Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1646

Search results for: Heating element

1646 Thermal-Fluid Characteristics of Heating Element in Rotary Heat Exchanger in Accordance with Fouling Phenomena

Authors: Young Mun Lee, Seon Ho Kim, Seok Min Choi, JeongJu Kim, Seungyeong Choi, Hyung Hee Cho

Abstract:

To decrease sulfur oxide in the flue gas from coal power plant, a flue gas de-sulfurization facility is operated. In the reactor, a chemical reaction occurs with a temperature change of the gas so that sulfur oxide is removed and cleaned air is emitted. In this process, temperature change induces a serious problem which is a cold erosion of stack. To solve this problem, the rotary heat exchanger is managed before the stack. In the heat exchanger, a heating element is equipped to increase a heat transfer area. Heat transfer and pressure loss is a big issue to improve a performance. In this research, thermal-fluid characteristics of the heating element are analyzed by computational fluid dynamics. Fouling simulation is also conducted to calculate a performance of heating element. Numerical analysis is performed on the situation where plugging phenomenon has already occurred and existed in the inlet region of the heating element. As the pressure of the rear part of the plugging decreases suddenly and the flow velocity becomes slower, it is found that the flow is gathered from both sides as it develops in the flow direction, and it is confirmed that the pressure difference due to plugging is increased.

Keywords: Heating element, plugging, rotary heat exchanger, thermal fluid characteristics.

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1645 Induction Heating Process Design Using Comsol® Multiphysics Software Version 4.2a

Authors: K. Djellabi, M. E. H. Latreche

Abstract:

Induction heating computer simulation is a powerful tool for process design and optimization, induction coil design, equipment selection, as well as education and business presentations. The authors share their vast experience in the practical use of computer simulation for different induction heating and heat treating processes. In this paper treated with mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of induction heating furnaces with axisymmetric geometries for the numerical solution, we propose finite element methods combined with boundary (FEM) for the electromagnetic model using COMSOL® Multiphysics Software. Some numerical results for an industrial furnace are shown with high frequency.

Keywords: Numerical methods, Induction furnaces, Induction Heating, Finite element method, Comsol Multiphysics software.

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1644 Designing of the Heating Process for Fiber- Reinforced Thermoplastics with Middle-Wave Infrared Radiators

Authors: B. Engel, M. Junge

Abstract:

Manufacturing components of fiber-reinforced thermoplastics requires three steps: heating the matrix, forming and consolidation of the composite and terminal cooling the matrix. For the heating process a pre-determined temperature distribution through the layers and the thickness of the pre-consolidated sheets is recommended to enable forming mechanism. Thus, a design for the heating process for forming composites with thermoplastic matrices is necessary. To obtain a constant temperature through thickness and width of the sheet, the heating process was analyzed by the help of the finite element method. The simulation models were validated by experiments with resistance thermometers as well as with an infrared camera. Based on the finite element simulation, heating methods for infrared radiators have been developed. Using the numeric simulation many iteration loops are required to determine the process parameters. Hence, the initiation of a model for calculating relevant process parameters started applying regression functions.

Keywords: Fiber-reinforced thermoplastics, heating strategies, middle-wave infrared radiator.

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1643 Compressive Stresses near Crack Tip Induced by Thermo-Electric Field

Authors: Thomas Jin-Chee Liu

Abstract:

In this paper, the thermo-electro-structural coupledfield in a cracked metal plate is studied using the finite element analysis. From the computational results, the compressive stresses reveal near the crack tip. This conclusion agrees with the past reference. Furthermore, the compressive condition can retard and stop the crack growth during the Joule heating process.

Keywords: Compressive stress, crack tip, Joule heating, finite element.

