Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1931

Search results for: Human skin.

1931 Towards Integrating Statistical Color Features for Human Skin Detection

Authors: Mohd Zamri Osman, Mohd Aizaini Maarof, Mohd Foad Rohani

Abstract:

Human skin detection recognized as the primary step in most of the applications such as face detection, illicit image filtering, hand recognition and video surveillance. The performance of any skin detection applications greatly relies on the two components: feature extraction and classification method. Skin color is the most vital information used for skin detection purpose. However, color feature alone sometimes could not handle images with having same color distribution with skin color. A color feature of pixel-based does not eliminate the skin-like color due to the intensity of skin and skin-like color fall under the same distribution. Hence, the statistical color analysis will be exploited such mean and standard deviation as an additional feature to increase the reliability of skin detector. In this paper, we studied the effectiveness of statistical color feature for human skin detection. Furthermore, the paper analyzed the integrated color and texture using eight classifiers with three color spaces of RGB, YCbCr, and HSV. The experimental results show that the integrating statistical feature using Random Forest classifier achieved a significant performance with an F1-score 0.969.

Keywords: Color space, neural network, random forest, skin detection, statistical feature.

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1930 Improved Skin Detection Using Colour Space and Texture

Authors: Medjram Sofiane, Babahenini Mohamed Chaouki, Mohamed Benali Yamina

Abstract:

Skin detection is an important task for computer vision systems. A good method of skin detection means a good and successful result of the system. The colour is a good descriptor for image segmentation and classification; it allows detecting skin colour in the images. The lighting changes and the objects that have a colour similar than skin colour make the operation of skin detection difficult. In this paper, we proposed a method using the YCbCr colour space for skin detection and lighting effects elimination, then we use the information of texture to eliminate the false regions detected by the YCbCr skin model.

Keywords: Skin detection, YCbCr, GLCM, Texture, Human skin.

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1929 Combining Skin Color and Optical Flow for Computer Vision Systems

Authors: Muhammad Raza Ali, Tim Morris

Abstract:

Skin color is an important visual cue for computer vision systems involving human users. In this paper we combine skin color and optical flow for detection and tracking of skin regions. We apply these techniques to gesture recognition with encouraging results. We propose a novel skin similarity measure. For grouping detected skin regions we propose a novel skin region grouping mechanism. The proposed techniques work with any number of skin regions making them suitable for a multiuser scenario.

Keywords: Bayesian tracking, chromaticity space, optical flowgesture recognition

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1928 Adaptive Skin Segmentation Using Color Distance Map

Authors: Mohammad Shoyaib, M. Abdullah-Al-Wadud, Oksam Chae

Abstract:

In this paper an effective approach for segmenting human skin regions in images taken at different environment is proposed. The proposed method uses a color distance map that is flexible enough to reliably detect the skin regions even if the illumination conditions of the image vary. Local image conditions is also focused, which help the technique to adaptively detect differently illuminated skin regions of an image. Moreover, usage of local information also helps the skin detection process to get rid of picking up much noisy pixels.

Keywords: Color Distance map, Reference skin color, Regiongrowing, Skin segmentation.

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1927 Investigation of the Tattooed Skin by OCT

Authors: Young Geun Kim, Tae Woo Lee, Changmin Yeo, Jung min Yoo, Yeo Jin Kang, Tack-Joong Kim, Byungjo Jung, Ji Hun Cha, Chan Hoi Hur, Dong-Sup Kim, Ki Jung Park, Han Sung Kim

Abstract:

The intention of this lessons is to assess the probability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for biometric recognition. The OCT is the foundation on an optical signal acquisition and processing method and has the micrometer-resolution. In this study, we used the porcine skin for verifying the abovementioned means. The porcine tissue was sound acknowledged for structural and immunohistochemical similarity with human skin, so it could be suitable for pre-clinical trial as investigational specimen. For this reason, it was tattooed by the tattoo machine with the tattoo-pigment. We detected the pattern of the tattooed skin by the OCT according to needle speed. The result was consistent with the histology images. This result showed that the OCT was effective to examine the tattooed skin section noninvasively. It might be available to identify morphological changes inside the skin.

