Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 443

Search results for: Hydroforming deep drawing

443 Analytical and Finite Element Analysis of Hydroforming Deep Drawing Process

Authors: Maziar Ramezani, Thomas Neitzert

Abstract:

This paper gives an overview of a deep drawing process by pressurized liquid medium separated from the sheet by a rubber diaphragm. Hydroforming deep drawing processing of sheet metal parts provides a number of advantages over conventional techniques. It generally increases the depth to diameter ratio possible in cup drawing and minimizes the thickness variation of the drawn cup. To explore the deformation mechanism, analytical and numerical simulations are used for analyzing the drawing process of an AA6061-T4 blank. The effects of key process parameters such as coefficient of friction, initial thickness of the blank and radius between cup wall and flange are investigated analytically and numerically. The simulated results were in good agreement with the results of the analytical model. According to finite element simulations, the hydroforming deep drawing method provides a more uniform thickness distribution compared to conventional deep drawing and decreases the risk of tearing during the process.

Keywords: Deep drawing, Hydroforming, Rubber diaphragm

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2685
442 Investigation of Tearing in Hydroforming Process with Analytical Equations and Finite Element Method

Authors: H.Seidi, M.Jalali Azizpour, S.A.Zahedi

Abstract:

Today, Hydroforming technology provides an attractive alternative to conventional matched die forming, especially for cost-sensitive, lower volume production, and for parts with irregular contours. In this study the critical fluid pressures which lead to rupture in the workpiece has been investigated by theoretical and finite element methods. The axisymmetric analysis was developed to investigate the tearing phenomenon in cylindrical Hydroforming Deep Drawing (HDD). By use of obtained equations the effect of anisotropy, drawing ratio, sheet thickness and strain hardening exponent on tearing diagram were investigated.

Keywords: Hydroforming deep drawing, Pressure path, Axisymmetric analysis, Finite element simulation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1448
441 An Optimization of the New Die Design of Sheet Hydroforming by Taguchi Method

Authors: M. Hosseinzadeh, S. A. Zamani, A. Taheri

Abstract:

During the last few years, several sheet hydroforming processes have been introduced. Despite the advantages of these methods, they have some limitations. Of the processes, the two main ones are the standard hydroforming and hydromechanical deep drawing. A new sheet hydroforming die set was proposed that has the advantages of both processes and eliminates their limitations. In this method, a polyurethane plate was used as a part of the die-set to control the blank holder force. This paper outlines the Taguchi optimization methodology, which is applied to optimize the effective parameters in forming cylindrical cups by the new die set of sheet hydroforming process. The process parameters evaluated in this research are polyurethane hardness, polyurethane thickness, forming pressure path and polyurethane hole diameter. The design of experiments based upon L9 orthogonal arrays by Taguchi was used and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to analyze the effect of these parameters on the forming pressure. The analysis of the results showed that the optimal combination for low forming pressure is harder polyurethane, bigger diameter of polyurethane hole and thinner polyurethane. Finally, the confirmation test was derived based on the optimal combination of parameters and it was shown that the Taguchi method is suitable to examine the optimization process.

Keywords: Sheet Hydroforming, Optimization, Taguchi Method

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2357
440 A Low Cost Knowledge Base System Framework for Design of Deep Drawing Die

Authors: Vishal Naranje, S. Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper a low cost knowledge base system (KBS) framework is proposed for design of deep drawing die and procedure for developing system modules. The task of building the system is structured into different modules for major activities of design of deep drawing die. A manufacturability assessment module of the proposed framework is developed to check the manufacturability of deep drawn parts. The technological knowledge is represented by using IF- THEN rules and it is coded in AutoLISP language. The module is designed to be loaded into the prompt area of AutoCAD. The cost of implementation of proposed system makes it affordable for small and medium scale sheet metal industries.

Keywords: Knowledge base system, Deep drawing die, Manufacturability, Sheet metal.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1854
439 Application of Neural Network and Finite Element for Prediction the Limiting Drawing Ratio in Deep Drawing Process

Authors: H.Mohammadi Majd, M.Jalali Azizpour, A.V. Hoseini

Abstract:

In this paper back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) is employed to predict the limiting drawing ratio (LDR) of the deep drawing process. To prepare a training set for BPANN, some finite element simulations were carried out. die and punch radius, die arc radius, friction coefficient, thickness, yield strength of sheet and strain hardening exponent were used as the input data and the LDR as the specified output used in the training of neural network. As a result of the specified parameters, the program will be able to estimate the LDR for any new given condition. Comparing FEM and BPANN results, an acceptable correlation was found.

