Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 427

Search results for: Frequency deviation

427 A Simple and Efficient Method for Accurate Measurement and Control of Power Frequency Deviation

Authors: S. J. Arif

Abstract:

In the presented technique, a simple method is given for accurate measurement and control of power frequency deviation. The sinusoidal signal for which the frequency deviation measurement is required is transformed to a low voltage level and passed through a zero crossing detector to convert it into a pulse train. Another stable square wave signal of 10 KHz is obtained using a crystal oscillator and decade dividing assemblies (DDA). These signals are combined digitally and then passed through decade counters to give a unique combination of pulses or levels, which are further encoded to make them equally suitable for both control applications and display units. The developed circuit using discrete components has a resolution of 0.5 Hz and completes measurement within 20 ms. The realized circuit is simulated and synthesized using Verilog HDL and subsequently implemented on FPGA. The results of measurement on FPGA are observed on a very high resolution logic analyzer. These results accurately match the simulation results as well as the results of same circuit implemented with discrete components. The proposed system is suitable for accurate measurement and control of power frequency deviation.

Keywords: Digital encoder for frequency measurement, frequency deviation measurement, measurement and control systems, power systems.

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426 Development of PSS/E Dynamic Model for Controlling Battery Output to Improve Frequency Stability in Power Systems

Authors: Dae-Hee Son, Soon-Ryul Nam

Abstract:

The power system frequency falls when disturbance such as rapid increase of system load or loss of a generating unit occurs in power systems. Especially, increase in the number of renewable generating units has a bad influence on the power system because of loss of generating unit depending on the circumstance. Conventional technologies use frequency droop control battery output for the frequency regulation and balance between supply and demand. If power is supplied using the fast output characteristic of the battery, power system stability can be further more improved. To improve the power system stability, we propose battery output control using ROCOF (Rate of Change of Frequency) in this paper. The bigger the power difference between the supply and the demand, the bigger the ROCOF drops. Battery output is controlled proportionally to the magnitude of the ROCOF, allowing for faster response to power imbalances. To simulate the control method of battery output system, we develop the user defined model using PSS/E and confirm that power system stability is improved by comparing with frequency droop control.

Keywords: PSS/E user defined model, power deviation, frequency droop control, ROCOF, rate of change of frequency.

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425 Field Experience with Sweep Frequency Response Analysis for Power Transformer Diagnosis

Authors: Ambuj Kumar, Sunil Kumar Singh, Shrikant Singh

Abstract:

Sweep frequency response analysis has been turning out a powerful tool for investigation of mechanical as well as electrical integration of transformers. In this paper various aspect of practical application of SFRA has been studied. Open circuit and short circuit measurement were done on different phases of high voltage and low voltage winding. A case study was presented for the transformer of rating 31.5 MVA for various frequency ranges. A clear picture was presented for sub- frequency ranges for HV as well as LV winding. The main motive of work is to investigate high voltage short circuit response. The theoretical concept about SFRA responses is validated with expert system software results.

Keywords: Frequency deviation, OCT & SCT, SFRA, Transformer winding.

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424 Digital Encoder Based Power Frequency Deviation Measurement

Authors: Syed Javed Arif, Mohd Ayyub Khan, Saleem Anwar Khan

Abstract:

In this paper, a simple method is presented for measurement of power frequency deviations. A phase locked loop (PLL) is used to multiply the signal under test by a factor of 100. The number of pulses in this pulse train signal is counted over a stable known period, using decade driving assemblies (DDAs) and flip-flops. These signals are combined using logic gates and then passed through decade counters to give a unique combination of pulses or levels, which are further encoded. These pulses are equally suitable for both control applications and display units. The experimental circuit developed gives a resolution of 1 Hz within the measurement period of 20 ms. The proposed circuit is also simulated in Verilog Hardware Description Language (VHDL) and implemented using Field Programing Gate Arrays (FPGAs). A Mixed signal Oscilloscope (MSO) is used to observe the results of FPGA implementation. These results are compared with the results of the proposed circuit of discrete components. The proposed system is useful for frequency deviation measurement and control in power systems.

Keywords: Frequency measurement, digital control, phase locked loop, encoding, Verilog HDL.

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423 Detecting Abnormal ECG Signals Utilising Wavelet Transform and Standard Deviation

Authors: Dejan Stantic, Jun Jo

Abstract:

ECG contains very important clinical information about the cardiac activities of the heart. Often the ECG signal needs to be captured for a long period of time in order to identify abnormalities in certain situations. Such signal apart of a large volume often is characterised by low quality due to the noise and other influences. In order to extract features in the ECG signal with time-varying characteristics at first need to be preprocessed with the best parameters. Also, it is useful to identify specific parts of the long lasting signal which have certain abnormalities and to direct the practitioner to those parts of the signal. In this work we present a method based on wavelet transform, standard deviation and variable threshold which achieves 100% accuracy in identifying the ECG signal peaks and heartbeat as well as identifying the standard deviation, providing a quick reference to abnormalities.