Keywords: mechanical skin damage, optical coherence tomography, tattooed skin

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1926 Intelligent Vision System for Human-Robot Interface

Authors: Al-Amin Bhuiyan, Chang Hong Liu

Abstract:

This paper addresses the development of an intelligent vision system for human-robot interaction. The two novel contributions of this paper are 1) Detection of human faces and 2) Localizing the eye. The method is based on visual attributes of human skin colors and geometrical analysis of face skeleton. This paper introduces a spatial domain filtering method named ?Fuzzily skewed filter' which incorporates Fuzzy rules for deciding the gray level of pixels in the image in their neighborhoods and takes advantages of both the median and averaging filters. The effectiveness of the method has been justified over implementing the eye tracking commands to an entertainment robot, named ''AIBO''.

Keywords: Fuzzily skewed filter, human-robot interface, rmscontrast, skin color segmentation.

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1925 A New Color Image Database for Benchmarking of Automatic Face Detection and Human Skin Segmentation Techniques

Authors: Abdallah S. Abdallah, Mohamad A bou El-Nasr, A. Lynn Abbott

Abstract:

This paper presents a new color face image database for benchmarking of automatic face detection algorithms and human skin segmentation techniques. It is named the VT-AAST image database, and is divided into four parts. Part one is a set of 286 color photographs that include a total of 1027 faces in the original format given by our digital cameras, offering a wide range of difference in orientation, pose, environment, illumination, facial expression and race. Part two contains the same set in a different file format. The third part is a set of corresponding image files that contain human colored skin regions resulting from a manual segmentation procedure. The fourth part of the database has the same regions converted into grayscale. The database is available on-line for noncommercial use. In this paper, descriptions of the database development, organization, format as well as information needed for benchmarking of algorithms are depicted in detail.

Keywords: Image database, color image analysis, facedetection, skin segmentation.

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1924 Red Diode Laser in the Treatment of Epidermal Diseases in PDT

Authors: Farhad H. Mustafa, Mohamad S. Jaafar , Asaad H. Ismail, Ahamad F. Omar, Zahra A. Timimi, Hend A. A. Houssein

Abstract:

The process of laser absorption in the skin during laser irradiation was a critical point in medical application treatments. Delivery the correct amount of laser light is a critical element in photodynamic therapy (PDT). More amounts of laser light able to affect tissues in the skin and small amount not able to enhance PDT procedure in skin. The knowledge of the skin tone laser dependent distribution of 635 nm radiation and its penetration depth in skin is a very important precondition for the investigation of advantage laser induced effect in (PDT) in epidermis diseases (psoriasis). The aim of this work was to estimate an optimum effect of diode laser (635 nm) on the treatment of epidermis diseases in different color skin. Furthermore, it is to improve safety of laser in PDT in epidermis diseases treatment. Advanced system analytical program (ASAP) which is a new approach in investigating the PDT, dependent on optical properties of different skin color was used in present work. A two layered Realistic Skin Model (RSM); stratum corneum and epidermal with red laser (635 nm, 10 mW) were used for irradiative transfer to study fluence and absorbance in different penetration for various human skin colors. Several skin tones very fair, fair, light, medium and dark are used to irradiative transfer. This investigation involved the principles of laser tissue interaction when the skin optically injected by a red laser diode. The results demonstrated that the power characteristic of a laser diode (635 nm) can affect the treatment of epidermal disease in various color skins. Power absorption of the various human skins were recorded and analyzed in order to find the influence of the melanin in PDT treatment in epidermal disease. A two layered RSM show that the change in penetration depth in epidermal layer of the color skin has a larger effect on the distribution of absorbed laser in the skin; this is due to the variation of the melanin concentration for each color.

Keywords: Photodynamic therapy, Realistic skin model, Laser, Light penetration, simulation, Optical properties of skin, Melanin.

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1923 A New Fast Skin Color Detection Technique

Authors: Tarek M. Mahmoud

Abstract:

Skin color can provide a useful and robust cue for human-related image analysis, such as face detection, pornographic image filtering, hand detection and tracking, people retrieval in databases and Internet, etc. The major problem of such kinds of skin color detection algorithms is that it is time consuming and hence cannot be applied to a real time system. To overcome this problem, we introduce a new fast technique for skin detection which can be applied in a real time system. In this technique, instead of testing each image pixel to label it as skin or non-skin (as in classic techniques), we skip a set of pixels. The reason of the skipping process is the high probability that neighbors of the skin color pixels are also skin pixels, especially in adult images and vise versa. The proposed method can rapidly detect skin and non-skin color pixels, which in turn dramatically reduce the CPU time required for the protection process. Since many fast detection techniques are based on image resizing, we apply our proposed pixel skipping technique with image resizing to obtain better results. The performance evaluation of the proposed skipping and hybrid techniques in terms of the measured CPU time is presented. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods achieve better result than the relevant classic method.