Keywords: Back-propagation artificial neural network(BPANN), deep drawing, prediction, limiting drawing ratio (LDR).

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1485
438 Finite Element Simulation of Deep Drawing Process to Minimize Earing

Authors: Pawan S. Nagda, Purnank S. Bhatt, Mit K. Shah

Abstract:

Earing defect in drawing process is highly undesirable not only because it adds on an additional trimming operation but also because the uneven material flow demands extra care. The objective of this work is to study the earing problem in the Deep Drawing of circular cup and to optimize the blank shape to reduce the earing. A finite element model is developed for 3-D numerical simulation of cup forming process in ABAQUS. Extra-deep-drawing (EDD) steel sheet has been used for simulation. Properties and tool design parameters were used as input for simulation. Earing was observed in the simulated cup and it was measured at various angles with respect to rolling direction. To reduce the earing defect initial blank shape was modified with the help of anisotropy coefficient. Modified blanks showed notable reduction in earing.

Keywords: Finite element simulation, deep drawing, earing, anisotropy.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1479
437 The Influence of Surface Roughness of Drawbead on Non-Symmetry Deep Drawing Cold Rolled Steel Sheet

Authors: A. Watanapa, S. Torsakul

Abstract:

This study was aimed to explain the influence of surface roughness of the drawbead on non-symmetry deep drawing cold rolled steel sheet to improve the drawability of cold rolled steel sheet. The variables used in this study included semi-circle drawbead with 3 levels of surface roughness which are 6.127 mm Ra, 0.963 mm Ra and 0.152 mm Ra and cold rolled steel sheet according to 3 grades of the JIS standards which are SPCC, SPCE and SPCD with the thickness of 1.0 mm and the blankholder force which is 50% of the drawing force and the depth of 50 mm. According to the test results, when there was the increase in the surface roughness of drawbead, there would be the increase in deep drawing force, especially the SPCC cold rolled steel sheet. This is similar to the increase in the equivalent strain and the wall thickness distribution when the surface roughness of the drawbead increased. It could be concluded that the surface roughness of drawbead has an influence on deep drawing cold rolled steel sheet, especially the drawing force, the equivalent strain and the wall thickness distribution.

Keywords: Drawbead, Deep Drawing, Drawing Force, Equivalent Strain, Surface roughness

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2178
436 Identification of Optimum Parameters of Deep Drawing of a Cylindrical Workpiece using Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: D. Singh, R. Yousefi, M. Boroushaki

Abstract:

Intelligent deep-drawing is an instrumental research field in sheet metal forming. A set of 28 different experimental data have been employed in this paper, investigating the roles of die radius, punch radius, friction coefficients and drawing ratios for axisymmetric workpieces deep drawing. This paper focuses an evolutionary neural network, specifically, error back propagation in collaboration with genetic algorithm. The neural network encompasses a number of different functional nodes defined through the established principles. The input parameters, i.e., punch radii, die radii, friction coefficients and drawing ratios are set to the network; thereafter, the material outputs at two critical points are accurately calculated. The output of the network is used to establish the best parameters leading to the most uniform thickness in the product via the genetic algorithm. This research achieved satisfactory results based on demonstration of neural networks.

Keywords: Deep-drawing, Neural network, Genetic algorithm, Sheet metal forming.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1901
435 Prediction the Limiting Drawing Ratio in Deep Drawing Process by Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network

Authors: H.Mohammadi Majd, M.Jalali Azizpour, M. Goodarzi

Abstract:

In this paper back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) with Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm is employed to predict the limiting drawing ratio (LDR) of the deep drawing process. To prepare a training set for BPANN, some finite element simulations were carried out. die and punch radius, die arc radius, friction coefficient, thickness, yield strength of sheet and strain hardening exponent were used as the input data and the LDR as the specified output used in the training of neural network. As a result of the specified parameters, the program will be able to estimate the LDR for any new given condition. Comparing FEM and BPANN results, an acceptable correlation was found.