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1642 Numerical and Experimental Studies of Joule Heating Effects around Crack and Notch Tips

Authors: Thomas Jin-Chee Liu, Ji-Fu Tseng, Yu-Shen Chen

Abstract:

This paper investigates the thermo-electric effects around the crack and notch tips under the electric current load. The research methods include the finite element analysis and thermal imaging experiment. The finite element solutions show that the electric current density field concentrates at the crack tip. Due to the Joule heating, this electric concentration causes the hot spot at the tip zone. From numerical and experimental results, this hot spot is identified. The temperature of the hot spot is affected by the electric load, operation time and geometry of the sample.

Keywords: Thermo-electric, Joule heating, crack tip, notch tip.

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1641 Line Heating Forming: Methodology and Application Using Kriging and Fifth Order Spline Formulations

Authors: Henri Champliaud, Zhengkun Feng, Ngan Van Lê, Javad Gholipour

Abstract:

In this article, a method is presented to effectively estimate the deformed shape of a thick plate due to line heating. The method uses a fifth order spline interpolation, with up to C3 continuity at specific points to compute the shape of the deformed geometry. First and second order derivatives over a surface are the resulting parameters of a given heating line on a plate. These parameters are determined through experiments and/or finite element simulations. Very accurate kriging models are fitted to real or virtual surfaces to build-up a database of maps. Maps of first and second order derivatives are then applied on numerical plate models to evaluate their evolving shapes through a sequence of heating lines. Adding an optimization process to this approach would allow determining the trajectories of heating lines needed to shape complex geometries, such as Francis turbine blades.

Keywords: Deformation, kriging, fifth order spline interpolation, first, second and third order derivatives, C3 continuity, line heating, plate forming, thermal forming.

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1640 Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Temperature Distribution and Electric Field in a Natural Rubber Glove during Microwave Heating

Authors: U. Narumitbowonkul, P. Keangin, P. Rattanadecho

Abstract:

The characteristics of temperature distribution and electric field in a natural rubber glove (NRG) using microwave energy during microwave heating process are investigated numerically and experimentally. A three-dimensional model of NRG and microwave oven are considered in this work. The influences of position, heating time and rotation angle of NRG on temperature distribution and electric field are presented in details. The coupled equations of electromagnetic wave propagation and heat transfer are solved using the finite element method (FEM). The numerical model is validated with an experimental study at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. The results show that the numerical results closely match the experimental results. Furthermore, it is found that the temperature distribution and electric field increases with increasing heating time. The hot spot zone appears in NRG at the tip of middle finger while the maximum temperature occurs in case of rotation angle of NRG = 60 degree. This investigation provides the essential aspects for a fundamental understanding of heat transport of NRG using microwave energy in industry.

Keywords: Electric field, Finite element method, Microwave energy, Natural rubber glove.

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1639 Simulation and Validation of Spur Gear Heated by Induction using 3d Model

Authors: A. Chebak, N. Barka, A. Menou, J. Brousseau, D. S. Ramdenee

Abstract:

This paper presents the study of hardness profile of spur gear heated by induction heating process in function of the machine parameters, such as the power (kW), the heating time (s) and the generator frequency (kHz). The global work is realized by 3D finite-element simulation applied to the process by coupling and resolving the electromagnetic field and the heat transfer problems, and it was performed in three distinguished steps. First, a Comsol 3D model was built using an adequate formulation and taking into account the material properties and the machine parameters. Second, the convergence study was conducted to optimize the mesh. Then, the surface temperatures and the case depths were deeply analyzed in function of the initial current density and the heating time in medium frequency (MF) and high frequency (HF) heating modes and the edge effect were studied. Finally, the simulations results are validated using experimental tests.

Keywords: Induction heating, simulation, experimental validation, 3D model, hardness profile.

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1638 FEM Investigation of Induction Heating System for Pipe Brazing

Authors: Ilona I. Iatcheva, Rumena D. Stancheva, Mario Metodiev

Abstract:

The paper deals with determination of electromagnetic and temperature field distribution of induction heating system used for pipe brazing. The problem is considered as coupled – time harmonic electromagnetic and transient thermal field. It has been solved using finite element method. The detailed maps of electromagnetic and thermal field distribution have been obtained. The good understanding of the processes in the considered system ensures possibilities for control, management and increasing the efficiency of the welding process.

