Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: Jatinderkumar R. Saini

31 Analysis of Classifications of Unsolicited Bulk Emails

Authors: Jatinderkumar R. Saini, Apurva A. Desai

Abstract:

In recent times, the problem of Unsolicited Bulk Email (UBE) or commonly known as Spam Email, has increased at a tremendous growth rate. We present an analysis of survey based on classifications of UBE in various research works. There are many research instances for classification between spam and non-spam emails but very few research instances are available for classification of spam emails, per se. This paper does not intend to assert some UBE classification to be better than the others nor does it propose any new classification but it bemoans the lack of harmony on number and definition of categories proposed by different researchers. The paper also elaborates on factors like intent of spammer, content of UBE and ambiguity in different categories as proposed in related research works of classifications of UBE.

Keywords: E-mail, Scams, Spam Email, Unsolicited Bulk Email(UBE)

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30 Structural Analysis of Username Segment in E-Mail Addresses of Engineering Institutes of Gujarat State of India

Authors: Jatinderkumar R. Saini

Abstract:

E-mail has become a key mechanism of electronic communication. This is true for professional organizations that like to communicate with their subjects online and are slowly shifting to paper-less office. The current paper focuses specifically on academic institutions offering Engineering course in Gujarat state and attempts for textual analysis of the usernames of the institutional e-mail addresses. We found that the institutions tend to design the username segment of their e-mail addresses by choosing words or combination of words from specific categories. The paper also highlights the use of special characters, digits and random words in designing the usernames. On the sidelines, the paper lists the style of employing department names and designations for the design process. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first formal attempt to analyze the selection of words employed for designing username segment of e-mail addresses of engineering institutions.

Keywords: E-mail address, Institute, Engineering, Username.

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29 Identification of Non-Lexicon Non-Slang Unigrams in Body-enhancement Medicinal UBE

Authors: Jatinderkumar R. Saini, Apurva A. Desai

Abstract:

Email has become a fast and cheap means of online communication. The main threat to email is Unsolicited Bulk Email (UBE), commonly called spam email. The current work aims at identification of unigrams in more than 2700 UBE that advertise body-enhancement drugs. The identification is based on the requirement that the unigram is neither present in dictionary, nor is a slang term. The motives of the paper are many fold. This is an attempt to analyze spamming behaviour and employment of wordmutation technique. On the side-lines of the paper, we have attempted to better understand the spam, the slang and their interplay. The problem has been addressed by employing Tokenization technique and Unigram BOW model. We found that the non-lexicon words constitute nearly 66% of total number of lexis of corpus whereas non-slang words constitute nearly 2.4% of non-lexicon words. Further, non-lexicon non-slang unigrams composed of 2 lexicon words, form more than 71% of the total number of such unigrams. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to analyze usage of non-lexicon non-slang unigrams in any kind of UBE.

Keywords: Body Enhancement, Lexicon, Medicinal, Slang, Unigram, Unsolicited Bulk e-mail (UBE)

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28 Identification of Author and Reviewer from Single and Double Blind Paper

Authors: Jatinderkumar R. Saini, Nikita R. Sonthalia, Khushbu A. Dodiya

Abstract:

Research leads to the development of science and technology and hence it leads to the betterment of humankind also. Journals and Conferences provide a platform to receive large number of research papers for publications and presentations before the expert and peer-level scientific community. In order to assure quality of such papers, they are also sent to reviewers for their comments. In order to maintain good ethical standards, the research papers are sent to reviewers in such a way authors and reviewers do not know each other’s identity. This technique is called Double-blind Review Process. It is called Single-blind Review Process, if identity of any one party, generally authors’, is disclosed to the other. This paper presents the techniques by which identity of author as well as reviewer could be found even through Double-blind Review process. It is proposed that the characteristics and techniques presented here will help journals and conferences in assuring intentional or un-intentional disclosure of identity revealing information by the either party. 

Keywords: Author, Conference, Double Blind Paper, Journal, Reviewer, Single Blind Paper.