Keywords: BPANN, deep drawing, prediction, limiting drawingratio (LDR), Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1595
434 A Detailed Experimental Study and Evaluation of Springback under Stretch Bending Process

Authors: A. Soualem

Abstract:

The design of multi stage deep drawing processes requires the evaluation of many process parameters such as the intermediate die geometry, the blank shape, the sheet thickness, the blank holder force, friction, lubrication etc..These process parameters have to be determined for the optimum forming conditions before the process design. In general sheet metal forming may involve stretching drawing or various combinations of these basic modes of deformation. It is important to determine the influence of the process variables in the design of sheet metal working process. Especially, the punch and die corner for deep drawing will affect the formability. At the same time the prediction of sheet metals springback after deep drawing is an important issue to solve for the control of manufacturing processes. Nowadays, the importance of this problem increases because of the use of steel sheeting with high stress and also aluminum alloys.

The aim of this paper is to give a better understanding of the springback and its effect in various sheet metals forming process such as expansion and restreint deep drawing in the cup drawing process, by varying radius die, lubricant for two commercially available materials e.g. galvanized steel and Aluminum sheet. To achieve these goals experiments were carried out and compared with other results. The original of our purpose consist on tests which are ensured by adapting a U-type stretching-bending device on a tensile testing machine, where we studied and quantified the variation of the springback.

Keywords: Deep drawing, Expansion, Restreint deep drawing, Springback.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2290
433 Finite Element Simulation of Multi-Stage Deep Drawing Processes and Comparison with Experimental Results

Authors: A. Pourkamali Anaraki, M. Shahabizadeh, B. Babaee

Abstract:

The plastic forming process of sheet plate takes an important place in forming metals. The traditional techniques of tool design for sheet forming operations used in industry are experimental and expensive methods. Prediction of the forming results, determination of the punching force, blank holder forces and the thickness distribution of the sheet metal will decrease the production cost and time of the material to be formed. In this paper, multi-stage deep drawing simulation of an Industrial Part has been presented with finite element method. The entire production steps with additional operations such as intermediate annealing and springback has been simulated by ABAQUS software under axisymmetric conditions. The simulation results such as sheet thickness distribution, Punch force and residual stresses have been extracted in any stages and sheet thickness distribution was compared with experimental results. It was found through comparison of results, the FE model have proven to be in close agreement with those of experiment.

Keywords: Deep drawing, Finite element method, Simulation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4708
432 A Detailed Experimental Study of the Springback Anisotropy of Three Metals using the Stretching-Bending Process

Authors: A. Soualem

Abstract:

Springback is a significant problem in the sheet metal forming process. When the tools are released after the stage of forming, the product springs out, because of the action of the internal stresses. In many cases the deviation of form is too large and the compensation of the springback is necessary. The precise prediction of the springback of product is increasingly significant for the design of the tools and for compensation because of the higher ratio of the yield stress to the elastic modulus. The main object in this paper was to study the effect of the anisotropy on the springback for three directions of rolling: 0°, 45° and 90°. At the same time, we highlighted the influence of three different metallic materials: Aluminum, Steel and Galvanized steel. The original of our purpose consist on tests which are ensured by adapting a U-type stretching-bending device on a tensile testing machine, where we studied and quantified the variation of the springback according to the direction of rolling. We also showed the role of lubrication in the reduction of the springback. Moreover, in this work, we have studied important characteristics in deep drawing process which is a springback. We have presented defaults that are showed in this process and many parameters influenced a springback. Finally, our results works lead us to understand the influence of grains orientation with different metallic materials on the springback and drawing some conclusions how to concept deep drawing tools. In addition, the conducted work represents a fundamental contribution in the discussion the industry application.