Keywords: Adult images filtering, image resizing, skin color detection, YcbCr color space.

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1922 Face Tracking using a Polling Strategy

Authors: Rodrigo Montufar-Chaveznava

Abstract:

The colors of the human skin represent a special category of colors, because they are distinctive from the colors of other natural objects. This category is found as a cluster in color spaces, and the skin color variations between people are mostly due to differences in the intensity. Besides, the face detection based on skin color detection is a faster method as compared to other techniques. In this work, we present a system to track faces by carrying out skin color detection in four different color spaces: HSI, YCbCr, YES and RGB. Once some skin color regions have been detected for each color space, we label each and get some characteristics such as size and position. We are supposing that a face is located in one the detected regions. Next, we compare and employ a polling strategy between labeled regions to determine the final region where the face effectively has been detected and located.

Keywords: Tracking, face detection, image processing, colorspaces.

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1921 Skin Detection using Histogram depend on the Mean Shift Algorithm

Authors: Soo- Young Ye, Ki-Gon Nam, Ki-Won Byun

Abstract:

In this paper, we were introduces a skin detection method using a histogram approximation based on the mean shift algorithm. The proposed method applies the mean shift procedure to a histogram of a skin map of the input image, generated by comparison with standard skin colors in the CbCr color space, and divides the background from the skin region by selecting the maximum value according to brightness level. The proposed method detects the skin region using the mean shift procedure to determine a maximum value that becomes the dividing point, rather than using a manually selected threshold value, as in existing techniques. Even when skin color is contaminated by illumination, the procedure can accurately segment the skin region and the background region. The proposed method may be useful in detecting facial regions as a pretreatment for face recognition in various types of illumination.

Keywords: Skin region detection, mean shift, histogram approximation.

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1920 In Vivo Evaluation of Stable Cream Containing Flavonoids on Hydration and TEWL of Human Skin

Authors: Haji M Shoaib Khan, Naveed Akhtar, Fatima Rasool, Barkat Ali Khan, Tariq Mahmood, Muhammad Shuaib Khan

Abstract:

Antioxidants contribute to endogenous photoprotection and are important for the maintenance of skin health. The study was carried out to compare the skin hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) effects of a stable cosmetic preparation containing flavonoids, following two applications a day over a period of tenth week. The skin trans-epidermal water loss and skin hydration effect was measured at the beginning and up to the end of study period of ten weeks. Any effect produced was measured by Corneometer and TEWA meter (Non-invasive probe). Two formulations were developed for this study design. Formulation one the control formulation in which no apple juice extract( Flavonoids) was incorporated while second one was the active formulation in which the apple juice extract (3%) containing flavonoids was incorporated into water in oil emulsion using Abil EM 90 as an emulsifier. Stable formulations (control and Active) were applied on human cheeks (n = 12) for a study period of 10 weeks. Result of each volunteer of skin hydration and TEWL was measured by corneometer and TEWA meter. By using ANOVA and Paired sample t test as a statistical evaluation, result of both base and formulation were compared. Statistical significant results (p≤0.05) were observed regarding skin hydration and TEWL when two creams, control and Formulation were compared. It showed that desired formulation (Active) may have interesting application as an active moisturizing cream on healthy skin.

Keywords: Apple juice extract, TEWL, Corneometer, flavonoids.

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1919 Automatic Facial Skin Segmentation Using Possibilistic C-Means Algorithm for Evaluation of Facial Surgeries

Authors: Elham Alaee, Mousa Shamsi, Hossein Ahmadi, Soroosh Nazem, Mohammadhossein Sedaaghi

Abstract:

Human face has a fundamental role in the appearance of individuals. So the importance of facial surgeries is undeniable. Thus, there is a need for the appropriate and accurate facial skin segmentation in order to extract different features. Since Fuzzy CMeans (FCM) clustering algorithm doesn’t work appropriately for noisy images and outliers, in this paper we exploit Possibilistic CMeans (PCM) algorithm in order to segment the facial skin. For this purpose, first, we convert facial images from RGB to YCbCr color space. To evaluate performance of the proposed algorithm, the database of Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran was used. In order to have a better understanding from the proposed algorithm; FCM and Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithms are also used for facial skin segmentation. The proposed method shows better results than the other segmentation methods. Results include misclassification error (0.032) and the region’s area error (0.045) for the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Facial image, segmentation, PCM, FCM, skin error, facial surgery.

