Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 760

Search results for: Fundamental natural frequency

640 Comparison of Frequency Converter Outages: A Case Study on the Swedish TPS System

Authors: Y. A. Mahmood, A. Ahmadi, R. Karim, U. Kumar, A.K. Verma, N. Fransson

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper isunavailability of the two main types of conveSwedish traction power supply (TPS) system, i.e.static converter. The number of outages and the ouused to analyze and compare the unavailability oconverters. The mean cumulative function (MCF)analyze the number of outages and the unavailabthe forced outage rate (FOR) concept has been uoutage rates. The study shows that the outagesfailure occur at a constant rate by calendar timconverter stations, while very few stations havedecreasing rate. It has also been found that the stata higher number of outages and a higher outage ratcompared to the rotary converter types. The resultsthat combining the number of outages and the fgives a better view of the converters performasupport for the maintenance decision. In fact, usingdoes not reflect reality. Comparing these two indein identifying the areas where extra resources are maintenance planning and where improvementsoutage in the TPS system.KeywordsFrequency Converter, Forced OuCumulative Function, Traction Power Supply, ESystems.

Keywords: Frequency Converter, Forced Outage Rate, Mean Cumulative Function, Traction Power Supply, Electrified Railway Systems.

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639 Exact Evaluation Method for Error Performance Analysis of Arbitrary 2-D Modulation OFDM Systems with CFO

Authors: Jaeyoon Lee, Dongweon Yoon, Hoon Yoo, Sanggoo Kim

Abstract:

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) has developed into a popular scheme for wideband digital communications used in consumer applications such as digital broadcasting, wireless networking and broadband internet access. In the OFDM system, carrier frequency offset (CFO) causes intercarrier interference (ICI) which significantly degrades the system error performance. In this paper we provide an exact evaluation method for error performance analysis of arbitrary 2-D modulation OFDM systems with CFO, and analyze the effect of CFO on error performance.

Keywords: Carrier frequency offset, Probability of error, Inter-channel interference, Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

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638 Identification of Outliers in Flood Frequency Analysis: Comparison of Original and Multiple Grubbs-Beck Test

Authors: Ayesha S. Rahman, Khaled Haddad, Ataur Rahman

Abstract:

At-site flood frequency analysis is used to estimate flood quantiles when at-site record length is reasonably long. In Australia, FLIKE software has been introduced for at-site flood frequency analysis. The advantage of FLIKE is that, for a given application, the user can compare a number of most commonly adopted probability distributions and parameter estimation methods relatively quickly using a windows interface. The new version of FLIKE has been incorporated with the multiple Grubbs and Beck test which can identify multiple numbers of potentially influential low flows. This paper presents a case study considering six catchments in eastern Australia which compares two outlier identification tests (original Grubbs and Beck test and multiple Grubbs and Beck test) and two commonly applied probability distributions (Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) and Log Pearson type 3 (LP3)) using FLIKE software. It has been found that the multiple Grubbs and Beck test when used with LP3 distribution provides more accurate flood quantile estimates than when LP3 distribution is used with the original Grubbs and Beck test. Between these two methods, the differences in flood quantile estimates have been found to be up to 61% for the six study catchments. It has also been found that GEV distribution (with L moments) and LP3 distribution with the multiple Grubbs and Beck test provide quite similar results in most of the cases; however, a difference up to 38% has been noted for flood quantiles for annual exceedance probability (AEP) of 1 in 100 for one catchment. This finding needs to be confirmed with a greater number of stations across other Australian states.

Keywords: Floods, FLIKE, probability distributions, flood frequency, outlier.

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637 Speed -Sensorless Vector Control of Parallel Connected Induction Motor Drive Fed by a Single Inverter using Natural Observer

Authors: R. Gunabalan, V. Subbiah

Abstract:

This paper describes the speed sensorless vector control method of the parallel connected induction motor drive fed by a single inverter. Speed and rotor fluxes of the induction motor are estimated by natural observer with load torque adaptation and adaptive rotor flux observer. The performance parameters speed and rotor fluxes are estimated from the measured terminal voltages and currents. Fourth order induction motor model is used and speed is considered as a parameter. The performance of the natural observer is similar to the conventional observer. The speed of an induction motor is estimated by MATLAB simulation under different speed and load conditions. Estimated values along with other measured states are used for closed loop control. The simulation results show that the natural observer is also effective for parallel connected induction motor drive.

