In this study, we continue to investigate the impact of the interaction between transport protocols and on-demand routing protocols on the performance and stability of 802.11 multihop networks. We evaluate the important wireless networking events caused routing change, and propose a cross layer method to delay the unnecessary routing changes, only need to add a sensitivity parameter α , which represents the on-demand routing-s reaction to link failure of MAC layer. Our proposal is applicable to the plain 802.11 networking environment, the simulation results that this method can remarkably improve the stability and performance of TCP without any modification on TCP and MAC protocol.
Keywords: Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET), on-demandrouting, performance, transmission control protocol (TCP).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1660
1587 Computationally Efficient Signal Quality Improvement Method for VoIP System
Authors: H. P. Singh, S. Singh
The voice signal in Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) system is processed through the best effort policy based IP network, which leads to the network degradations including delay, packet loss jitter. The work in this paper presents the implementation of finite impulse response (FIR) filter for voice quality improvement in the VoIP system through distributed arithmetic (DA) algorithm. The VoIP simulations are conducted with AMR-NB 6.70 kbps and G.729a speech coders at different packet loss rates and the performance of the enhanced VoIP signal is evaluated using the perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ) measurement for narrowband signal. The results show reduction in the computational complexity in the system and significant improvement in the quality of the VoIP voice signal.
Keywords: VoIP, Signal Quality, Distributed Arithmetic, Packet Loss, Speech Coder.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1685
1586 Implementation of IEEE 802.15.4 Packet Analyzer
Authors: Sung Jun Ban, Hyeonwoo Cho, ChangWoo Lee, Sang Woo Kim
Abstract:A packet analyzer is a tool for debugging sensor network systems and is convenient for developers. In this paper, we introduce a new packet analyzer based on an embedded system. The proposed packet analyzer is compatible with IEEE 802.15.4, which is suitable for the wireless communication standard for sensor networks, and is available for remote control by adopting a server-client scheme based on the Ethernet interface. To confirm the operations of the packet analyzer, we have developed two types of sensor nodes based on PIC4620 and ATmega128L microprocessors and tested the functions of the proposed packet analyzer by obtaining the packets from the sensor nodes.
Keywords: Sensor network, embedded system, packet analyzer.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2091
1585 Remarks Regarding Queuing Model and Packet Loss Probability for the Traffic with Self-Similar Characteristics
Authors: Mihails Kulikovs, Ernests Petersons
Abstract:Network management techniques have long been of interest to the networking research community. The queue size plays a critical role for the network performance. The adequate size of the queue maintains Quality of Service (QoS) requirements within limited network capacity for as many users as possible. The appropriate estimation of the queuing model parameters is crucial for both initial size estimation and during the process of resource allocation. The accurate resource allocation model for the management system increases the network utilization. The present paper demonstrates the results of empirical observation of memory allocation for packet-based services.
Keywords: Queuing System, Packet Loss Probability, Measurement-Based Admission Control (MBAC), Performanceevaluation, Quality of Service (QoS).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1619
1584 Improving Location Management in Mobile IPv4 Networks
Authors: Haidar Safa, Hassan Artail, Ahmad Mehio, Hicham Zahr, Ziad Matragi
The Mobile IP Standard has been developed to support mobility over the Internet. This standard contains several drawbacks as in the cases where packets are routed via sub-optimal paths and significant amount of signaling messages is generated due to the home registration procedure which keeps the network aware of the current location of the mobile nodes. Recently, a dynamic hierarchical mobility management strategy for mobile IP networks (DHMIP) has been proposed to reduce home registrations costs. However, this strategy induces a packet delivery delay and increases the risk of packet loss. In this paper, we propose an enhanced version of the dynamic hierarchical strategy that reduces the packet delivery delay and minimizes the risk of packet loss. Preliminary results obtained from simulations are promising. They show that the enhanced version outperforms the original dynamic hierarchical mobility management strategy version.