Keywords: Electromagnetic field, temperature field, finiteelement method, induction heating, pipe brazing.

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1637 Measurement of Systemic Power Efficiency of Microwave Heating Application

Authors: Yi He, Nutdechatorn Puangngernmak, Suramate Chalermwisutkul

Abstract:

Microwave heating process has been developed about sixty years while measurement system has also progressed. Because of irradiation of high frequency of microwave, researchers have been utilized many costly technical instrument measuring parameters to evaluate the performance of microwave heating system. Therefore, this paper is intended to present an easier and feasible efficiency measurement method. It can help inspecting efficiency of microwave heating system with good accuracy, while the method can also give reference to optimizing procedure for microwave heating system for various load material

Keywords: measurement, microwave heating system, systemic power efficiency

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1636 Simulation Study on Comparison of Thermal Comfort during Heating with All-Air System and Radiant Floor System

Authors: Shiyun Liu

Abstract:

Radiant heating systems work fundamentally differently from air systems by taking advantage of both radiant and convective heat transfer to remove space heating load. There are rare studies on differences of heating systems between all-air system and radiant floor system. This paper uses the method of simulation based on state-space to calculate the indoor temperature and wall temperature of each system and shows how the dynamic heat transfer in rooms conditioned by a radiant system is different from an air system. Then this paper analyses the changes of indoor temperature of these two systems, finding out the differences between all-air heating system and radiant floor heating system to help the designer choose a more suitable heating system.

Keywords: Radiant floor, all-air system, thermal comfort, simulation, heating system.

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1635 Finite Element Analysis of Crack Welding Process

Authors: Thomas Jin-Chee Liu

Abstract:

The numerical simulation of the crack welding process is reported in this paper. The thermo-electro-structural coupled-field finite element analysis is adopted to investigate the welding process of crack surfaces. In the simulation, the pressure-dependent and temperature-dependent electrical contact conditions are considered. From the results, the crack surfaces can melt and weld together under the compressive load and electric current. The contact pressure effect must be considered in the finite element analysis to obtain more practical results.

Keywords: Crack welding, contact pressure, Joule heating, finite element, coupled-field.

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1634 Fabrication of Cesium Iodide Columns by Rapid Heating Method

Authors: Chien-Wan Hun, Shao-Fu Chang, Chien-Chon Chen, Ker-Jer Huang

Abstract:

This study presents how to use a high-efficiency process for producing cesium iodide (CsI) crystal columns by rapid heating method. In the past, the heating rate of the resistance wire heating furnace was relatively slow and excessive iodine and CsI vapors were therefore generated during heating. Because much iodine and CsI vapors are produced during heating process, the composition of CsI crystal columns is not correct. In order to enhance the heating rate, making CsI material in the heating process can quickly reach the melting point temperature. This study replaced the traditional type of external resistance heating furnace with halogen-type quartz heater, and then, CsI material can quickly reach the melting point. Eventually, CsI melt can solidify in the anodic aluminum template forming CsI crystal columns.

Keywords: Cesium iodide, high efficiency, vapor, rapid heating, crystal column.

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1633 Prediction Heating Values of Lignocellulosics from Biomass Characteristics

Authors: Kaltima Phichai, Pornchanoke Pragrobpondee, Thaweesak Khumpart, Samorn Hirunpraditkoon

Abstract:

The paper provides biomasses characteristics by proximate analysis (volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash) and ultimate analysis (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen) for the prediction of the heating value equations. The heating value estimation of various biomasses can be used as an energy evaluation. Thirteen types of biomass were studied. Proximate analysis was investigated by mass loss method and infrared moisture analyzer. Ultimate analysis was analyzed by CHNO analyzer. The heating values varied from 15 to 22.4MJ kg-1. Correlations of the calculated heating value with proximate and ultimate analyses were undertaken using multiple regression analysis and summarized into three and two equations, respectively. Correlations based on proximate analysis illustrated that deviation of calculated heating values from experimental heating values was higher than the correlations based on ultimate analysis.