Keywords: natural observer, adaptive observer, sensorless control

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636 Effects of Material Properties of Warhead Casing on Natural Fragmentation Performance of High Explosive (HE) Warhead

Authors: G. Tanapornraweekit, W. Kulsirikasem

Abstract:

This research paper presents numerical studies of the characteristics of warhead fragmentation in terms of initial velocities, spray angles of fragments and fragment mass distribution of high explosive (HE) warhead. The behavior of warhead fragmentation depends on shape and size of warhead, thickness of casing, type of explosive, number and position of detonator, and etc. This paper focuses on the effects of material properties of warhead casing, i.e. failure strain, initial yield and ultimate strength on the characteristics of warhead fragmentation. It was found that initial yield and ultimate strength of casing has minimal effects on the initial velocities and spray angles of fragments. Moreover, a brittle warhead casing with low failure strain tends to produce higher number of fragments with less average fragment mass.

Keywords: Detonation, Material Properties, Natural Fragment, Warhead

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635 Natural Ventilation for the Sustainable Tall Office Buildings of the Future

Authors: Ayşin Sev, Görkem Aslan

Abstract:

Sustainable tall buildings that provide comfortable, healthy and efficient indoor environments are clearly desirable as the densification of living and working space for the world’s increasing population proceeds. For environmental concerns, these buildings must also be energy efficient. One component of these tasks is the provision of indoor air quality and thermal comfort, which can be enhanced with natural ventilation by the supply of fresh air. Working spaces can only be naturally ventilated with connections to the outdoors utilizing operable windows, double facades, ventilation stacks, balconies, patios, terraces and skygardens. Large amounts of fresh air can be provided to the indoor spaces without mechanical air-conditioning systems, which are widely employed in contemporary tall buildings. This paper tends to present the concept of natural ventilation for sustainable tall office buildings in order to achieve healthy and comfortable working spaces, as well as energy efficient environments. Initially the historical evolution of ventilation strategies for tall buildings is presented, beginning with natural ventilation and continuing with the introduction of mechanical airconditioning systems. Then the emergence of natural ventilation due to the health and environmental concerns in tall buildings is handled, and the strategies for implementing this strategy are revealed. In the next section, a number of case studies that utilize this strategy are investigated. Finally, how tall office buildings can benefit from this strategy is discussed.

Keywords: Tall office building, natural ventilation, energy efficiency, double-skin façade, stack ventilation, air conditioning.

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634 Study on Performance of Wigner Ville Distribution for Linear FM and Transient Signal Analysis

Authors: Azeemsha Thacham Poyil, Nasimudeen KM

Abstract:

This research paper presents some methods to assess the performance of Wigner Ville Distribution for Time-Frequency representation of non-stationary signals, in comparison with the other representations like STFT, Spectrogram etc. The simultaneous timefrequency resolution of WVD is one of the important properties which makes it preferable for analysis and detection of linear FM and transient signals. There are two algorithms proposed here to assess the resolution and to compare the performance of signal detection. First method is based on the measurement of area under timefrequency plot; in case of a linear FM signal analysis. A second method is based on the instantaneous power calculation and is used in case of transient, non-stationary signals. The implementation is explained briefly for both methods with suitable diagrams. The accuracy of the measurements is validated to show the better performance of WVD representation in comparison with STFT and Spectrograms.

Keywords: WVD: Wigner Ville Distribution, STFT: Short Time Fourier Transform, FT: Fourier Transform, TFR: Time-Frequency Representation, FM: Frequency Modulation, LFM Signal: Linear FM Signal, JTFA: Joint time frequency analysis.

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633 Analysis of the Torque Required for Mixing LDPE with Natural Fibre and DCP

Authors: A. E. Delgado, W. Aperador

Abstract:

This study evaluated the incidence of concentrated natural fibre, as well as the effects of adding a crosslinking agent on the torque when those components are mixed with low density polyethylene (LDPE). The natural fibre has a particle size of between 0.8-1.2mm and a moisture content of 0.17%. An internal mixer was used to measure the torque required to mix the polymer with the fibre. The effect of the fibre content and crosslinking agent on the torque was also determined. A change was observed in the morphology of the mixes using SEM differential scanning microscopy.