Keywords: Location management, Mobile IP (MIP), Home Agent, Foreign Agent.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1345
1583 A Generator from Cascade Markov Model for Packet Loss and Subsequent Bit Error Description
Authors: Jaroslav Polec, Viliam Hirner, Michal Martinovič, Kvetoslava Kotuliaková
Abstract:In this paper we present a novel error model for packet loss and subsequent error description. The proposed model simulates the error performance of wireless communication link. The model is designed as two independent Markov chains, where the first one is used for packet generation and the second one generates correctly and incorrectly transmitted bits for received packets from the first chain. The statistical analyses of real communication on the wireless link are used for determination of model-s parameters. Using the obtained parameters and the implementation of the generator, we collected generated traffic. The obtained results generated by proposed model are compared with the real data collection.
Keywords: Wireless channel, error model, Markov chain, Elliot model, Gilbert model, generator, IEEE 802.11.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1896
1582 Position Based Routing Protocol with More Reliability in Mobile Ad Hoc Network
Authors: Mahboobeh Abdoos, Karim Faez, Masoud Sabaei
Abstract:Position based routing protocols are the kinds of routing protocols, which they use of nodes location information, instead of links information to routing. In position based routing protocols, it supposed that the packet source node has position information of itself and it's neighbors and packet destination node. Greedy is a very important position based routing protocol. In one of it's kinds, named MFR (Most Forward Within Radius), source node or packet forwarder node, sends packet to one of it's neighbors with most forward progress towards destination node (closest neighbor to destination). Using distance deciding metric in Greedy to forward packet to a neighbor node, is not suitable for all conditions. If closest neighbor to destination node, has high speed, in comparison with source node or intermediate packet forwarder node speed or has very low remained battery power, then packet loss probability is increased. Proposed strategy uses combination of metrics distancevelocity similarity-power, to deciding about giving the packet to which neighbor. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy has lower lost packets average than Greedy, so it has more reliability.
Keywords: Mobile Ad Hoc Network, Position Based, Reliability, Routing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1545
1581 On the Network Packet Loss Tolerance of SVM Based Activity Recognition
Authors: Gamze Uslu, Sebnem Baydere, Alper K. Demir
In this study, data loss tolerance of Support Vector Machines (SVM) based activity recognition model and multi activity classification performance when data are received over a lossy wireless sensor network is examined. Initially, the classification algorithm we use is evaluated in terms of resilience to random data loss with 3D acceleration sensor data for sitting, lying, walking and standing actions. The results show that the proposed classification method can recognize these activities successfully despite high data loss. Secondly, the effect of differentiated quality of service performance on activity recognition success is measured with activity data acquired from a multi hop wireless sensor network, which introduces high data loss. The effect of number of nodes on the reliability and multi activity classification success is demonstrated in simulation environment. To the best of our knowledge, the effect of data loss in a wireless sensor network on activity detection success rate of an SVM based classification algorithm has not been studied before.
Keywords: Activity recognition, support vector machines, acceleration sensor, wireless sensor networks, packet loss.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2550
1580 Optimizing TCP Vegas- Performance with Packet Spacing and Effect of Variable FTP Packet Size over Wireless IPv6 Network
Authors: B. S. Yew , B. L. Ong , R. B. Ahmad
Abstract:This paper describes the performance of TCP Vegas over the wireless IPv6 network. The performance of TCP Vegas is evaluated using network simulator (ns-2). The simulation experiment investigates how packet spacing affects the network delay, network throughput and network efficiency of TCP Vegas. Moreover, we investigate how the variable FTP packet sizes affect the network performance. The result of the simulation experiment shows that as the packet spacing is implements, the network delay is reduces, network throughput and network efficiency is optimizes. As the FTP packet sizes increase, the ratio of delay per throughput decreases. From the result of experiment, we propose the appropriate packet size in transmitting file transfer protocol application using TCP Vegas with packet spacing enhancement over wireless IPv6 environment in ns-2. Additionally, we suggest the appropriate ratio in determining the appropriate RTT and buffer size in a network.