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1918 Face Detection in Color Images using Color Features of Skin

Authors: Fattah Alizadeh, Saeed Nalousi, Chiman Savari

Abstract:

Because of increasing demands for security in today-s society and also due to paying much more attention to machine vision, biometric researches, pattern recognition and data retrieval in color images, face detection has got more application. In this article we present a scientific approach for modeling human skin color, and also offer an algorithm that tries to detect faces within color images by combination of skin features and determined threshold in the model. Proposed model is based on statistical data in different color spaces. Offered algorithm, using some specified color threshold, first, divides image pixels into two groups: skin pixel group and non-skin pixel group and then based on some geometric features of face decides which area belongs to face. Two main results that we received from this research are as follow: first, proposed model can be applied easily on different databases and color spaces to establish proper threshold. Second, our algorithm can adapt itself with runtime condition and its results demonstrate desirable progress in comparison with similar cases.

Keywords: face detection, skin color modeling, color, colorfulimages, face recognition.

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1917 Noninvasive Assessment of Low Power Laser Radiation Effect on Skin Wound Healing Using Infrared Thermography

Authors: M.A. Calin, S.V. Parasca, M.R. Calin, D. Savastru, D. Manea

Abstract:

The goal of this paper is to examine the effects of laser radiation on the skin wound healing using infrared thermography as non-invasive method for the monitoring of the skin temperature changes during laser treatment. Thirty Wistar rats were used in this study. A skin lesion was performed at the leg on all rats. The animals were exposed to laser radiation (λ = 670 nm, P = 15 mW, DP = 16.31 mW/cm2) for 600 s. Thermal images of wound were acquired before and after laser irradiation. The results have demonstrated that the tissue temperature decreases from 35.5±0.50°C in the first treatment day to 31.3±0.42°C after the third treatment day. This value is close to the normal value of the skin temperature and indicates the end of the skin repair process. In conclusion, the improvements in the wound healing following exposure to laser radiation have been revealed by infrared thermography.

Keywords: skin, wound, laser, thermal image

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1916 A Convolutional Deep Neural Network Approach for Skin Cancer Detection Using Skin Lesion Images

Authors: Firas Gerges, Frank Y. Shih

Abstract:

Malignant Melanoma, known simply as Melanoma, is a type of skin cancer that appears as a mole on the skin. It is critical to detect this cancer at an early stage because it can spread across the body and may lead to the patient death. When detected early, Melanoma is curable. In this paper we propose a deep learning model (Convolutional Neural Networks) in order to automatically classify skin lesion images as Malignant or Benign. Images underwent certain pre-processing steps to diminish the effect of the normal skin region on the model. The result of the proposed model showed a significant improvement over previous work, achieving an accuracy of 97%.

Keywords: Deep learning, skin cancer, image processing, melanoma.

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1915 A New Face Detection Technique using 2D DCT and Self Organizing Feature Map

Authors: Abdallah S. Abdallah, A. Lynn Abbott, Mohamad Abou El-Nasr

Abstract:

This paper presents a new technique for detection of human faces within color images. The approach relies on image segmentation based on skin color, features extracted from the two-dimensional discrete cosine transform (DCT), and self-organizing maps (SOM). After candidate skin regions are extracted, feature vectors are constructed using DCT coefficients computed from those regions. A supervised SOM training session is used to cluster feature vectors into groups, and to assign “face" or “non-face" labels to those clusters. Evaluation was performed using a new image database of 286 images, containing 1027 faces. After training, our detection technique achieved a detection rate of 77.94% during subsequent tests, with a false positive rate of 5.14%. To our knowledge, the proposed technique is the first to combine DCT-based feature extraction with a SOM for detecting human faces within color images. It is also one of a few attempts to combine a feature-invariant approach, such as color-based skin segmentation, together with appearance-based face detection. The main advantage of the new technique is its low computational requirements, in terms of both processing speed and memory utilization.

Keywords: Face detection, skin color segmentation, self-organizingmap.