Keywords: WPC, DCP, LDPE, natural fibre, torque.

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632 Effect of Loop Diameter, Height and Insulation on a High Temperature CO2 Based Natural Circulation Loop

Authors: S. Sadhu, M. Ramgopal, S. Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

Natural circulation loops (NCLs) are buoyancy driven flow systems without any moving components. NCLs have vast applications in geothermal, solar and nuclear power industry where reliability and safety are of foremost concern. Due to certain favorable thermophysical properties, especially near supercritical regions, carbon dioxide can be considered as an ideal loop fluid in many applications. In the present work, a high temperature NCL that uses supercritical carbon dioxide as loop fluid is analysed. The effects of relevant design and operating variables on loop performance are studied. The system operating under steady state is modelled taking into account the axial conduction through loop fluid and loop wall, and heat transfer with surroundings. The heat source is considered to be a heater with controlled heat flux and heat sink is modelled as an end heat exchanger with water as the external cold fluid. The governing equations for mass, momentum and energy conservation are normalized and are solved numerically using finite volume method. Results are obtained for a loop pressure of 90 bar with the power input varying from 0.5 kW to 6.0 kW. The numerical results are validated against the experimental results reported in the literature in terms of the modified Grashof number (Grm) and Reynolds number (Re). Based on the results, buoyancy and friction dominated regions are identified for a given loop. Parametric analysis has been done to show the effect of loop diameter, loop height, ambient temperature and insulation. The results show that for the high temperature loop, heat loss to surroundings affects the loop performance significantly. Hence this conjugate heat transfer between the loop and surroundings has to be considered in the analysis of high temperature NCLs.

Keywords: Conjugate heat transfer, heat loss, natural circulation loop, supercritical carbon dioxide.

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631 An Adaptive Setting of Frequency Relay with Consideration on Load and Power System Dynamics

Authors: J. Mirzaei, H. Kazemi Kargar

Abstract:

This paper presents a new approach for setting frequency relays based on the dynamic of power system. A simplified model of the power system based on the load-frequency control loop will be developed to be used instead of the complete model of the power system. The effects of the equipments and their responses on the frequency variations of the power plant will be investigated and then a method for adaptive settings of frequency relays will be explained. The proposed method will be investigated by analyzing a simplified model of a power plant by MATLAB software.

Keywords: Adaptive Settings, Frequency Relay (FR), PowerSystem Dynamics, SFR model.

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630 A Novel FFT-Based Frequency Offset Estimator for OFDM Systems

Authors: Mahdi Masoumi, Mehrdad Ardebilipoor, Seyed Aidin Bassam

Abstract:

This paper proposes a novel frequency offset (FO) estimator for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. Simplicity is most significant feature of this algorithm and can be repeated to achieve acceptable accuracy. Also fractional and integer part of FO is estimated jointly with use of the same algorithm. To do so, instead of using conventional algorithms that usually use correlation function, we use DFT of received signal. Therefore, complexity will be reduced and we can do synchronization procedure by the same hardware that is used to demodulate OFDM symbol. Finally, computer simulation shows that the accuracy of this method is better than other conventional methods.

Keywords: DFT, Estimator, Frequency Offset, IEEE802.11a, OFDM.

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629 Gravitational Frequency Shifts for Photons and Particles

Authors: Jing-Gang Xie

Abstract:

The research, in this case, considers the integration of the Quantum Field Theory and the General Relativity Theory. As two successful models in explaining behaviors of particles, they are incompatible since they work at different masses and scales of energy, with the evidence that regards the description of black holes and universe formation. It is so considering previous efforts in merging the two theories, including the likes of the String Theory, Quantum Gravity models, and others. In a bid to prove an actionable experiment, the paper’s approach starts with the derivations of the existing theories at present. It goes on to test the derivations by applying the same initial assumptions, coupled with several deviations. The resulting equations get similar results to those of classical Newton model, quantum mechanics, and general relativity as long as conditions are normal. However, outcomes are different when conditions are extreme, specifically with no breakdowns even for less than Schwarzschild radius, or at Planck length cases. Even so, it proves the possibilities of integrating the two theories.