Keywords: Heating value equation, Proximate analysis, Ultimate analysis.

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1632 Study of Currents and Temperature of Induced Spur Gear using 2d Simulation

Authors: N. Barka, P. Bocher, A. Chebak, J. Brousseau, D. S. Ramdenee

Abstract:

This paper presents the study of induced currents and temperature distribution in gear heated by induction process using 2D finite element (FE) model. The model is developed by coupling Maxwell and heat transfer equations into a multi-physics model. The obtained results allow comparing the medium frequency (MF) and high frequency (HF) cases and the effect of machine parameters on the evolution of induced currents and temperature during heating. The sensitivity study of the temperature profile is conducted and the case hardness is predicted using the final temperature profile. These results are validated using tests and give a good understanding of phenomena during heating process.

Keywords: 2D model, induction heating, spur gear, induced currents, experimental validation

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1631 The Effect of Choke on the Efficiency of Coaxial Antenna for Percutaneous Microwave Coagulation Therapy for Hepatic Tumor

Authors: Surita Maini

Abstract:

There are many perceived advantages of microwave ablation have driven researchers to develop innovative antennas to effectively treat deep-seated, non-resectable hepatic tumors. In this paper a coaxial antenna with a miniaturized sleeve choke has been discussed for microwave interstitial ablation therapy, in order to reduce backward heating effects irrespective of the insertion depth into the tissue. Two dimensional Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to simulate and measure the results of miniaturized sleeve choke antenna. This paper emphasizes the importance of factors that can affect simulation accuracy, which include mesh resolution, surface heating and reflection coefficient. Quarter wavelength choke effectiveness has been discussed by comparing it with the unchoked antenna with same dimensions.

Keywords: Microwave ablation, tumor, Finite Element Method, Coaxial slot antenna, Coaxial dipole antenna.

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1630 Technical Analysis of Combined Solar Water Heating Systems for Cold Climate Regions

Authors: Hossein Lotfizadeh, André McDonald, Amit Kumar

Abstract:

Renewable energy resources, which can supplement space and water heating for residential buildings, can have a noticeable impact on natural gas consumption and air pollution. This study considers a technical analysis of a combined solar water heating system with evacuated tube solar collectors for different solar coverage, ranging from 20% to 100% of the total roof area of a typical residential building located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The alternative heating systems were conventional (non-condensing) and condensing tankless water heaters and condensing boilers that were coupled to solar water heating systems. The performance of the alternative heating systems was compared to a traditional heating system, consisting of a conventional boiler, applied to houses of various gross floor areas. A comparison among the annual natural gas consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation, and emissions for the various house sizes indicated that the combined solar heating system can reduce the natural gas consumption and CO2 emissions, and increase CO2 mitigation for all the systems that were studied. The results suggest that solar water heating systems are potentially beneficial for residential heating system applications in terms of energy savings and CO2 mitigation.

Keywords: CO2 emissions, CO2 mitigation, natural gas consumption, solar water heating system, tankless water heater.

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1629 Calculation of Heating Load for an Apartment Complex with Unit Building Method

Authors: Ju-Seok Kim, Sun-Ae Moon, Tae-Gu Lee, Seung-Jae Moon, Jae-Heon Lee

Abstract:

As a simple to method estimate the plant heating energy capacity of an apartment complex, a new load calculation method has been proposed. The method which can be called as unit building method, predicts the heating load of the entire complex instead of summing up that of each apartment belonging to complex. Comparison of the unit heating load for various floor sizes between the present method and conventional approach shows a close agreement with dynamic load calculation code. Some additional calculations are performed to demonstrate it-s application examples.