Keywords: Deep-Drawing, Grains orientation, Laminate Tool, Springback.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1851
431 Modeling and Investigation of Elongation in Free Explosive Forming of Aluminum Alloy Plate

Authors: R. Alipour, F.Najarian

Abstract:

Because of high ductility, aluminum alloys, have been widely used as an important base of metal forming industries. But the main week point of these alloys is their low strength so in forming them with conventional methods like deep drawing, hydro forming, etc have been always faced with problems like fracture during of forming process. Because of this, recently using of explosive forming method for forming of these plates has been recommended. In this paper free explosive forming of A2024 aluminum alloy is numerically simulated and during it, explosion wave propagation process is studied. Consequences of this simulation can be effective in prediction of quality of production. These consequences are compared with an experimental test and show the superiority of this method to similar methods like hydro forming and deep drawing.

Keywords: Free explosive forming, CEL, Johnson cook.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2043
430 An Experimental Study and Influence of BHF and Die Radius in Deep Drawing Process on the Springback

Authors: A. Soualem

Abstract:

A lot of research made during these last 15 years showed that the quantification of the springback has a significant role in the industry of sheet metal forming. These studies were made with the objective of finding techniques and methods to minimize or completely avoid this permanent physical variation. Moreover, the use of steel and aluminum alloys in the car industry and aviation poses every day the problem of the springback. The determination in advance of the quantity of the springback allows consequently the design and manufacture of the tool. The aim of this paper is to study experimentally the influence of the blank holder force BHF and the radius of curvature of the die on the springback and their influence on the strain in various zone of specimen. The original of our purpose consist on tests which are ensured by adapting a U-type stretching-bending device on a tensile testing machine, where we studied and quantified the variation of the springback according to displacement.

Keywords: Blank holder force, Deep-Drawing, Die radius, Forming, Springback.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1455
429 SEM-EBSD Observation for Microtubes by Using Dieless Drawing Process

Authors: Takashi Sakai, Itaru Kumisawa

Abstract:

Because die drawing requires insertion of a die, a plug, or a mandrel, higher precision and efficiency are demanded for drawing equipment for a tube having smaller diameter. Manufacturing of such tubes is also accompanied by problems such as cracking and fracture. We specifically examine dieless drawing, which is less affected by these drawing-related difficulties. This deformation process is governed by a similar principle to that of reduction in diameter when pulling a heated glass tube. We conducted dieless drawing of SUS304 stainless steel microtubes under various conditions with three factor parameters of heating temperature, area reduction, and drawing speed. We used SEM-EBSD to observe the processing condition effects on microstructural elements. As the result of this study, crystallographic orientation of microtube is clear by using SEM-EBSD analysis.

Keywords: Microtube, dieless drawing, IPF, inverse pole figure, GOS, grain orientation spread, crystallographic analysis.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 480
428 Factors Affecting Weld Line Movement in Tailor Welded Blank

Authors: Shakil A. Kagzi, Sanjay Patil, Harit K. Raval

Abstract:

Tailor Welded Blanks (TWB) are utilized in automotive industries widely because of their advantage of weight and cost reduction and maintaining required strength and structural integrity. TWB consist of two or more sheet having dissimilar or similar material and thickness; welded together to form a single sheet before forming it to desired shape. Forming of the tailor welded blank is affected by ratio of thickness of blanks, ratio of their strength, etc. mainly due to in-homogeneity of material. In the present work the relative effect of these parameters on weld line movement is studied during deep drawing of TWB using FE simulation using HYPERWORKS. The simulation is validated with results from the literature. Simulations were than performed based on Taguchi orthogonal array followed by the ANOVA analysis to determine the significance of these parameters on forming of TWB.

Keywords: ANOVA, Deep drawing, Tailor Welded Blank, TWB, Weld line movement.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2521
427 A Proposed Information Extraction Technique in Engineering Drawing for Reuse Design

Authors: Mohd Fahmi Mohamad Amran, Riza Sulaiman, Saliyah Kahar, Suziyanti Marjudi, Muhammad FairuzAbd Rauf

Abstract:

The extensive number of engineering drawing will be referred for planning process and the changes will produce a good engineering design to meet the demand in producing a new model. The advantage in reuse of engineering designs is to allow continuous product development to further improve the quality of product development, thus reduce the development costs. However, to retrieve the existing engineering drawing, it is time consuming, a complex process and are expose to errors. Engineering drawing file searching system will be proposed to solve this problem. It is essential for engineer and designer to have some sort of medium to enable them to search for drawing in the most effective way. This paper lays out the proposed research project under the area of information extraction in engineering drawing.