Keywords: TCP Vegas, Packet Spacing, Packet Size, Wireless IPv6, ns-2Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1846
1579 Enhanced-Delivery Overlay Multicasting Scheme by Optimizing Bandwidth and Latency Discrepancy Ratios
Authors: Omar F. Hamad, T. Marwala
With optimized bandwidth and latency discrepancy ratios, Node Gain Scores (NGSs) are determined and used as a basis for shaping the max-heap overlay. The NGSs - determined as the respective bandwidth-latency-products - govern the construction of max-heap-form overlays. Each NGS is earned as a synergy of discrepancy ratio of the bandwidth requested with respect to the estimated available bandwidth, and latency discrepancy ratio between the nodes and the source node. The tree leads to enhanceddelivery overlay multicasting – increasing packet delivery which could, otherwise, be hindered by induced packet loss occurring in other schemes not considering the synergy of these parameters on placing the nodes on the overlays. The NGS is a function of four main parameters – estimated available bandwidth, Ba; individual node's requested bandwidth, Br; proposed node latency to its prospective parent (Lp); and suggested best latency as advised by source node (Lb). Bandwidth discrepancy ratio (BDR) and latency discrepancy ratio (LDR) carry weights of α and (1,000 - α ) , respectively, with arbitrary chosen α ranging between 0 and 1,000 to ensure that the NGS values, used as node IDs, maintain a good possibility of uniqueness and balance between the most critical factor between the BDR and the LDR. A max-heap-form tree is constructed with assumption that all nodes possess NGS less than the source node. To maintain a sense of load balance, children of each level's siblings are evenly distributed such that a node can not accept a second child, and so on, until all its siblings able to do so, have already acquired the same number of children. That is so logically done from left to right in a conceptual overlay tree. The records of the pair-wise approximate available bandwidths as measured by a pathChirp scheme at individual nodes are maintained. Evaluation measures as compared to other schemes – Bandwidth Aware multicaSt architecturE (BASE), Tree Building Control Protocol (TBCP), and Host Multicast Tree Protocol (HMTP) - have been conducted. This new scheme generally performs better in terms of trade-off between packet delivery ratio; link stress; control overhead; and end-to-end delays.
Keywords: Overlay multicast, Available bandwidth, Max-heapform overlay, Induced packet loss, Bandwidth-latency product, Node Gain Score (NGS).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1458
1578 A Reliable Secure Multicast Key Distribution Scheme for Mobile Adhoc Networks
Authors: D. SuganyaDevi, G. Padmavathi
Abstract:Reliable secure multicast communication in mobile adhoc networks is challenging due to its inherent characteristics of infrastructure-less architecture with lack of central authority, high packet loss rates and limited resources such as bandwidth, time and power. Many emerging commercial and military applications require secure multicast communication in adhoc environments. Hence key management is the fundamental challenge in achieving reliable secure communication using multicast key distribution for mobile adhoc networks. Thus in designing a reliable multicast key distribution scheme, reliability and congestion control over throughput are essential components. This paper proposes and evaluates the performance of an enhanced optimized multicast cluster tree algorithm with destination sequenced distance vector routing protocol to provide reliable multicast key distribution. Simulation results in NS2 accurately predict the performance of proposed scheme in terms of key delivery ratio and packet loss rate under varying network conditions. This proposed scheme achieves reliability, while exhibiting low packet loss rate with high key delivery ratio compared with the existing scheme.