Keywords: General relativity theory, particles, photons, quantum gravity model, gravitational frequency shift.

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628 A New Load Frequency Controller based on Parallel Fuzzy PI with Conventional PD (FPI-PD)

Authors: Aqeel S. Jaber, Abu Zaharin Ahmad, Ahmed N. Abdalla

Abstract:

The artificial intelligent controller in power system plays as most important rule for many applications such as system operation and its control specially Load Frequency Controller (LFC). The main objective of LFC is to keep the frequency and tie-line power close to their decidable bounds in case of disturbance. In this paper, parallel fuzzy PI adaptive with conventional PD technique for Load Frequency Control system was proposed. PSO optimization method used to optimize both of scale fuzzy PI and tuning of PD. Two equal interconnected power system areas were used as a test system. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed controller compared with different PID and classical fuzzy PI controllers in terms of speed response and damping frequency.

Keywords: Load frequency control, PSO, fuzzy control.

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627 A Low Complexity Frequency Offset Estimation for MB-OFDM based UWB Systems

Authors: Wang Xue, Liu Dan, Liu Ying, Wang Molin, Qian Zhihong

Abstract:

A low-complexity, high-accurate frequency offset estimation for multi-band orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM) based ultra-wide band systems is presented regarding different carrier frequency offsets, different channel frequency responses, different preamble patterns in different bands. Utilizing a half-cycle Constant Amplitude Zero Auto Correlation (CAZAC) sequence as the preamble sequence, the estimator with a semi-cross contrast scheme between two successive OFDM symbols is proposed. The CRLB and complexity of the proposed algorithm are derived. Compared to the reference estimators, the proposed method achieves significantly less complexity (about 50%) for all preamble patterns of the MB-OFDM systems. The CRLBs turn out to be of well performance.

Keywords: CAZAC, Frequency Offset, Semi-cross Contrast, MB-OFDM, UWB

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626 Multiple Crack Identification Using Frequency Measurement

Authors: J.W. Xiang, M. Liang

Abstract:

This paper presents a method to detect multiple cracks based on frequency information. When a structure is subjected to dynamic or static loads, cracks may develop and the modal frequencies of the cracked structure may change. To detect cracks in a structure, we construct a high precision wavelet finite element (EF) model of a certain structure using the B-spline wavelet on the interval (BSWI). Cracks can be modeled by rotational springs and added to the FE model. The crack detection database will be obtained by solving that model. Then the crack locations and depths can be determined based on the frequency information from the database. The performance of the proposed method has been numerically verified by a rotor example.

Keywords: Rotor, frequency measurement, multiple cracks, wavelet finite element method, identification.

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625 Fundamental Concepts of Theory of Constraints: An Emerging Philosophy

Authors: Ajay Gupta, Arvind Bhardwaj, Arun Kanda

Abstract:

Dr Eliyahu Goldratt has done the pioneering work in the development of Theory of Constraints. Since then, many more researchers around the globe are working to enhance this body of knowledge. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compile the salient features of this theory from the work done by Goldratt and other researchers. This paper will provide a good starting point to the potential researchers interested to work in Theory of Constraints. The paper will also help the practicing managers by clarifying their concepts on the theory and will facilitate its successful implementation in their working areas.

Keywords: Drum-Buffer-Rope, Goldratt, ProductionScheduling, Theory of Constraints.

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624 Parametric Analysis and Optimal Design of Functionally Graded Plates Using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm and a Hybrid Meshless Method

Authors: Foad Nazari, Seyed Mahmood Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein Abolbashari, Mohammad Hassan Abolbashari

Abstract:

The present study is concerned with the optimal design of functionally graded plates using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. In this study, meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method is employed to obtain the functionally graded (FG) plate’s natural frequencies. Effects of two parameters including thickness to height ratio and volume fraction index on the natural frequencies and total mass of plate are studied by using the MLPG results. Then the first natural frequency of the plate, for different conditions where MLPG data are not available, is predicted by an artificial neural network (ANN) approach which is trained by back-error propagation (BEP) technique. The ANN results show that the predicted data are in good agreement with the actual one. To maximize the first natural frequency and minimize the mass of FG plate simultaneously, the weighted sum optimization approach and PSO algorithm are used. However, the proposed optimization process of this study can provide the designers of FG plates with useful data.