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27 Identification of Most Frequently Occurring Lexis in Winnings-announcing Unsolicited Bulke-mails

Authors: Jatinderkumar R. Saini, Apurva A. Desai

Abstract:

e-mail has become an important means of electronic communication but the viability of its usage is marred by Unsolicited Bulk e-mail (UBE) messages. UBE consists of many types like pornographic, virus infected and 'cry-for-help' messages as well as fake and fraudulent offers for jobs, winnings and medicines. UBE poses technical and socio-economic challenges to usage of e-mails. To meet this challenge and combat this menace, we need to understand UBE. Towards this end, the current paper presents a content-based textual analysis of nearly 3000 winnings-announcing UBE. Technically, this is an application of Text Parsing and Tokenization for an un-structured textual document and we approach it using Bag Of Words (BOW) and Vector Space Document Model techniques. We have attempted to identify the most frequently occurring lexis in the winnings-announcing UBE documents. The analysis of such top 100 lexis is also presented. We exhibit the relationship between occurrence of a word from the identified lexisset in the given UBE and the probability that the given UBE will be the one announcing fake winnings. To the best of our knowledge and survey of related literature, this is the first formal attempt for identification of most frequently occurring lexis in winningsannouncing UBE by its textual analysis. Finally, this is a sincere attempt to bring about alertness against and mitigate the threat of such luring but fake UBE.

Keywords: Lexis, Unsolicited Bulk e-mail (UBE), Vector SpaceDocument Model, Winnings, Lottery

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26 Identification of Most Frequently Occurring Lexis in Body-enhancement Medicinal Unsolicited Bulk e-mails

Authors: Jatinderkumar R. Saini, Apurva A. Desai

Abstract:

e-mail has become an important means of electronic communication but the viability of its usage is marred by Unsolicited Bulk e-mail (UBE) messages. UBE consists of many types like pornographic, virus infected and 'cry-for-help' messages as well as fake and fraudulent offers for jobs, winnings and medicines. UBE poses technical and socio-economic challenges to usage of e-mails. To meet this challenge and combat this menace, we need to understand UBE. Towards this end, the current paper presents a content-based textual analysis of more than 2700 body enhancement medicinal UBE. Technically, this is an application of Text Parsing and Tokenization for an un-structured textual document and we approach it using Bag Of Words (BOW) and Vector Space Document Model techniques. We have attempted to identify the most frequently occurring lexis in the UBE documents that advertise various products for body enhancement. The analysis of such top 100 lexis is also presented. We exhibit the relationship between occurrence of a word from the identified lexis-set in the given UBE and the probability that the given UBE will be the one advertising for fake medicinal product. To the best of our knowledge and survey of related literature, this is the first formal attempt for identification of most frequently occurring lexis in such UBE by its textual analysis. Finally, this is a sincere attempt to bring about alertness against and mitigate the threat of such luring but fake UBE.

Keywords: Body Enhancement, Lexis, Medicinal, Unsolicited Bulk e-mail (UBE), Vector Space Document Model, Viagra

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25 Analysis of Modified Heap Sort Algorithm on Different Environment

Authors: Vandana Sharma, Parvinder S. Sandhu, Satwinder Singh, Baljit Saini

Abstract:

In field of Computer Science and Mathematics, sorting algorithm is an algorithm that puts elements of a list in a certain order i.e. ascending or descending. Sorting is perhaps the most widely studied problem in computer science and is frequently used as a benchmark of a system-s performance. This paper presented the comparative performance study of four sorting algorithms on different platform. For each machine, it is found that the algorithm depends upon the number of elements to be sorted. In addition, as expected, results show that the relative performance of the algorithms differed on the various machines. So, algorithm performance is dependent on data size and there exists impact of hardware also.

Keywords: Algorithm, Analysis, Complexity, Sorting.

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24 Spectral Analysis of Speech: A New Technique

Authors: Neeta Awasthy, J.P.Saini, D.S.Chauhan

Abstract:

ICA which is generally used for blind source separation problem has been tested for feature extraction in Speech recognition system to replace the phoneme based approach of MFCC. Applying the Cepstral coefficients generated to ICA as preprocessing has developed a new signal processing approach. This gives much better results against MFCC and ICA separately, both for word and speaker recognition. The mixing matrix A is different before and after MFCC as expected. As Mel is a nonlinear scale. However, cepstrals generated from Linear Predictive Coefficient being independent prove to be the right candidate for ICA. Matlab is the tool used for all comparisons. The database used is samples of ISOLET.

Keywords: Cepstral Coefficient, Distance measures, Independent Component Analysis, Linear Predictive Coefficients.