Keywords: Key Distribution, Mobile Adhoc Network, Multicast and Reliability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1524
1577 Packet Reserving and Clogging Control via Routing Aware Packet Reserving Framework in MANET
Authors: C. Sathiyakumar, K. Duraiswamy
In MANET, mobile nodes communicate with each other using the wireless channel where transmission takes place with significant interference. The wireless medium used in MANET is a shared resource used by all the nodes available in MANET. Packet reserving is one important resource management scheme which controls the allocation of bandwidth among multiple flows through node cooperation in MANET. This paper proposes packet reserving and clogging control via Routing Aware Packet Reserving (RAPR) framework in MANET. It mainly focuses the end-to-end routing condition with maximal throughput. RAPR is complimentary system where the packet reserving utilizes local routing information available in each node. Path setup in RAPR estimates the security level of the system, and symbolizes the end-to-end routing by controlling the clogging. RAPR reaches the packet to the destination with high probability ratio and minimal delay count. The standard performance measures such as network security level, communication overhead, end-to-end throughput, resource utilization efficiency and delay measure are considered in this work. The results reveals that the proposed packet reservation and clogging control via Routing Aware Packet Reserving (RAPR) framework performs well for the above said performance measures compare to the existing methods.
Keywords: Packet reserving, Clogging control, Packet reservation in MANET, RAPR.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1713
1576 Improving Packet Latency of Video Sensor Networks
Authors: Arijit Ghosh, Tony Givargis
Abstract:Video sensor networks operate on stringent requirements of latency. Packets have a deadline within which they have to be delivered. Violation of the deadline causes a packet to be treated as lost and the loss of packets ultimately affects the quality of the application. Network latency is typically a function of many interacting components. In this paper, we propose ways of reducing the forwarding latency of a packet at intermediate nodes. The forwarding latency is caused by a combination of processing delay and queueing delay. The former is incurred in order to determine the next hop in dynamic routing. We show that unless link failures in a very specific and unlikely pattern, a vast majority of these lookups are redundant. To counter this we propose source routing as the routing strategy. However, source routing suffers from issues related to scalability and being impervious to network dynamics. We propose solutions to counter these and show that source routing is definitely a viable option in practical sized video networks. We also propose a fast and fair packet scheduling algorithm that reduces queueing delay at the nodes. We support our claims through extensive simulation on realistic topologies with practical traffic loads and failure patterns.
Keywords: Sensor networks, Packet latency, Network design, Networkperformance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1438
1575 Power Line Carrier Equipment Supporting IP Traffic Transmission in the Enterprise Networks of Energy Companies
Authors: M. S. Anton Merkulov
This article discusses the questions concerning of creating small packet networks for energy companies with application of high voltage power line carrier equipment (PLC) with functionality of IP traffic transmission. The main idea is to create converged PLC links between substations and dispatching centers where packet data and voice are transmitted in one data flow. The article contents description of basic conception of the network, evaluation of voice traffic transmission parameters, and discussion of header compression techniques in relation to PLC links. The results of exploration show us, that convergent packet PLC links can be very useful in the construction of small packet networks between substations in remote locations, such as deposits or low populated areas.
Keywords: packet PLC, VoIP, time delay, packet traffic, overhead compressionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2052
1574 Decomposition of Graphs into Induced Paths and Cycles
Authors: I. Sahul Hamid, Abraham V. M.
A decomposition of a graph G is a collection ψ of subgraphs H1,H2, . . . , Hr of G such that every edge of G belongs to exactly one Hi. If each Hi is either an induced path or an induced cycle in G, then ψ is called an induced path decomposition of G. The minimum cardinality of an induced path decomposition of G is called the induced path decomposition number of G and is denoted by πi(G). In this paper we initiate a study of this parameter.
Keywords: Path decomposition, Induced path decomposition, Induced path decomposition number.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2250
1573 Induced Graphoidal Covers in a Graph
Authors: K. Ratan Singh, P. K. Das
An induced graphoidal cover of a graph G is a collection ψ of (not necessarily open) paths in G such that every path in ψ has at least two vertices, every vertex of G is an internal vertex of at most one path in ψ, every edge of G is in exactly one path in ψ and every member of ψ is an induced cycle or an induced path. The minimum cardinality of an induced graphoidal cover of G is called the induced graphoidal covering number of G and is denoted by ηi(G) or ηi. Here we find induced graphoidal cover for some classes of graphs.