Keywords: Optimal design, natural frequency, FG plate, hybrid meshless method, MLPG method, ANN approach, particle swarm optimization.

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623 Blind Channel Estimation for Frequency Hopping System Using Subspace Based Method

Authors: M. M. Qasaymeh, M. A. Khodeir

Abstract:

Subspace channel estimation methods have been studied widely, where the subspace of the covariance matrix is decomposed to separate the signal subspace from noise subspace. The decomposition is normally done by using either the eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) or the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the auto-correlation matrix (ACM). However, the subspace decomposition process is computationally expensive. This paper considers the estimation of the multipath slow frequency hopping (FH) channel using noise space based method. In particular, an efficient method is proposed to estimate the multipath time delays by applying multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm which is based on the null space extracted by the rank revealing LU (RRLU) factorization. As a result, precise information is provided by the RRLU about the numerical null space and the rank, (i.e., important tool in linear algebra). The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed novel method by approximately decreasing the computational complexity to the half as compared with RRQR methods keeping the same performance.

Keywords: Time Delay Estimation, RRLU, RRQR, MUSIC, LS-ESPRIT, LS-ESPRIT, Frequency Hopping.

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622 Field Experience with Sweep Frequency Response Analysis for Power Transformer Diagnosis

Authors: Ambuj Kumar, Sunil Kumar Singh, Shrikant Singh

Abstract:

Sweep frequency response analysis has been turning out a powerful tool for investigation of mechanical as well as electrical integration of transformers. In this paper various aspect of practical application of SFRA has been studied. Open circuit and short circuit measurement were done on different phases of high voltage and low voltage winding. A case study was presented for the transformer of rating 31.5 MVA for various frequency ranges. A clear picture was presented for sub- frequency ranges for HV as well as LV winding. The main motive of work is to investigate high voltage short circuit response. The theoretical concept about SFRA responses is validated with expert system software results.

Keywords: Frequency deviation, OCT & SCT, SFRA, Transformer winding.

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621 Texture Based Weed Detection Using Multi Resolution Combined Statistical and Spatial Frequency (MRCSF)

Authors: R.S.Sabeenian, V.Palanisamy

Abstract:

Texture classification is a trendy and a catchy technology in the field of texture analysis. Textures, the repeated patterns, have different frequency components along different orientations. Our work is based on Texture Classification and its applications. It finds its applications in various fields like Medical Image Classification, Computer Vision, Remote Sensing, Agricultural Field, and Textile Industry. Weed control has a major effect on agriculture. A large amount of herbicide has been used for controlling weeds in agriculture fields, lawns, golf courses, sport fields, etc. Random spraying of herbicides does not meet the exact requirement of the field. Certain areas in field have more weed patches than estimated. So, we need a visual system that can discriminate weeds from the field image which will reduce or even eliminate the amount of herbicide used. This would allow farmers to not use any herbicides or only apply them where they are needed. A machine vision precision automated weed control system could reduce the usage of chemicals in crop fields. In this paper, an intelligent system for automatic weeding strategy Multi Resolution Combined Statistical & spatial Frequency is used to discriminate the weeds from the crops and to classify them as narrow, little and broad weeds.

Keywords: crop weed discrimination, MRCSF, MRFM, Weeddetection, Spatial Frequency.

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620 Frequency-Energy Characteristics of Local Earthquakes using Discrete Wavelet Transform(DWT)

Authors: O. H. Colak, T. C. Destici, S. Ozen, H. Arman, O. Cerezci

Abstract:

The wavelet transform is one of the most important method used in signal processing. In this study, we have introduced frequency-energy characteristics of local earthquakes using discrete wavelet transform. Frequency-energy characteristic was analyzed depend on difference between P and S wave arrival time and noise within records. We have found that local earthquakes have similar characteristics. If frequency-energy characteristics can be found accurately, this gives us a hint to calculate P and S wave arrival time. It can be seen that wavelet transform provides successful approximation for this. In this study, 100 earthquakes with 500 records were analyzed approximately.