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1914 Performance of Histogram-Based Skin Colour Segmentation for Arms Detection in Human Motion Analysis Application

Authors: Rosalyn R. Porle, Ali Chekima, Farrah Wong, G. Sainarayanan

Abstract:

Arms detection is one of the fundamental problems in human motion analysis application. The arms are considered as the most challenging body part to be detected since its pose and speed varies in image sequences. Moreover, the arms are usually occluded with other body parts such as the head and torso. In this paper, histogram-based skin colour segmentation is proposed to detect the arms in image sequences. Six different colour spaces namely RGB, rgb, HSI, TSL, SCT and CIELAB are evaluated to determine the best colour space for this segmentation procedure. The evaluation is divided into three categories, which are single colour component, colour without luminance and colour with luminance. The performance is measured using True Positive (TP) and True Negative (TN) on 250 images with manual ground truth. The best colour is selected based on the highest TN value followed by the highest TP value.

Keywords: image colour analysis, image motion analysis, skin, wavelet transform.

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1913 Design of Expert System for Search Allergy and Selection of the Skin Tests using CLIPS

Authors: St. Karagiannis, A. I. Dounis, T. Chalastras, P. Tiropanis, D. Papachristos

Abstract:

This work presents the design of an expert system that aims in the procurement of patient medial background and in the search for suitable skin test selections. Skin testing is the tool used most widely to diagnose allergies. The language of expert systems CLIPS is used as a tool of designing. Finally, we present the evaluation of the proposed expert system which was achieved with the import of certain medical cases and the system produced with suitable successful skin tests.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, expert system - CLIPS, allergy and skin test.

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1912 Clinical Factors of Quality Switched Ruby Laser Therapy for Lentigo Depigmentation

Authors: SunWoo Lee, TaeBum Lee, YoonHwa Park, YooJeong Kim

Abstract:

Solar lentigines appear predominantly on chronically sun-exposed areas of skin, such as the face and the back of the hands. Among the several ways to lentigines treatment, quality-switched lasers are well-known effective treatment for removing solar lentigines. The present pilot study was therefore designed to assess the efficacy of quality-switched ruby laser treatment of such lentigines compare between pretreatment and posttreatment of skin brightness. Twenty-two adults with chronic sun-damaged skin (mean age 52.8 years, range 37–74 years) were treated at the Korean site. A 694 nm Q-switched ruby laser was used, with the energy density set from 1.4 to 12.5 J/cm2, to treat solar lentigines. Average brightness of skin color before ruby laser treatment was 137.3 and its skin color was brightened after ruby laser treatment by 150.5. Also, standard deviation of skin color was decreased from 17.8 to 16.4. Regarding the multivariate model, age and energy were identified as significant factors for skin color brightness change in lentigo depigmentation by ruby laser treatment. Their respective odds ratios were 1.082 (95% CI, 1.007–1.163), and 1.431 (95% CI, 1.051–1.946). Lentigo depigmentation treatment using ruby lasers resulted in a high performance in skin color brightness. Among the relative factors involve with ruby laser treatment, age and energy were the most effective factors which skin color change to brighter than pretreatment.

Keywords: Depigmentation, lentigo, quality switched ruby laser, skin color.

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1911 Modeling of Pulsatile Blood Flow in a Weak Magnetic Field

Authors: Chee Teck Phua, Gaëlle Lissorgues

Abstract:

Blood pulse is an important human physiological signal commonly used for the understanding of the individual physical health. Current methods of non-invasive blood pulse sensing require direct contact or access to the human skin. As such, the performances of these devices tend to vary with time and are subjective to human body fluids (e.g. blood, perspiration and skin-oil) and environmental contaminants (e.g. mud, water, etc). This paper proposes a simulation model for the novel method of non-invasive acquisition of blood pulse using the disturbance created by blood flowing through a localized magnetic field. The simulation model geometry represents a blood vessel, a permanent magnet, a magnetic sensor, surrounding tissues and air in 2-dimensional. In this model, the velocity and pressure fields in the blood stream are described based on Navier-Stroke equations and the walls of the blood vessel are assumed to have no-slip condition. The blood assumes a parabolic profile considering a laminar flow for blood in major artery near the skin. And the inlet velocity follows a sinusoidal equation. This will allow the computational software to compute the interactions between the magnetic vector potential generated by the permanent magnet and the magnetic nanoparticles in the blood. These interactions are simulated based on Maxwell equations at the location where the magnetic sensor is placed. The simulated magnetic field at the sensor location is found to assume similar sinusoidal waveform characteristics as the inlet velocity of the blood. The amplitude of the simulated waveforms at the sensor location are compared with physical measurements on human subjects and found to be highly correlated.