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23 A Review on Important Aspects of Information Retrieval

Authors: Yogesh Gupta, Ashish Saini, A.K. Saxena

Abstract:

Information retrieval has become an important field of study and research under computer science due to explosive growth of information available in the form of full text, hypertext, administrative text, directory, numeric or bibliographic text. The research work is going on various aspects of information retrieval systems so as to improve its efficiency and reliability. This paper presents a comprehensive study, which discusses not only emergence and evolution of information retrieval but also includes different information retrieval models and some important aspects such as document representation, similarity measure and query expansion.

Keywords: Information Retrieval, query expansion, similarity measure, query expansion, vector space model.

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22 EDULOGIC+ - Knowledge Management through Data Analysis in Education

Authors: Alok Sharma, Dr. Harvinder S. Saini, Raviteja Tiruvury

Abstract:

This paper outlines the application of Knowledge Management (KM) principles in the context of Educational institutions. The paper caters to the needs of the engineering institutions for imparting quality education by delineating the instruction delivery process in a highly structured, controlled and quantified manner. This is done using a software tool EDULOGIC+. The central idea has been based on the engineering education pattern in Indian Universities/ Institutions. The data, contents and results produced over contiguous years build the necessary ground for managing the related accumulated knowledge. Application of KM has been explained using certain examples of data analysis and knowledge extraction.

Keywords: Education software system, information system, knowledge management.

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21 Stress Variation around a Circular Hole in Functionally Graded Plate under Bending

Authors: Parveen K. Saini, Mayank Kushwaha

Abstract:

The influence of material property variation on stress concentration factor (SCF) due to the presence of a circular hole in a functionally graded material (FGM) plate is studied in this paper. A numerical method based on complex variable theory of elasticity is used to investigate the problem. To achieve the material property, variation plate is decomposed into a number of rings. In this research work, Young’s modulus is assumed to be varying exponentially and it is found that stress concentration factor can be reduced by increasing Young’s modulus progressively away from the hole.

Keywords: Stress Concentration, Circular Hole, FGM Plate, Bending.

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20 Transverse Vibration of Non-Homogeneous Rectangular Plates of Variable Thickness Using GDQ

Authors: R. Saini, R. Lal

Abstract:

The effect of non-homogeneity on the free transverse vibration of thin rectangular plates of bilinearly varying thickness has been analyzed using generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method. The non-homogeneity of the plate material is assumed to arise due to linear variations in Young’s modulus and density of the plate material with the in-plane coordinates x and y. Numerical results have been computed for fully clamped and fully simply supported boundary conditions. The solution procedure by means of GDQ method has been implemented in a MATLAB code. The effect of various plate parameters has been investigated for the first three modes of vibration. A comparison of results with those available in literature has been presented.

Keywords: Bilinear thickness, generalized differential quadrature (GDQ), non-homogeneous, Rectangular.

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19 Improved Power Spectrum Estimation for RR-Interval Time Series

Authors: B. S. Saini, Dilbag Singh, Moin Uddin, Vinod Kumar

Abstract:

The RR interval series is non-stationary and unevenly spaced in time. For estimating its power spectral density (PSD) using traditional techniques like FFT, require resampling at uniform intervals. The researchers have used different interpolation techniques as resampling methods. All these resampling methods introduce the low pass filtering effect in the power spectrum. The lomb transform is a means of obtaining PSD estimates directly from irregularly sampled RR interval series, thus avoiding resampling. In this work, the superiority of Lomb transform method has been established over FFT based approach, after applying linear and cubicspline interpolation as resampling methods, in terms of reproduction of exact frequency locations as well as the relative magnitudes of each spectral component.

Keywords: HRV, Lomb Transform, Resampling, RR-intervals.

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18 Modeling of Coagulation Process for the Removal of Carbofuran in Aqueous Solution

Authors: Roli Saini, Pradeep Kumar

Abstract:

A coagulation/flocculation process was adopted for the reduction of carbamate insecticide (carbofuran) from aqueous solution. Ferric chloride (FeCl3) was used as a coagulant to treat the carbofuran. To exploit the reduction efficiency of pesticide concentration and COD, the jar-test experiments were carried out and process was optimized through response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of two independent factors; i.e., FeCl3 dosage and pH on the reduction efficiency were estimated by using central composite design (CCD). The initial COD of the 30 mg/L concentrated solution was found to be 510 mg/L. Results exposed that the maximum reduction occurred at an optimal condition of FeCl3 = 80 mg/L, and pH = 5.0, from which the reduction of concentration and COD 75.13% and 65.34%, respectively. The present study also predicted that the obtained regression equations could be helpful as the theoretical basis for the coagulation process of pesticide wastewater.