Keywords: Discrete Wavelet Transform, Frequency-EnergyCharacteristics, P and S waves arrival time.

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619 Computation of Natural Logarithm Using Abstract Chemical Reaction Networks

Authors: Iuliia Zarubiieva, Joyun Tseng, Vishwesh Kulkarni

Abstract:

Recent researches has focused on nucleic acids as a substrate for designing biomolecular circuits for in situ monitoring and control. A common approach is to express them by a set of idealised abstract chemical reaction networks (ACRNs). Here, we present new results on how abstract chemical reactions, viz., catalysis, annihilation and degradation, can be used to implement circuit that accurately computes logarithm function using the method of Arithmetic-Geometric Mean (AGM), which has not been previously used in conjunction with ACRNs.

Keywords: Abstract chemical reaction network, DNA strand displacement, natural logarithm.

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618 Impact of Natural Period and Epicentral Distance on Storey Lateral Displacements

Authors: S. Dorbani, M. Badaoui, D. Benouar

Abstract:

The goal of the paper is to highlight the effect of the building design and epicentral distance on the storey lateral displacements, for several reinforced concrete buildings (6, 9 and 12 stories). These structures are subjected to seismic accelerations from the Boumerdes earthquake (Algeria, May 21st, Mw = 6.8). Using the response spectrum method (modal spectral approach), the analysis is performed in both longitudinal and transverse directions. The building design is expressed through the fundamental period and epicentral distance is used to represent the earthquake effect variation on storey lateral displacements and interstory drift for the considered buildings.

Keywords: Epicentral distance, interstory drift, lateral displacement, natural period, reinforced concrete buildings.

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617 Estimation of Relative Self-Localization Based On Natural Landmark and an Improved SURF

Authors: Xing Xiong, Byung-Jae Choi

Abstract:

It is important for an autonomous mobile robot to know where it is in any time in an indoor environment. In this paper, we design a relative self-localization algorithm. The algorithm compare the interest point in two images and compute the relative displacement and orientation to determent the posture. Firstly, we use the SURF algorithm to extract the interest points of the ceiling. Second, in order to reduce amount of calculation, a replacement SURF is used to extract orientation and description of the interest points. At last, according to the transformation of the interest points in two images, the relative self-localization of the mobile robot will be estimated greatly.

Keywords: Relative Self-Localization Posture, SURF, Natural Landmark, Interest Point.

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616 Analyzing Transformation of 1D-Functions for Frequency Domain based Video Classification

Authors: Kahraman Ayyildiz, Stefan Conrad

Abstract:

In this paper we illuminate a frequency domain based classification method for video scenes. Videos from certain topical areas often contain activities with repeating movements. Sports videos, home improvement videos, or videos showing mechanical motion are some example areas. Assessing main and side frequencies of each repeating movement gives rise to the motion type. We obtain the frequency domain by transforming spatio-temporal motion trajectories. Further on we explain how to compute frequency features for video clips and how to use them for classifying. The focus of the experimental phase is on transforms utilized for our system. By comparing various transforms, experiments show the optimal transform for a motion frequency based approach.

Keywords: action recognition, frequency, transform, motion recognition, repeating movement, video classification

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615 Extraction of Temporal Relation by the Creation of Historical Natural Disaster Archive

Authors: Suguru Yoshioka, Seiichi Tani, Seinosuke Toda

Abstract:

In historical science and social science, the influence of natural disaster upon society is a matter of great interest. In recent years, some archives are made through many hands for natural disasters, however it is inefficiency and waste. So, we suppose a computer system to create a historical natural disaster archive. As the target of this analysis, we consider newspaper articles. The news articles are considered to be typical examples that prescribe the temporal relations of affairs for natural disaster. In order to do this analysis, we identify the occurrences in newspaper articles by some index entries, considering the affairs which are specific to natural disasters, and show the temporal relation between natural disasters. We designed and implemented the automatic system of “extraction of the occurrences of natural disaster" and “temporal relation table for natural disaster."