Keywords: Blood pulse, magnetic sensing, non-invasive measurement, magnetic disturbance.

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1910 Mathematical Model for the Transmission of Leptospirosis in Juvennile and Adults Humans

Authors: P. Pongsumpun

Abstract:

Leptospirosis occurs worldwide (except the poles of the earth), urban and rural areas, developed and developing countries, especially in Thailand. It can be transmitted to the human by rats through direct and indirect ways. Human can be infected by either touching the infected rats or contacting with water, soil containing urine from the infected rats through skin, eyes and nose. The data of the people who are infected with this disease indicates that most of the patients are adults. The transmission of this disease is studied through mathematical model. The population is separated into human and rat. The human is divided into two classes, namely juvenile and adult. The model equation is constructed for each class. The standard dynamical modeling method is then used for analyzing the behaviours of solutions. In addition, the conditions of the parameters for the disease free and endemic states are obtained. Numerical solutions are shown to support the theoretical predictions. The results of this study guide the way to decrease the disease outbreak.

Keywords: Adult human, juvenile human, leptospirosis, mathematical model.

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1909 Effect of Different Model Drugs on the Properties of Model Membranes from Fishes

Authors: M. Kumpugdee-Vollrath, T. G. D. Phu, M. Helmis

Abstract:

A suitable model membrane to study the pharmacological effect of pharmaceutical products is human stratum corneum because this layer of human skin is the outermost layer and it is an important barrier to be passed through. Other model membranes which were also used are for example skins from pig, mouse, reptile or fish. We are interested in fish skins in this project. The advantages of the fish skins are, that they can be obtained from the supermarket or fish shop. However, the fish skins should be freshly prepared and used directly without storage. In order to understand the effect of different model drugs e.g. lidocaine HCl, resveratrol, paracetamol, ibuprofen, acetyl salicylic acid on the properties of the model membrane from various types of fishes e.g. trout, salmon, cod, plaice permeation tests were performed and differential scanning calorimetry was applied.

Keywords: Fish skin, model membrane, permeation, DSC, lidocaine HCl, resveratrol, paracetamol, ibuprofen, acetyl salicylic acid.

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1908 Skin Effect: A Natural Phenomenon for Minimization of Ground Bounce in VLSI RC Interconnect

Authors: Shilpi Lavania

Abstract:

As the frequency of operation has attained a range of GHz and signal rise time continues to increase interconnect technology is suffering due to various high frequency effects as well as ground bounce problem. In some recent studies a high frequency effect i.e. skin effect has been modeled and its drawbacks have been discussed. This paper strives to make an impression on the advantage side of modeling skin effect for interconnect line. The proposed method has considered a CMOS with RC interconnect. Delay and noise considering ground bounce problem and with skin effect are discussed. The simulation results reveal an advantage of considering skin effect for minimization of ground bounce problem during the working of the model. Noise and delay variations with temperature are also presented.

Keywords: Interconnect, Skin effect, Ground Bounce, Delay, Noise.

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1907 Utilization of Soymilk Residue for Wheat Flour Substitution in Gyoza skin

Authors: Naruemon Prapasuwannakul

Abstract:

Soymilk residue is obtained as a byproduct from soymilk and tofu production with little economic value. It contains high protein and fiber as well as various minerals and phyto-chemical compounds. The objective of this research was to substitute soymilk residue for wheat flour in gyoza skin in order to enhance value of soymilk residue and increase protein and fiber content of gyoza skin. Wheat flour was replaced with soymilk residue from 0 to 40%. The soy milk residue prepared in this research contains 26.92%protein, 3.58% fiber, 2.88% lipid, 6.29% ash and 60.33% carbohydrate. The results showed that increasing soymilk residue decreased lightness (L*value), tensile strength and sensory attributes but increased redness (a*), yellowness (b*), protein and fiber contents of product. The result also showed that the gyoza skin substituted with 30% soymilk residue was the most acceptable (p≤0.05) and its protein and fiber content increased up to 45 % and 867 % respectively.

Keywords: Gyoza skin, sensory, soymilk residue, wheat flour.