Keywords: Carbofuran, coagulation, optimization, response surface methodology.

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17 Stress Concentration around Countersunk Hole in Isotropic Plate under Transverse Loading

Authors: Parveen K. Saini, Tarun Agarwal

Abstract:

An investigation into the effect of countersunk depth, plate thickness, countersunk angle and plate width on the stress concentration around countersunk hole is carried out with the help of finite element analysis. The variation of stress concentration with respect to these parameters is studied for three types of loading viz. uniformly distributed load, uniformly varying load and functionally distributed load. The results of the finite element analysis are interpreted and some conclusions are drawn. The distribution of stress concentration around countersunk hole in isotropic plates simply supported at all the edges is found similar and is independent of loading. The maximum stress concentration also occurs at a particular point irrespective of the loading conditions.

Keywords: Stress Concentration Factor, Countersunk hole, Finite element, ANSYS.

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16 Analytical Study of Component Based Software Engineering

Authors: Iqbaldeep Kaur, Parvinder S. Sandhu, Hardeep Singh, Vandana Saini

Abstract:

This paper is a survey of current component-based software technologies and the description of promotion and inhibition factors in CBSE. The features that software components inherit are also discussed. Quality Assurance issues in componentbased software are also catered to. The feat research on the quality model of component based system starts with the study of what the components are, CBSE, its development life cycle and the pro & cons of CBSE. Various attributes are studied and compared keeping in view the study of various existing models for general systems and CBS. When illustrating the quality of a software component an apt set of quality attributes for the description of the system (or components) should be selected. Finally, the research issues that can be extended are tabularized.

Keywords: Component, COTS, Component based development, Component-based Software Engineering.

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15 Genetic Algorithm Approach for Solving the Falkner–Skan Equation

Authors: Indu Saini, Phool Singh, Vikas Malik

Abstract:

A novel method based on Genetic Algorithm to solve the boundary value problems (BVPs) of the Falkner–Skan equation over a semi-infinite interval has been presented. In our approach, we use the free boundary formulation to truncate the semi-infinite interval into a finite one. Then we use the shooting method based on Genetic Algorithm to transform the BVP into initial value problems (IVPs). Genetic Algorithm is used to calculate shooting angle. The initial value problems arisen during shooting are computed by Runge-Kutta Fehlberg method. The numerical solutions obtained by the present method are in agreement with those obtained by previous authors.

Keywords: Boundary Layer Flow, Falkner–Skan equation, Genetic Algorithm, Shooting method.

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14 Clustering based Voltage Control Areas for Localized Reactive Power Management in Deregulated Power System

Authors: Saran Satsangi, Ashish Saini, Amit Saraswat

Abstract:

In this paper, a new K-means clustering based approach for identification of voltage control areas is developed. Voltage control areas are important for efficient reactive power management in power systems operating under deregulated environment. Although, voltage control areas are formed using conventional hierarchical clustering based method, but the present paper investigate the capability of K-means clustering for the purpose of forming voltage control areas. The proposed method is tested and compared for IEEE 14 bus and IEEE 30 bus systems. The results show that this K-means based method is competing with conventional hierarchical approach

Keywords: Voltage control areas, reactive power management, K-means clustering algorithm

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13 Novel Process Formulation of Multiple Unit Tablet of Pantoprazole

Authors: Vipin Saini, Sunil Kamboj, Suman Bala, A. Pandurangan

Abstract:

The present invention relates to multiple-unit tablet dosage forms, which is composed of several subunits (multiparticulates/pellets). Each small multiparticulate further composed of many layers. Some layer contains drug substance; others are rate controlling polymer. The resulting multiple-unit tablet dosage forms of pantoprazole were satisfactory fabricated. Pelletization technique has some advantages over coated tablet formulation. In coated tablet the coating may be damaged and a pinhole possibly formed that would result in increased release of drug in stomach and may be deactivated in stomach juices. If the coat of some pellets may be damaged that would not affect the release properties of the multiple-unit tablet. Hence they are beneficial in this aspect. The results confirmed the successful preparation of stable and bioequivalent once daily controlled release multiple-unit tablets of pantoprazole.

Keywords: Controlled release, multiple unit tablets, pantoprazole, pelletization.