Keywords: Unit Building Method, Unit Heating Load, TFMLoad.

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1628 Fin Spacing Effect of the Tube Fin Heat Exchanger at the Floor Heating Convector

Authors: F. Lemfeld, K. Frana

Abstract:

This article deals with numerical simulation of the floor heating convector in 3D. Numerical simulation is focused on cooling mode of the floor heating convector. Geometrical model represents section of the heat exchanger – two fins with the gap between, pipes are not involved. Two types of fin are examined – sinusoidal and angular shape with different fin spacing. Results of fin spacing in case of constant Reynolds number are presented. For the numerical simulation was used commercial software Ansys Fluent.

Keywords: fin spacing, cooling output, floor heating convector, numerical simulation.

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1627 Mapping of C* Elements in Finite Element Method using Transformation Matrix

Authors: G. H. Majzoob, B. Sharifi Hamadani

Abstract:

Mapping between local and global coordinates is an important issue in finite element method, as all calculations are performed in local coordinates. The concern arises when subparametric are used, in which the shape functions of the field variable and the geometry of the element are not the same. This is particularly the case for C* elements in which the extra degrees of freedoms added to the nodes make the elements sub-parametric. In the present work, transformation matrix for C1* (an 8-noded hexahedron element with 12 degrees of freedom at each node) is obtained using equivalent C0 elements (with the same number of degrees of freedom). The convergence rate of 8-noded C1* element is nearly equal to its equivalent C0 element, while it consumes less CPU time with respect to the C0 element. The existence of derivative degrees of freedom at the nodes of C1* element along with excellent convergence makes it superior compared with it equivalent C0 element.

Keywords: Mapping, Finite element method, C* elements, Convergence, C0 elements.

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1626 The Influence of the Fin Set-up to the Cooling Output of the Floor Heating Convector

Authors: F. Lemfeld, K. Frana

Abstract:

This article deals with the numerical simulation of the floor heating convector in 3D. Presented convector can operate in two modes – cooling mode and heating mode. This initial numerical simulation is focused on cooling mode of the convector. Models with different temperature of the fins are compared and three various shapes of the fins are examined as well. The objective of the work is to predict air flow and heat transfer inside convector for further optimalization of these devices. For the numerical simulation was used commercial software Ansys Fluent.

Keywords: Cooling output, floor heating convector, numericalsimulation, optimalization.

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1625 Energy Consumptions of Different Building Heating Systems for Various Meteorological Regions of Iran: A Comparison Study

Authors: S. Kazemzadeh Hannani, A. Azimi, S. Nikoofard

Abstract:

To simulate heating systems in buildings, a research oriented computer code has been developed in Sharif University of Technology in Iran where the climate, existing heating equipment in buildings, consumer behavior and their interactions are considered for simulating energy consumption in conventional systems such as heaters, radiators and fan-coils. In order to validate the computer code, the available data of five buildings was used and the computed consumed energy was compared with the estimated energy extracted from monthly bills. The initial heating system was replaced by the alternative system and the effect of this change was observed on the energy consumption. As a result, the effect of changing heating equipment on energy consumption was investigated in different climates. Changing heater to radiator renders energy conservation up to 50% in all climates and changing radiator to fan-coil decreases energy consumption in climates with cold and dry winter.

Keywords: Energy consumption, heating system, energy simulation.

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1624 Energy Consumptions of Different Building Heating Systems for Various Meteorological Regions of Iran: A Comparison Study

Authors: S. Kazemzadeh Hannani, A. Azimi, S. Nikoofard

Abstract:

To simulate heating systems in buildings, a research oriented computer code has been developed in Sharif University of Technology in Iran where the climate, existing heating equipment in buildings, consumer behavior and their interactions are considered for simulating energy consumption in conventional systems such as heaters, radiators and fan-coils. In order to validate the computer code, the available data of five buildings was used and the computed consumed energy was compared with the estimated energy extracted from monthly bills. The initial heating system was replaced by the alternative system and the effect of this change was observed on the energy consumption. As a result, the effect of changing heating equipment on energy consumption was investigated in different climates. Changing heater to radiator renders energy conservation up to 50% in all climates and changing radiator to fan-coil decreases energy consumption in climates with cold and dry winter.