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1906 Adaptive Gaussian Mixture Model for Skin Color Segmentation

Authors: Reza Hassanpour, Asadollah Shahbahrami, Stephan Wong

Abstract:

Skin color based tracking techniques often assume a static skin color model obtained either from an offline set of library images or the first few frames of a video stream. These models can show a weak performance in presence of changing lighting or imaging conditions. We propose an adaptive skin color model based on the Gaussian mixture model to handle the changing conditions. Initial estimation of the number and weights of skin color clusters are obtained using a modified form of the general Expectation maximization algorithm, The model adapts to changes in imaging conditions and refines the model parameters dynamically using spatial and temporal constraints. Experimental results show that the method can be used in effectively tracking of hand and face regions.

Keywords: Face detection, Segmentation, Tracking, Gaussian Mixture Model, Adaptation.

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1905 The Nanobiotechnology of Obtaining of Collagen Gels from Marin Fish Skin and Yours Reological Properties for using Like New Materials in Dental Medicine

Authors: Anamaria Bechir, Rodica Sirbu, Minodora Leca, Maria Maris, Dan Artenie Maris, Emilia Mihaela Cadar, Marius Maris

Abstract:

This paper aims at presenting the biotechnology used to obtain collagen-based gels from shark (Squalus acanthias) and brill skin, marine fish growing in the Black Sea. Due to the structure of its micro-fibres, collagen can be considered a nanomaterial; in order to use collagen-based matrixes as biomaterial, rheological studies must be performed first, to state whether they are stable or not. For the triple-helix structure to remain stable within these gels at room or human body temperature, they must be stabilized by reticulation.

Keywords: Collagen, biotechnology, reticulation.

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1904 Maximum Entropy Based Image Segmentation of Human Skin Lesion

Authors: Sheema Shuja Khattak, Gule Saman, Imran Khan, Abdus Salam

Abstract:

Image segmentation plays an important role in medical imaging applications. Therefore, accurate methods are needed for the successful segmentation of medical images for diagnosis and detection of various diseases. In this paper, we have used maximum entropy to achieve image segmentation. Maximum entropy has been calculated using Shannon, Renyi and Tsallis entropies. This work has novelty based on the detection of skin lesion caused by the bite of a parasite called Sand Fly causing the disease is called Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

Keywords: Shannon, Maximum entropy, Renyi, Tsallis entropy.

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1903 Advantages of Composite Materials in Aircraft Structures

Authors: Muniyasamy Kalanchiam, Moorthy Chinnasamy

Abstract:

In the competitive environment of aircraft industries it becomes absolutely necessary to improve the efficiency, performance of the aircrafts to reduce the development and operating costs considerably, in order to capitalize the market. An important contribution to improve the efficiency and performance can be achieved by decreasing the aircraft weight through considerable usage of composite materials in primary aircraft structures. In this study, a type of composite material called Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) is explored for the usage is aircraft skin panels. Even though there were plenty of studies and research has been already carried out, here a practical example of an aircraft skin panel is taken and substantiated the benefits of composites material usage over the metallic skin panel. A crown skin panel of a commercial aircraft is designed using both metal and composite materials. Stress analysis has been carried out for both and margin of safety is estimated for the critical load cases. The skin panels are compared for manufacturing, tooling, assembly and cost parameters. Detail step by step comparison between metal and composite constructions are studied and results are tabulated for better understanding.

Keywords: Composites, CFRP, Aircraft Structure, Skin panel.

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1902 Enhancing Thermal Efficiency of Double Skin Façade Buildings in Semi-Arid Climate

Authors: Farid Vahedi

Abstract:

There is a great deal of interest in constructing Double Skin Facade (DSF) structures which are considered as modern movement in field of Energy Conservation, renewable energies, and Architecture design. This trend provides many conclusive alternatives which are frequently associated with sustainable building. In this paper a building with Double Skin Facade is considered in the semiarid climate of Tehran, Iran, in order to consider the DSF-s performance during hot seasons. Mathematical formulations calculate solar heat gain by the external skin. Moreover, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed on the case study building to enhance effectiveness of the facade. The conclusion divulged difference of gained energy by the cavity and room with and without blind and louvers. Some solutions were introduced to surge the performance of natural ventilation by plunging the cooling loads in summer.

Keywords: Double Skin Façade Buildings, Energy Conservation, Renewable Energy, Natural Ventilation, Semi-arid Climate.

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