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12 Design of PI and Fuzzy Controller for High-Efficiency and Tightly Regulated Full Bridge DC-DC Converter

Authors: Sudha Bansal, Lalit Mohan Saini, Dheeraj Joshi

Abstract:

The controller is used to improve the dynamic performance of DC-DC converter by achieving a robust output voltage against load disturbances. This paper presents the performance of PI and Fuzzy controller for a phase- shifted zero-voltage switched full-bridge PWM (ZVS FB- PWM) converters with a closed loop control. The proposed converter is regulated with minimum overshoot and good stability. In this paper phase-shift control method is used as an effective tool to reduce switching losses and duty cycle losses. A 1kW/100KHz dc/dc converter is simulated and analyzed using MATLAB. The circuit is simulated for static and dynamic load (DC motor). It has been observed that performance of converter with fuzzy controller is better than that of PI controller. An efficiency comparison of the converter with a reported topology has also been carried out.

Keywords: Full-bridge converter, phase-shifted, synchronous rectifier (SR), zero-voltage switching (ZVS).

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11 Formulation and Evaluation of Niosomes Containing an Antihypertensive Drug

Authors: Sunil Kamboj, Suman Bala, Vipin Saini

Abstract:

Niosomes were formulated with an aim of enhancing the oral bioavailability of losartan potassium and formulated in different molar ratios of surfactant, cholesterol and dicetyl phosphate. The formulated niosomes were found in range of 54.98 µm to 107.85 µm in size. Formulations with 1:1 ratio of surfactant and cholesterol have shown maximum entrapment efficiencies. Niosomes with sorbitan monostearate showed maximum drug release and zero order release kinetics, at the end of 24 hours. The in vivo study has shown the significant enhancement in oral bioavailability of losartan potassium in rats, after a dose of 10 mg/kg. The average relative bioavailability in relation with pure drug solution was found 2.56, indicates more than two fold increase in oral bioavailability. A significant increment in MRT reflects the release retarding ability of the vesicles. In conclusion, niosomes could be a promising delivery of losartan potassium with improved oral bioavailability and prolonged release profiles.

Keywords: Non-ionic surfactant vesicles, losartan potassium, oral bioavailability, controlled release.

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10 Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship and Insilco Docking of Substituted 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives as Potential Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Synthase Inhibitors

Authors: Suman Bala, Sunil Kamboj, Vipin Saini

Abstract:

Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) analysis has been developed to relate antifungal activity of novel substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger using computer assisted multiple regression analysis. The study has shown the better relationship between antifungal activities with respect to various descriptors established by multiple regression analysis. The analysis has shown statistically significant correlation with R2 values 0.932 and 0.782 against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger respectively. These derivatives were further subjected to molecular docking studies to investigate the interactions between the target compounds and amino acid residues present in the active site of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase. All the synthesized compounds have better docking score as compared to standard fluconazole. Our results could be used for the further design as well as development of optimal and potential antifungal agents.

Keywords: 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole, QSAR, Multiple linear regression, Docking, Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Synthase.

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9 Formulation and Characterization of Drug Loaded Niosomal Gel for Anti-Inflammatory Activity

Authors: Sunil Kamboj, Vipin Saini, Suman Bala, Gaurav Sharma

Abstract:

The main aim of the present research was to encapsulate mefenamic acid in niosomes andincorporate the prepared niosomes in the carbopol gel base for sustained therapeutic action. Mefenamic acid loaded niosomes were prepared by thin film hydration technique and evaluated for entrapment efficiency, vesicular size and zeta potential. The entrapment efficiency of the prepared niosomes was found to increase with decreasing the HLB values of surfactants and vesicle size was found to increase with increasing the cholesterol concentration. Niosomal vesicles with good entrapment efficiencies were incorporated in carbopol gel base to form the niosomal gel. The prepared niosomal gel was evaluated for pH, viscosity, spreadability, extrudability and skin permeation study across the rat skin. The results of permeation study revealed that the gel formulated with span 60 niosomes sustained the drug release for 12h. Further the in vivo study showed the good inhibition of inflammation by the gel prepared with span 60 niosomes.

Keywords: Mefenamic acid, niosomal gel, nonionic surfactants, sustained release.

