Power System Load Shedding: Key Issues and New Perspectives
Optimal load shedding (LS) design as an emergency plan is one of the main control challenges posed by emerging new uncertainties and numerous distributed generators including renewable energy sources in a modern power system. This paper presents an overview of the key issues and new challenges on optimal LS synthesis concerning the integration of wind turbine units into the power systems. Following a brief survey on the existing LS methods, the impact of power fluctuation produced by wind powers on system frequency and voltage performance is presented. The most LS schemas proposed so far used voltage or frequency parameter via under-frequency or under-voltage LS schemes. Here, the necessity of considering both voltage and frequency indices to achieve a more effective and comprehensive LS strategy is emphasized. Then it is clarified that this problem will be more dominated in the presence of wind turbines.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1334313Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3903
 EWIS, "Towards a successful integration of wind power into European electricity grids (final report)", 2007 (Online). http://www.ornl.gov/~webworks/cppr/y2001/rpt/122302.pdf
 M. K. Donnelly, et al., "Impacts of the distributed utility on transmission system stability," IEEE Trans on Power Systems, vol. 11, no. 2, 1996, pp. 741-747.
 D. Xu, A. A. Girgis, "Optimal load shedding strategy in power systems with distributed generation," in Proc. of IEEE PES Winter Meeting, vol. 2, 2001, pp. 788-793.
 H. Bevrani, Robust Power system Frequency Control, New York: Springer, 2009.
 H. Bevrani, et al., "On the use of df/dt in power system emergency control" In Proc. of IEEE Power Systems Conference & Exposition, Seattle, Washington, USA, 2009.
 I. Erlich, F. Shewarega, "Insert impact of large-scale wind power generation on the dynamic Behaviour of interconnected systems," in Proc. of iREP Symposium-Bulk Power Sys Dynamics & Control, Charleston, USA, 2007.
 E. M. Oscar, "A Spinning Reserve, Load Shedding, and Economic Dispatch Solution by Bender-s Decomposition", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 20, no. 1, 2005, pp. 384- 388.
 C. Concordia, et al., "Load shedding and on an isolated system," IEEE Trans on Power Sys, vol. 10, no. 3, 1995, pp. 1467-72.
 J. J. Ford, H. Bevrani, G. Ledwich, "Adaptive Load Shedding and Regional Protection", International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 31, 2009, pp. 611-618.
 H. Bevrani, et al., "Regional Frequency Response Analysis under Normal and Emergency Conditions" Electric Power Systems Research, 79, 2009, pp. 837-845.
 X. Fu, X. Wang, "Load Shedding Scheme Ensuring Voltage Stability", Power Engineering Society General Meeting IEEE, 2007, pp.1-6.
 R. Faranda, et al., Load Shedding: A New Proposal. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 22, no. 4, 2007, pp.2086 - 2093.
 S.P.F Thelma, et al., "Load Shedding Strategies Using Optimal Load Flow with Relaxation of Restrictions" IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 23, no. 2, 2008, pp. 712 - 718.
 H. S. Mark, et al., "Slope-Permissive Under-Voltage Load Shed Relay for Delayed Voltage Recovery Mitigation", IEEE Transactions on Power, Systems, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2008, pp. 1211 - 1216.
 D. L. H. Aik, "A general-order system frequency response model incorporating load shedding: analytic modeling and applications," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 21, no. 2, 2006, pp. 709- 717.
 J. G. Thompson, and B. Fox, "Adaptive load shedding for isolated power systems," IEE Proc.-Gener. Transm. Distrib., vol. 141, no. 5, 1994, pp. 492-496.
 P.M. Anderson, and M. Mirheydar, "An adaptive method for setting underfrequency load shedding relays", IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1992, pp. 647-655.
 J. Jung, et al., "Adaptation in load shedding under vulnerable operating conditions," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 17, no. 4, 2002, pp. 1199-1205.
 D. Prasetijo, W. R. Lachs, D. Sutanto, "A new load shedding scheme for limiting underfrequency," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 9, no. 3, 1994, pp. 1371-1378.
 V. N. Chuvyvhin, et al., "An adaptive approach to load shedding and spinning reserve control during underfrequency conditions ," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 11, no. 4, 1996, pp. 1805-1810.