Keywords: Graphoidal cover, Induced graphoidal cover, Induced graphoidal covering number.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1320
1572 The Effect of Correlated Service and Inter-arrival Times on System Performance
Authors: Gang Uk Hwang
In communication networks where communication nodes are connected with finite capacity transmission links, the packet inter-arrival times are strongly correlated with the packet length and the link capacity (or the packet service time). Such correlation affects the system performance significantly, but little attention has been paid to this issue. In this paper, we propose a mathematical framework to study the impact of the correlation between the packet service times and the packet inter-arrival times on system performance. With our mathematical model, we analyze the system performance, e.g., the unfinished work of the system, and show that the correlation affects the system performance significantly. Some numerical examples are also provided.
Keywords: Performance analysis, Correlated queueing system, Unfinished work, PH-type distribution, Communicationsystem.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1270
1571 Video-On-Demand QoE Evaluation across Different Age-Groups and Its Significance for Network Capacity
Authors: Mujtaba Roshan, John A. Schormans
Quality of Experience (QoE) drives churn in the broadband networks industry, and good QoE plays a large part in the retention of customers. QoE is known to be affected by the Quality of Service (QoS) factors packet loss probability (PLP), delay and delay jitter caused by the network. Earlier results have shown that the relationship between these QoS factors and QoE is non-linear, and may vary from application to application. We use the network emulator Netem as the basis for experimentation, and evaluate how QoE varies as we change the emulated QoS metrics. Focusing on Video-on-Demand, we discovered that the reported QoE may differ widely for users of different age groups, and that the most demanding age group (the youngest) can require an order of magnitude lower PLP to achieve the same QoE than is required by the most widely studied age group of users. We then used a bottleneck TCP model to evaluate the capacity cost of achieving an order of magnitude decrease in PLP, and found it be (almost always) a 3-fold increase in link capacity that was required.
Keywords: Quality of experience, quality of service, packet loss probability, network capacity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 734
1570 Intrusion Detection System Based On The Integrity of TCP Packet
Authors: Moad Alhamaty , Ali Yazdian , Fathi Al-qadasi
A common way to elude the signature-based Network Intrusion Detection System is based upon changing a recognizable attack to an unrecognizable one via the IDS. For example, in order to evade sign accommodation with intrusion detection system markers, a hacker spilt the payload packet into many small pieces or hides them within messages. In this paper we try to model the main fragmentation attack and create a new module in the intrusion detection architecture system which recognizes the main fragmentation attacks through verification of integrity checking of TCP packet in order to prevent elusion of the system and also to announce the necessary alert to the system administrator.
Keywords: Intrusion detection system, Evasion techniques, Fragmentation attacks, TCP Packet integrity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1739
1569 An Enhanced AODV Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks
Authors: Apidet Booranawong, Wiklom Teerapabkajorndet
An enhanced ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing (E-AODV) protocol for control system applications in wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs) is proposed. Our routing algorithm is designed by considering both wireless network communication and the control system aspects. Control system error and network delay are the main selection criteria in our routing protocol. The control and communication performance is evaluated on multi-hop IEEE 802.15.4 networks for building-temperature control systems. The Gilbert-Elliott error model is employed to simulate packet loss in wireless networks. The simulation results demonstrate that the E-AODV routing approach can significantly improve the communication performance better than an original AODV routing under various packet loss rates. However, the control performance result by our approach is not much improved compared with the AODV routing solution.
Keywords: WSANs, building temperature control, AODV routing protocol, control system error, settling time, delay, delivery ratio.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2138
1568 Multi-Focus Image Fusion Using SFM and Wavelet Packet
Authors: Somkait Udomhunsakul
In this paper, a multi-focus image fusion method using Spatial Frequency Measurements (SFM) and Wavelet Packet was proposed. The proposed fusion approach, firstly, the two fused images were transformed and decomposed into sixteen subbands using Wavelet packet. Next, each subband was partitioned into sub-blocks and each block was identified the clearer regions by using the Spatial Frequency Measurement (SFM). Finally, the recovered fused image was reconstructed by performing the Inverse Wavelet Transform. From the experimental results, it was found that the proposed method outperformed the traditional SFM based methods in terms of objective and subjective assessments.