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8 Response Surface Modeling of Lactic Acid Extraction by Emulsion Liquid Membrane: Box-Behnken Experimental Design

Authors: A. Thakur, P. S. Panesar, M. S. Saini

Abstract:

Extraction of lactic acid by emulsion liquid membrane technology (ELM) using n-trioctyl amine (TOA) in n-heptane as carrier within the organic membrane along with sodium carbonate as acceptor phase was optimized by using response surface methodology (RSM). A three level Box-Behnken design was employed for experimental design, analysis of the results and to depict the combined effect of five independent variables, vizlactic acid concentration in aqueous phase (cl), sodium carbonate concentration in stripping phase (cs), carrier concentration in membrane phase (ψ), treat ratio, and batch extraction time (τ)  with equal volume of organic and external aqueous phase on lactic acid extraction efficiency. The maximum lactic acid extraction efficiency (ηext) of 98.21%from aqueous phase in a batch reactor using ELM was found at the optimized values for test variables, cl, cs, ψ, and τ as 0.06 [M], 0.18 [M], 4.72 (%,v/v), 1.98 (v/v) and 13.36 min respectively. 

Keywords: Emulsion liquid membrane, extraction, lactic acid, n-trioctylamine, response surface methodology.

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7 In Cognitive Radio the Analysis of Bit-Error- Rate (BER) by using PSO Algorithm

Authors: Shrikrishan Yadav, Akhilesh Saini, Krishna Chandra Roy

Abstract:

The electromagnetic spectrum is a natural resource and hence well-organized usage of the limited natural resources is the necessities for better communication. The present static frequency allocation schemes cannot accommodate demands of the rapidly increasing number of higher data rate services. Therefore, dynamic usage of the spectrum must be distinguished from the static usage to increase the availability of frequency spectrum. Cognitive radio is not a single piece of apparatus but it is a technology that can incorporate components spread across a network. It offers great promise for improving system efficiency, spectrum utilization, more effective applications, reduction in interference and reduced complexity of usage for users. Cognitive radio is aware of its environmental, internal state, and location, and autonomously adjusts its operations to achieve designed objectives. It first senses its spectral environment over a wide frequency band, and then adapts the parameters to maximize spectrum efficiency with high performance. This paper only focuses on the analysis of Bit-Error-Rate in cognitive radio by using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm. It is theoretically as well as practically analyzed and interpreted in the sense of advantages and drawbacks and how BER affects the efficiency and performance of the communication system.

Keywords: BER, Cognitive Radio, Environmental Parameters, PSO, Radio spectrum, Transmission Parameters

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6 An Investigation to Study the Moisture Dependency of Ground Enhancement Compound

Authors: Arunima Shukla, Vikas Almadi, Devesh Jaiswal, Sunil Saini, Bhusan S. Patil

Abstract:

Lightning protection consists of three main parts; mainly air termination system, down conductor, and earth termination system. Earth termination system is the most important part as earth is the sink and source of charges. Therefore, even when the charges are captured and delivered to the ground, and an easy path is not provided to the charges, earth termination system would lead to problems. Soil has significantly different resistivities ranging from 10 Ωm for wet organic soil to 10000 Ωm for bedrock. Different methods have been discussed and used conventionally such as deep-ground-well method and altering the length of the rod. Those methods are not considered economical. Therefore, it was a general practice to use charcoal along with salt to reduce the soil resistivity. Bentonite is worldwide acceptable material, that had led our interest towards study of bentonite at first. It was concluded that bentonite is a clay which is non-corrosive, environment friendly. Whereas bentonite is suitable only when there is moisture present in the soil, as in the absence of moisture, cracks will appear on the surface which will provide an open passage to the air, resulting into increase in the resistivity. Furthermore, bentonite without moisture does not have enough bonding property, moisture retention, conductivity, and non-leachability. Therefore, bentonite was used along with the other backfill material to overcome the dependency of bentonite on moisture. Different experiments were performed to get the best ratio of bentonite and carbon backfill. It was concluded that properties will highly depend on the quantity of bentonite and carbon-based backfill material.

Keywords: Backfill material, bentonite, conducting soil, grounding material, low resistivity.

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5 Enhanced GA-Fuzzy OPF under both Normal and Contingent Operation States

Authors: Ashish Saini, A.K. Saxena

Abstract:

The genetic algorithm (GA) based solution techniques are found suitable for optimization because of their ability of simultaneous multidimensional search. Many GA-variants have been tried in the past to solve optimal power flow (OPF), one of the nonlinear problems of electric power system. The issues like convergence speed and accuracy of the optimal solution obtained after number of generations using GA techniques and handling system constraints in OPF are subjects of discussion. The results obtained for GA-Fuzzy OPF on various power systems have shown faster convergence and lesser generation costs as compared to other approaches. This paper presents an enhanced GA-Fuzzy OPF (EGAOPF) using penalty factors to handle line flow constraints and load bus voltage limits for both normal network and contingency case with congestion. In addition to crossover and mutation rate adaptation scheme that adapts crossover and mutation probabilities for each generation based on fitness values of previous generations, a block swap operator is also incorporated in proposed EGA-OPF. The line flow limits and load bus voltage magnitude limits are handled by incorporating line overflow and load voltage penalty factors respectively in each chromosome fitness function. The effects of different penalty factors settings are also analyzed under contingent state.