Keywords: Computer aided design, information extraction, engineering drawing, reuse design.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1901
426 Deep iCrawl: An Intelligent Vision-Based Deep Web Crawler

Authors: R.Anita, V.Ganga Bharani, N.Nityanandam, Pradeep Kumar Sahoo

Abstract:

The explosive growth of World Wide Web has posed a challenging problem in extracting relevant data. Traditional web crawlers focus only on the surface web while the deep web keeps expanding behind the scene. Deep web pages are created dynamically as a result of queries posed to specific web databases. The structure of the deep web pages makes it impossible for traditional web crawlers to access deep web contents. This paper, Deep iCrawl, gives a novel and vision-based approach for extracting data from the deep web. Deep iCrawl splits the process into two phases. The first phase includes Query analysis and Query translation and the second covers vision-based extraction of data from the dynamically created deep web pages. There are several established approaches for the extraction of deep web pages but the proposed method aims at overcoming the inherent limitations of the former. This paper also aims at comparing the data items and presenting them in the required order.

Keywords: Crawler, Deep web, Web Database

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1870
425 Construction of Strain Distribution Profiles of EDD Steel at Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Eshwara K. Prasad, Raman R. Goud, Swadesh Kumar Singh, N. Sateesh

Abstract:

In the present work, forming limit diagrams and strain distribution profile diagrams for extra deep drawing steel at room and elevated temperatures have been determined experimentally by conducting stretch forming experiments by using designed and fabricated warm stretchforming tooling setup. With the help of forming Limit Diagrams (FLDs) and strain, distribution profile diagrams the formability of Extra Deep Drawing steel has been analyzed and co-related with mechanical properties like strain hardening COEFFICIENT (n) and normal anisotropy (r−). Mechanical properties of EDD steel from room temperature to 4500C were determined and discussed the impact of temperature on the properties like work hardening exponent (n) anisotropy (r-) and strength coefficient of the material. In addition, the fractured surfaces after stretching have undergone the some metallurgical investigations and attempt has been made to co-relate with the formability of EDD steel sheets. They are co-related and good agreement with FLDs at various temperatures.

Keywords: FLD, microhardness, strain distribution profile, stretch forming.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1565
424 Investigation on Behavior of Fixed-Ended Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams

Authors: Y. Heyrani Birak, R. Hizaji, J. Shahkarami

Abstract:

Reinforced Concrete (RC) deep beams are special structural elements because of their geometry and behavior under loads. For example, assumption of strain- stress distribution is not linear in the cross section. These types of beams may have simple supports or fixed supports. A lot of research works have been conducted on simply supported deep beams, but little study has been done in the fixed-end RC deep beams behavior. Recently, using of fixed-ended deep beams has been widely increased in structures. In this study, the behavior of fixed-ended deep beams is investigated, and the important parameters in capacity of this type of beams are mentioned.

Keywords: Deep beam, capacity, reinforced concrete, fixed-ended.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 485
423 Failure Mechanism in Fixed-Ended Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams under Cyclic Load

Authors: A. Aarabzadeh, R. Hizaji

Abstract:

Reinforced Concrete (RC) deep beams are a special type of beams due to their geometry, boundary conditions, and behavior compared to ordinary shallow beams. For example, assumption of a linear strain-stress distribution in the cross section is not valid. Little study has been dedicated to fixed-end RC deep beams. Also, most experimental studies are carried out on simply supported deep beams. Regarding recent tendency for application of deep beams, possibility of using fixed-ended deep beams has been widely increased in structures. Therefore, it seems necessary to investigate the aforementioned structural element in more details. In addition to experimental investigation of a concrete deep beam under cyclic load, different failure mechanisms of fixed-ended deep beams under this type of loading have been evaluated in the present study. The results show that failure mechanisms of deep beams under cyclic loads are quite different from monotonic loads.