Keywords: Multi-focus image fusion, Wavelet Packet, Spatial Frequency Measurement.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1431
1567 Design and Bandwidth Allocation of Embedded ATM Networks using Genetic Algorithm
Authors: H. El-Madbouly
Abstract:In this paper, genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed for the design of an optimization algorithm to achieve the bandwidth allocation of ATM network. In Broadband ISDN, the ATM is a highbandwidth; fast packet switching and multiplexing technique. Using ATM it can be flexibly reconfigure the network and reassign the bandwidth to meet the requirements of all types of services. By dynamically routing the traffic and adjusting the bandwidth assignment, the average packet delay of the whole network can be reduced to a minimum. M/M/1 model can be used to analyze the performance.
Keywords: Bandwidth allocation, Genetic algorithm, ATMNetwork, packet delay.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1264
1566 Induced Acyclic Path Decomposition in Graphs
Authors: Abraham V. M., I. Sahul Hamid
Abstract:A decomposition of a graph G is a collection ψ of graphs H1,H2, . . . , Hr of G such that every edge of G belongs to exactly one Hi. If each Hi is either an induced path in G, then ψ is called an induced acyclic path decomposition of G and if each Hi is a (induced) cycle in G then ψ is called a (induced) cycle decomposition of G. The minimum cardinality of an induced acyclic path decomposition of G is called the induced acyclic path decomposition number of G and is denoted by ¤Çia(G). Similarly the cyclic decomposition number ¤Çc(G) is defined. In this paper we begin an investigation of these parameters.
Keywords: Cycle decomposition, Induced acyclic path decomposition, Induced acyclic path decomposition number.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1442
1565 Packet Forwarding with Multiprotocol Label Switching
Authors: R.N.Pise, S.A.Kulkarni, R.V.Pawar
Abstract:MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) is an emerging technology that aims to address many of the existing issues associated with packet forwarding in today-s Internetworking environment. It provides a method of forwarding packets at a high rate of speed by combining the speed and performance of Layer 2 with the scalability and IP intelligence of Layer 3. In a traditional IP (Internet Protocol) routing network, a router analyzes the destination IP address contained in the packet header. The router independently determines the next hop for the packet using the destination IP address and the interior gateway protocol. This process is repeated at each hop to deliver the packet to its final destination. In contrast, in the MPLS forwarding paradigm routers on the edge of the network (label edge routers) attach labels to packets based on the forwarding Equivalence class (FEC). Packets are then forwarded through the MPLS domain, based on their associated FECs , through swapping the labels by routers in the core of the network called label switch routers. The act of simply swapping the label instead of referencing the IP header of the packet in the routing table at each hop provides a more efficient manner of forwarding packets, which in turn allows the opportunity for traffic to be forwarded at tremendous speeds and to have granular control over the path taken by a packet. This paper deals with the process of MPLS forwarding mechanism, implementation of MPLS datapath , and test results showing the performance comparison of MPLS and IP routing. The discussion will focus primarily on MPLS IP packet networks – by far the most common application of MPLS today.
Keywords: Forwarding equivalence class, incoming label map, label, next hop label forwarding entry.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2589
1564 Induced Acyclic Graphoidal Covers in a Graph
Authors: K. Ratan Singh, P. K. Das
Abstract:An induced acyclic graphoidal cover of a graph G is a collection ψ of open paths in G such that every path in ψ has atleast two vertices, every vertex of G is an internal vertex of at most one path in ψ, every edge of G is in exactly one path in ψ and every member of ψ is an induced path. The minimum cardinality of an induced acyclic graphoidal cover of G is called the induced acyclic graphoidal covering number of G and is denoted by ηia(G) or ηia. Here we find induced acyclic graphoidal cover for some classes of graphs.
Keywords: Graphoidal cover, Induced acyclic graphoidal cover, Induced acyclic graphoidal covering number.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1175