Keywords: Contingent operation state, Fuzzy rule base, Genetic Algorithms, Optimal Power Flow.

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4 Full Potential Study of Electronic and Optical Properties of NdF3

Authors: Sapan Mohan Saini

Abstract:

We report the electronic structure and optical properties of NdF3 compound. Our calculations are based on density functional theory (DFT) using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method with the inclusion of spin orbit coupling. We employed the local spin density approximation (LSDA) and Coulomb-corrected local spin density approximation, known for treating the highly correlated 4f electrons properly, is able to reproduce the correct insulating ground state. We find that the standard LSDA approach is incapable of correctly describing the electronic properties of such materials since it positions the f-bands incorrectly resulting in an incorrect metallic ground state. On the other hand, LSDA + U approximation, known for treating the highly correlated 4f electrons properly, is able to reproduce the correct insulating ground state. Interestingly, however, we do not find any significant differences in the optical properties calculated using LSDA, and LSDA + U suggesting that the 4f electrons do not play a decisive role in the optical properties of these compounds. The reflectivity for NdF3 compound stays low till 7 eV which is consistent with their large energy gaps. The calculated energy gaps are in good agreement with experiments. Our calculated reflectivity compares well with the experimental data and the results are analyzed in the light of band to band transitions.

Keywords: FPLAPW Method, optical properties, rare earthtrifluorides LSDA+U

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3 Preparation of Corn Flour Based Extruded Product and Evaluate Its Physical Characteristics

Authors: C. S. Saini

Abstract:

The composite flour blend consisting of corn, pearl millet, black gram and wheat bran in the ratio of 80:5:10:5 was taken to prepare the extruded product and their effect on physical properties of extrudate was studied. The extrusion process was conducted in laboratory by using twin screw extruder. The physical characteristics evaluated include lateral expansion, bulk density, water absorption index, water solubility index, and rehydration ratio and moisture retention. The Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) was used to decide the level of processing variables i.e. feed moisture content (%), screw speed (rpm), and barrel temperature (oC) for the experiment. The data obtained after extrusion process were analyzed by using response surface methodology. A second order polynomial model for the dependent variables was established to fit the experimental data. The numerical optimization studies resulted in 127°C of barrel temperature, 246 rpm of screw speed, and 14.5% of feed moisture as optimum variables to produce acceptable extruded product. The responses predicted by the software for the optimum process condition resulted in lateral expansion 126%, bulk density 0.28 g/cm3, water absorption index 4.10 g/g, water solubility index 39.90%, rehydration ratio 544% and moisture retention 11.90% with 75% desirability.

Keywords: Black gram, corn flour, extrusion, physical characteristics.

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2 A Nodal Transmission Pricing Model based on Newly Developed Expressions of Real and Reactive Power Marginal Prices in Competitive Electricity Markets

Authors: Ashish Saini, A.K. Saxena

Abstract:

In competitive electricity markets all over the world, an adoption of suitable transmission pricing model is a problem as transmission segment still operates as a monopoly. Transmission pricing is an important tool to promote investment for various transmission services in order to provide economic, secure and reliable electricity to bulk and retail customers. The nodal pricing based on SRMC (Short Run Marginal Cost) is found extremely useful by researchers for sending correct economic signals. The marginal prices must be determined as a part of solution to optimization problem i.e. to maximize the social welfare. The need to maximize the social welfare subject to number of system operational constraints is a major challenge from computation and societal point of views. The purpose of this paper is to present a nodal transmission pricing model based on SRMC by developing new mathematical expressions of real and reactive power marginal prices using GA-Fuzzy based optimal power flow framework. The impacts of selecting different social welfare functions on power marginal prices are analyzed and verified with results reported in literature. Network revenues for two different power systems are determined using expressions derived for real and reactive power marginal prices in this paper.

Keywords: Deregulation, electricity markets, nodal pricing, social welfare function, short run marginal cost.

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