Keywords: Energy consumption, heating system, energy simulation.

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1623 Feasibility of Integrating Heating Valve Drivers with KNX-standard for Performing Dynamic Hydraulic Balance in Domestic Buildings

Authors: Tobias Teich, Danny Szendrei, Markus Schrader, Franziska Jahn, Susan Franke

Abstract:

The increasing demand for sufficient and clean energy forces industrial and service companies to align their strategies towards efficient consumption. This trend refers also to the residential building sector. There, large amounts of energy consumption are caused by house and facility heating. Many of the operated hot water heating systems lack hydraulic balanced working conditions for heat distribution and –transmission and lead to inefficient heating. Through hydraulic balancing of heating systems, significant energy savings for primary and secondary energy can be achieved. This paper addresses the use of KNX-technology (Smart Buildings) in residential buildings to ensure a dynamic adaption of hydraulic system's performance, in order to increase the heating system's efficiency. In this paper, the procedure of heating system segmentation into hydraulically independent units (meshes) is presented. Within these meshes, the heating valve are addressed and controlled by a central facility server. Feasibility criteria towards such drivers will be named. The dynamic hydraulic balance is achieved by positioning these valves according to heating loads, that are generated from the temperature settings in the corresponding rooms. The energetic advantages of single room heating control procedures, based on the application FacilityManager, is presented.

Keywords: building automation, dynamic hydraulic balance, energy savings, VPN-networks.

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1622 Design Calculation and Performance Testing of Heating Coil in Induction Surface Hardening Machine

Authors: Soe Sandar Aung, Han Phyo Wai, Nyein Nyein Soe

Abstract:

The induction hardening machines are utilized in the industries which modify machine parts and tools needed to achieve high ware resistance. This paper describes the model of induction heating process design of inverter circuit and the results of induction surface hardening of heating coil. In the design of heating coil, the shape and the turn numbers of the coil are very important design factors because they decide the overall operating performance of induction heater including resonant frequency, Q factor, efficiency and power factor. The performance will be tested by experiments in some cases high frequency induction hardening machine.

Keywords: Induction Heating, Resonant Circuit, InverterCircuit, Coil Design, Induction Hardening Machine.

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1621 Numerical Simulation of Heating Characteristics in a Microwave T-Prong Antenna for Cancer Therapy

Authors: M. Chaichanyut, S. Tungjitkusolmun

Abstract:

This research is presented with microwave (MW) ablation by using the T-Prong monopole antennas. In the study, three-dimensional (3D) finite-element methods (FEM) were utilized to analyse: the tissue heat flux, temperature distributions (heating pattern) and volume destruction during MW ablation in liver cancer tissue. The configurations of T-Prong monopole antennas were considered: Three T-prong antenna, Expand T-Prong antenna and Arrow T-Prong antenna. The 3D FEMs solutions were based on Maxwell and bio-heat equations. The microwave power deliveries were 10 W; the duration of ablation in all cases was 300s. Our numerical result, heat flux and the hotspot occurred at the tip of the T-prong antenna for all cases. The temperature distribution pattern of all antennas was teardrop. The Arrow T-Prong antenna can induce the highest temperature within cancer tissue. The microwave ablation was successful when the region where the temperatures exceed 50°C (i.e. complete destruction). The Expand T-Prong antenna could complete destruction the liver cancer tissue was maximized (6.05 cm3). The ablation pattern or axial ratio (Widest/length) of Expand T-Prong antenna and Arrow T-Prong antenna was 1, but the axial ratio of Three T-prong antenna of about 1.15.