 S. J. Huang, C. C. Huang, "An adaptive load shedding method with time-based design for isolated power systems," Electric Power Energy Systems, vol. 22, no. 1, 2000, pp. 51-58.
 V. V. Terzija, "Adaptive underfrequency load shedding based on the magnitude of the disturbance estimation," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 21, no. 3, 2006, pp. 1260-1266.
 H. Bevrani, A. G. Tikdari, "An ANN-based Power System Emergency Control Scheme in the Presence of High Wind Power Penetration", Book chapter of Wind Power Systems: Applications of Computational Intelligence, L. F. Wang, C. Singh, and A. Kusiak (Eds), Springer Book Series on Green Energy and Technology, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, expected in 2010.
 H. You, V. Vittal, and Z. Yang, "Self-healing in power systems: an approach using islanding and rate of frequency decline-based load shedding," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 18, no. 1, 2003, pp. 174-181.
 L. J. Shih, et al., "Application of df/dt in power system protection and its implementation in microcontroller based intelligent load shedding relay," In Proc. of Industrial and Commercial Power Sys Technical Conf., 1991, pp. 11-17.
 W. J. Lee, J. C. Gu, "A microprocessor based intelligent load shedding relay," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 4, 1989, pp. 2018- 2024.
 C. J. Durkin, et al. "An underfrequency relay with frequency decay rate compensation," IEEE Trans on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-88, no. 6, 1969, pp. 812-820.
 B. C. Widrevitz, R. E. Armington, "A digital rate-of-change underfrequency protective relay for power systems," IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-96, no. 5, 1977, pp. 1707-1714.
 D. E. Clarke, "Tasmanian experience with the use of df/dt triggering of UFLSS," Final Report, Transend Networks PTY LTD, No. D08/22185, 2008.
 K. A. Palaniswamy, J. Sharma, "Optimization load shedding taking into account of voltage and frequency characteristics of loads ," IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. 104, no. 6, 1985, pp. 1342-1348.
 T. S. P. Fernandes, et al., "Load shedding strategies using optimal load flow with relaxation of restrictions," IEEE Trans on Power Systems, vol. 23, no. 2, 2008, pp. 712-18.
 D. Novosel, et al., "Shedding Lights on Blackouts", IEEE Power & Energy Magazine, Jan/Feb., 2004, pp. 32-43.
 A. Shandilya, et al. "Method for generation rescheduling and load shedding to alleviate line overloads using load optimisation", IEE Proc-C, 140, No. 5, 1993, pp. 337-342.
 G. Andersson, et al. "Causes of the 2003 Major Grid Blackouts in North America and Europe, and Recommended Means to Improve System Dynamic Performance", IEEE Trans. on Power Sys, Vol. 20, No. 4, 2005, pp. 1922-1928.
 E.E. Aponte and J. K. Nelson, "Time Optimal Load Shedding for Distributed Power Systems", IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2006, pp. 269-277.
 Y. Min, et al., "A New Method for Generation Shedding and Load Shedding in Power System Emergency Control", Proc. of IEEE Conf. on Elec. Utility Dereg., Restruc. & Power Tech. (DRPT2004), Hong Kong, April 2004, pp 210-215.
 M. Bronzini, et al. "Load Shedding Scheme for Response-based control of transient stability", Proc. of Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control - VI, Italy, Aug. 2004.
 J. Chen, et al. "Cascading dynamics and mitigation assessment in power system disturbances via a hidden failure model", Electr. Power and Energy Systems, Vol. 27, 2005, pp. 318-326.
 A. G. Tikdari, "Load shedding in the presence of renewable energy sources" Msc Dissertation, University of Kurdistan, Sept. 2009.
 VAN Marcus, et al. "Influence of the Variable-Speed Wind Generators in Transient Stability Margin of the Conventional Generators Integrated in Electrical Grids" IEEE Trans on Energy Conversion, vol. 19, no. 4, 2004, pp. 692 - 701.
 P. M. Anderson and A. A. Fouad, Power System Control and Stability. The Iowa State University Press, USA, 1977.
 T. Quoe Tuan, et al., "Emergency Load Shedding to Avoid Risk of Voltage Instability Using Indicators", IEEE Transaction on Power Systems, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1994.