Keywords: Deep beam, cyclic load, reinforced concrete, fixed-ended.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 784
422 The Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Trip Steel Wire Drawing Processes Drawn with Different Partial Reductions

Authors: Sylwia Wiewiorowska, Zbigniew Muskalski

Abstract:

The strain intensity and redundant strains, dependent in multistage TRIP wire drawing processes from values used single partial reductions, should influence on the intensity of transformation the retained austenite into martensite and thereby on mechanical properties of drawn wires. The numerical analysis of drawing processes with use of Drawing 2D programme, for steel wires made from TRIP steel with 0,29% has been shown in the work. The change of strain intensity εc and the values of redundant strain εxy, has been determined for particular draws in dependence of used single partial reductions.

Keywords: Steel wire, TRIP steel, drawing processes, fem modelling.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1314
421 Classification Based on Deep Neural Cellular Automata Model

Authors: Yasser F. Hassan

Abstract:

Deep learning structure is a branch of machine learning science and greet achievement in research and applications. Cellular neural networks are regarded as array of nonlinear analog processors called cells connected in a way allowing parallel computations. The paper discusses how to use deep learning structure for representing neural cellular automata model. The proposed learning technique in cellular automata model will be examined from structure of deep learning. A deep automata neural cellular system modifies each neuron based on the behavior of the individual and its decision as a result of multi-level deep structure learning. The paper will present the architecture of the model and the results of simulation of approach are given. Results from the implementation enrich deep neural cellular automata system and shed a light on concept formulation of the model and the learning in it.

Keywords: Cellular automata, neural cellular automata, deep learning, classification.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 444
420 Angular-Coordinate Driven Radial Tree Drawing

Authors: Farshad Ghassemi Toosi, Nikola S. Nikolov

Abstract:

We present a visualization technique for radial drawing of trees consisting of two slightly different algorithms. Both of them make use of node-link diagrams for visual encoding. This visualization creates clear drawings without edge crossing. One of the algorithms is suitable for real-time visualization of large trees, as it requires minimal recalculation of the layout if leaves are inserted or removed from the tree; while the other algorithm makes better utilization of the drawing space. The algorithms are very similar and follow almost the same procedure but with different parameters. Both algorithms assign angular coordinates for all nodes which are then converted into 2D Cartesian coordinates for visualization. We present both algorithms and discuss how they compare to each other.

Keywords: Radial Tree Drawing, Real-Time Visualization, Angular Coordinates, Large Trees.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2360
419 Effect of Different Oils on Quality of Deep-fried Dough Stick

Authors: Nuntaporn Aukkanit

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oils on chemical, physical, and sensory properties of deep-fried dough stick. Five kinds of vegetable oil which were used for addition and frying consist of: palm oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, rice bran oil, and canola oil. The results of this study showed that using different kinds of oil made significant difference in the quality of deep-fried dough stick. Deep-fried dough stick fried with the rice bran oil had the lowest moisture loss and oil absorption (p≤0.05), but it had some unsatisfactory physical properties (color, specific volume, density, and texture) and sensory characteristics. Nonetheless, deep-fried dough stick fried with the sunflower oil had moisture loss and oil absorption slightly more than the rice bran oil, but it had almost higher physical and sensory properties. Deep-fried dough sticks together with the sunflower oil did not have different sensory score from the palm oil, commonly used for production of deep-fried dough stick. These results indicated that addition and frying with the sunflower oil are appropriate for the production of deep-fried dough stick.

Keywords: Deep-fried dough stick, palm oil, sunflower oil, rice bran oil.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1511
418 Effects of Opening Shape and Location on the Structural Strength of R.C. Deep Beams with Openings

Authors: Haider M. Alsaeq

Abstract:

This research investigates the effects of the opening shape and location on the structural behavior of reinforced concrete deep beam with openings, while keeping the opening size unchanged. The software ANSYS 12.1 is used to handle the nonlinear finite element analysis. The ultimate strength of reinforced concrete deep beam with opening obtained by ANSYS 12.1 shows fair agreement with the experimental results, with a difference of no more than 20%. The present work concludes that the opening location has much more effect on the structural strength than the opening shape. It was concluded that placing the openings near the upper corners of the deep beam may double the strength, and the use of a rectangular narrow opening, with the long sides in the horizontal direction, can save up to 40% of structural strength of the deep beam.