Keywords: Liver cancer, T-Prong antenna, Finite element, Microwave ablation.

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1620 Uniform Heating during Focused Ultrasound Thermal Therapy

Authors: To-Yuan Chen, Tzu-Ching Shih, Hao-Li Liu, Kuen-Cheng Ju

Abstract:

The focal spot of a high intensity focused ultrasound transducer is small. To heat a large target volume, multiple treatment spots are required. If the power of each treatment spot is fixed, it could results in insufficient heating of initial spots and over-heating of later ones, which is caused by the thermal diffusion. Hence, to produce a uniform heated volume, the delivered energy of each treatment spot should be properly adjusted. In this study, we proposed an iterative, extrapolation technique to adjust the required ultrasound energy of each treatment spot. Three different scanning pathways were used to evaluate the performance of this technique. Results indicate that by using the proposed technique, uniform heating volume could be obtained.

Keywords: focused ultrasound, thermal therapy, uniform heating, iteration, extrapolation, scan

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1619 An Experimental Investigation of Heating in Induction Motors

Authors: R. Khaldi, N. Benamrouche, M. Bouheraoua

Abstract:

The ability to predict an accurate temperature distribution requires the knowledge of the losses, the thermal characteristics of the materials, and the cooling conditions, all of which are very difficult to quantify. In this paper, the impact of the effects of iron and copper losses are investigated separately and their effects on the heating in various points of the stator of an induction motor, is highlighted by using two simple tests. In addition, the effect of a defect, such as an open circuit in a phase of the stator, on the heating is also obtained by a no-load test. The squirrel cage induction motor is rated at 2.2 kW; 380 V; 5.2 A; Δ connected; 50 Hz; 1420 rpm and the class of insulation F, has been thermally tested under several load conditions. Several thermocouples were placed in strategic points of the stator.

Keywords: induction motor, temperature, heating, losses

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1618 Cyclic Heating Effect on Hardness of Copper

Authors: Tahany W. Sadak

Abstract:

Presented work discusses research results concerning the effect of the heat treatment process. Thermal fatigue which expresses repeated heating and cooling processes affect the ductility or the brittleness of the material. In this research, 70 specimens of copper (1.5 mm thickness, 85 mm length, 32 mm width) are subjected to thermal fatigue at different conditions. Heating temperatures Th are 100, 300 and 500 °C. Number of repeated cycles N is from 1 to 100. Heating time th =600 Sec, and Cooling time; tC= 900 Sec.  Results are evaluated and then compared to each other and to that of specimens without subjected to thermal fatigue.

Keywords: Copper, hardness, heat treatment, thermal fatigue, thermal analysis.

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1617 Heating of High-Density Hydrogen by High- Current Arc Radiation

Authors: A. V. Budin, Ph. G. Rutberg, M. E. Pinchuk, A. A. Bogomaz, V. Yu. Svetova

Abstract:

The investigation results of high-density hydrogen heating by high-current electric arc are presented at initial pressure from 5 MPa to 160 MPa with current amplitude up to 1.6 MA and current rate of rise 109-1011 A/s. When changing the initial pressure and current rate of rise, channel temperature varies from several electronvolts to hundreds electronvolts. Arc channel radius is several millimeters. But the radius of the discharge chamber greater than the radius of the arc channel on approximately order of magnitude. High efficiency of gas heating is caused by radiation absorption of hydrogen surrounding the arc. Current channel consist from vapor of the initiating wire. At current rate of rise of 109 A/s and relatively small current amplitude gas heating occurs due to radiation absorption in the band transparency of hydrogen by the wire vapours with photon energies less than 13.6 eV. At current rate of rise of 1011 A/s gas heating is due to hydrogen absorption of soft X-rays from discharge channel.

Keywords: High-density hydrogen heating by high-current electric arc.

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