Keywords: Database, digital library, corpus, historical natural disaster, temporal relation

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614 Simulation of Natural Convection Flow in an Inclined open Cavity using Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: H. Sajjadi, M. Gorji, GH.R. Kefayati, D. D. Ganji, M. Shayan nia

Abstract:

In this paper effects of inclination angle on natural convection flow in an open cavity has been analyzed with Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM).The angle of inclination varied from θ= - 45° to 45° with 15° intervals. Study has been conducted for Rayleigh numbers (Ra) 104 to 106. The comparisons show that the average Nusselt number increases with growth of Rayleigh number and the average Nusselt number increase as inclination angles increases at Ra=104.At Ra=105 and Ra=106 the average Nusselt number enhance as inclination angels varied from θ= -45° to θ= 0° and decrease as inclination angels increase in θ= 0° to θ= 45°.

Keywords: Lattice Boltzmann Method, Inclination angle, Opencavity, Natural convection

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613 Enhancement of Natural Convection Heat Transfer within Closed Enclosure Using Parallel Fins

Authors: F. A. Gdhaidh, K. Hussain, H. S. Qi

Abstract:

A numerical study of natural convection heat transfer in water filled cavity has been examined in 3-Dfor single phase liquid cooling system by using an array of parallel plate fins mounted to one wall of a cavity. The heat generated by a heat source represents a computer CPU with dimensions of 37.5∗37.5mm mounted on substrate. A cold plate is used as a heat sink installed on the opposite vertical end of the enclosure. The air flow inside the computer case is created by an exhaust fan. A turbulent air flow is assumed and k-ε model is applied. The fins are installed on the substrate to enhance the heat transfer. The applied power energy range used is between 15 - 40W. In order to determine the thermal behaviour of the cooling system, the effect of the heat input and the number of the parallel plate fins are investigated. The results illustrate that as the fin number increases the maximum heat source temperature decreases. However, when the fin number increases to critical value the temperature start to increase due to the fins are too closely spaced and that cause the obstruction of water flow. The introduction of parallel plate fins reduces the maximum heat source temperature by 10% compared to the case without fins. The cooling system maintains the maximum chip temperature at 64.68°C when the heat input was at 40W that is much lower than the recommended computer chips limit temperature of no more than 85°C and hence the performance of the CPU is enhanced.

Keywords: Chips limit temperature, closed enclosure, natural convection, parallel plate, single phase liquid.

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612 Extracellular Laccase Production by Co-culture between Galactomyces reesii IFO 10823 and Filamentous Fungal Strains Isolated from Fungus Comb Using Natural Inducer

Authors: P. Chaijak, M. Lertworapreecha, C. Sukkasem

Abstract:

Extracellular laccases are copper-containing microbial enzymes with many industrial biotechnological applications. This study evaluated the ability of nutrients in coconut coir to enhance the yield of extracellular laccase of Galactomyces reesii IFO 10823 and develop a co-culture between this yeast and other filamentous fungi isolated from the fungus comb of Macrotermes sp. The co-culture between G. reesii IFO 10823 and M. indicus FJ-M-5 (G3) gave the highest activity at 580.20 U/mL. When grown in fermentation media prepared from coconut coir and distilled water at 70% of initial moisture without supplement addition, G3 produced extracellular laccase of 113.99 U/mL.

Keywords: Extracellular laccase, production, yeast, natural inducer.

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611 An Optimization Model for Natural Gas Supply Chain through a Cost Approach under Uncertainty

Authors: A. Azadeh, Z. Raoofi

Abstract:

Natural gas, as one of the most important sources of energy for many of the industrial and domestic users all over the world, has a complex, huge supply chain which is in need of heavy investments in all the phases of exploration, extraction, production, transportation, storage and distribution. The main purpose of supply chain is to meet customers’ need efficiently and with minimum cost. In this study, with the aim of minimizing economic costs, different levels of natural gas supply chain in the form of a multi-echelon, multi-period fuzzy linear programming have been modeled. In this model, different constraints including constraints on demand satisfaction, capacity, input/output balance and presence/absence of a path have been defined. The obtained results suggest efficiency of the recommended model in optimal allocation and reduction of supply chain costs.

Keywords: Cost Approach, Fuzzy Theory, Linear Programming, Natural Gas Supply Chain.

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