Keywords: Deep Beams, Finite Element, Opening, Reinforced Concrete.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3681
417 Numerical Modeling of Various Support Systems to Stabilize Deep Excavations

Authors: M. Abdallah

Abstract:

Urban development requires deep excavations near buildings and other structures. Deep excavation has become more a necessity for better utilization of space as the population of the world has dramatically increased. In Lebanon, some urban areas are very crowded and lack spaces for new buildings and underground projects, which makes the usage of underground space indispensable. In this paper, a numerical modeling is performed using the finite element method to study the deep excavation-diaphragm wall soil-structure interaction in the case of nonlinear soil behavior. The study is focused on a comparison of the results obtained using different support systems. Furthermore, a parametric study is performed according to the remoteness of the structure.

Keywords: Deep excavation, ground anchors, interaction, struts.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 778
416 The Impact of Scientific Content of National Geographic Channel on Drawing Style of Kindergarten Children

Authors: Ahmed Amin Mousa, Mona Yacoub

Abstract:

This study depends on tracking children style through what they have drawn after being introduced to 16 visual content through National Geographic Abu Dhabi Channel programs and the study of the changing features in their drawings before applying the visual act with them. The researchers used Goodenough-Harris Test to analyse children drawings and to extract the features which changed in their drawing before and after the visual content. The results showed a positive change especially in the shapes of animals and their properties. Children become more aware of animals’ shapes. The study sample was 220 kindergarten children divided into 130 girls and 90 boys at the Orman Experimental Language School in Dokki, Giza, Egypt. The study results showed an improvement in children drawing with 85% than they were before watching videos.

Keywords: National Geographic, children drawing, kindergarten, Goodenough-Harris Test.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 309
415 Performance Evaluation of Distributed Deep Learning Frameworks in Cloud Environment

Authors: Shuen-Tai Wang, Fang-An Kuo, Chau-Yi Chou, Yu-Bin Fang

Abstract:

2016 has become the year of the Artificial Intelligence explosion. AI technologies are getting more and more matured that most world well-known tech giants are making large investment to increase the capabilities in AI. Machine learning is the science of getting computers to act without being explicitly programmed, and deep learning is a subset of machine learning that uses deep neural network to train a machine to learn  features directly from data. Deep learning realizes many machine learning applications which expand the field of AI. At the present time, deep learning frameworks have been widely deployed on servers for deep learning applications in both academia and industry. In training deep neural networks, there are many standard processes or algorithms, but the performance of different frameworks might be different. In this paper we evaluate the running performance of two state-of-the-art distributed deep learning frameworks that are running training calculation in parallel over multi GPU and multi nodes in our cloud environment. We evaluate the training performance of the frameworks with ResNet-50 convolutional neural network, and we analyze what factors that result in the performance among both distributed frameworks as well. Through the experimental analysis, we identify the overheads which could be further optimized. The main contribution is that the evaluation results provide further optimization directions in both performance tuning and algorithmic design.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, machine learning, deep learning, convolutional neural networks.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 786
414 Shear Behaviour of RC Deep Beams with Openings Strengthened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer

Authors: Mannal Tariq

Abstract:

Construction industry is making progress at a high pace. The trend of the world is getting more biased towards the high rise buildings. Deep beams are one of the most common elements in modern construction having small span to depth ratio. Deep beams are mostly used as transfer girders. This experimental study consists of 16 reinforced concrete (RC) deep beams. These beams were divided into two groups; A and B. Groups A and B consist of eight beams each, having 381 mm (15 in) and 457 mm (18 in) depth respectively. Each group was further subdivided into four sub groups each consisting of two identical beams. Each subgroup was comprised of solid/control beam (without opening), opening above neutral axis (NA), at NA and below NA. Except for control beams, all beams with openings were strengthened with carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) vertical strips. These eight groups differ from each other based on depth and location of openings. For testing sake, all beams have been loaded with two symmetrical point loads. All beams have been designed based on strut and tie model concept. The outcome of experimental investigation elaborates the difference in the shear behaviour of deep beams based on depth and location of circular openings variation. 457 mm (18 in) deep beam with openings above NA show the highest strength and 381 mm (15 in) deep beam with openings below NA show the least strength. CFRP sheets played a vital role in increasing the shear capacity of beams.

Keywords: CFRP, deep beams, openings in deep beams, strut and tie model, shear behaviour.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1044