Keywords: Electrocardiogram-ECG, Arrhythmia, Signal Processing, Wavelet Transform, Standard Deviation

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422 Standard Deviation of Mean and Variance of Rows and Columns of Images for CBIR

Authors: H. B. Kekre, Kavita Patil

Abstract:

This paper describes a novel and effective approach to content-based image retrieval (CBIR) that represents each image in the database by a vector of feature values called “Standard deviation of mean vectors of color distribution of rows and columns of images for CBIR". In many areas of commerce, government, academia, and hospitals, large collections of digital images are being created. This paper describes the approach that uses contents as feature vector for retrieval of similar images. There are several classes of features that are used to specify queries: colour, texture, shape, spatial layout. Colour features are often easily obtained directly from the pixel intensities. In this paper feature extraction is done for the texture descriptor that is 'variance' and 'Variance of Variances'. First standard deviation of each row and column mean is calculated for R, G, and B planes. These six values are obtained for one image which acts as a feature vector. Secondly we calculate variance of the row and column of R, G and B planes of an image. Then six standard deviations of these variance sequences are calculated to form a feature vector of dimension six. We applied our approach to a database of 300 BMP images. We have determined the capability of automatic indexing by analyzing image content: color and texture as features and by applying a similarity measure Euclidean distance.

Keywords: Standard deviation Image retrieval, color distribution, Variance, Variance of Variance, Euclidean distance.

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421 Estimating the Technological Deviation Impact on the Value of the Output Parameter of the Induction Converter

Authors: Marinka K. Baghdasaryan, Siranush M. Muradyan, Avgen A. Gasparyan

Abstract:

Based on the experimental data, the impact of resistance and reactance of the winding, as well as the magnetic permeability of the magnetic circuit steel material on the value of the electromotive force of the induction converter is investigated. The obtained results allow estimating the main technological spreads and determining the maximum level of the electromotive force change. By the method of experiment planning, the expression of a polynomial for the electromotive force which can be used to estimate the adequacy of mathematical models to be used at the investigation and design of induction converters is obtained.

Keywords: Induction converter, electromotive force, expectation, technological spread, deviation, planning an experiment, polynomial, confidence level.

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420 Optimal Straight Line Trajectory Generation in 3D Space using Deviation Algorithm

Authors: T. C. Manjunath, C. Ardil

Abstract:

This paper presents an efficient method of obtaining a straight-line motion in the tool configuration space using an articulated robot between two specified points. The simulation results & the implementation results show the effectiveness of the method.

Keywords: Bounded deviation algorithm, Straight line motion, Tool configuration space, Joint space, TCV.

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419 Ranking Fuzzy Numbers Based On Epsilon-Deviation Degree

Authors: Vincent F. Yu, Ha Thi Xuan Chi

Abstract:

Nejad and Mashinchi (2011) proposed a revision for ranking fuzzy numbers based on the areas of the left and the right sides of a fuzzy number. However, this method still has some shortcomings such as lack of discriminative power to rank similar fuzzy numbers and no guarantee the consistency between the ranking of fuzzy numbers and the ranking of their images. To overcome these drawbacks, we propose an epsilon-deviation degree method based on the left area and the right area of a fuzzy number, and the concept of the centroid point. The main advantage of the new approach is the development of an innovative index value which can be used to consistently evaluate and rank fuzzy numbers. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the efficiency and superiority of the proposed method.

Keywords: Ranking fuzzy numbers, Centroid, Deviation degree.

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418 Roundness Deviation Measuring Strategy at Coordination Measuring Machines and Conventional Machines

Authors: Lenka Ocenasova, Bartosz Gapinski, Robert Cep, Linda Gregova, Branimir Barisic, Jana Novakova, Lenka Petrkovska

Abstract:

Today technological process makes possible surface control of producing parts which is needful for product quality guarantee. Geometrical structure of part surface includes form, proportion, accuracy to shape, accuracy to size, alignment and surface topography (roughness, waviness, etc.). All these parameters are dependence at technology, production machine parameters, material properties, but also at human, etc. Every parameters approves at total part accuracy, it is means at accuracy to shape. One of the most important accuracy to shape element is roundness. This paper will be deals by comparison of roughness deviations at coordination measuring machines and at special single purpose machines. Will describing measuring by discreet method (discontinuous) and scanning method (continuous) at coordination measuring machines and confrontation with reference method using at single purpose machines.

Keywords: Coordinating Measuring Machines (CMM), Measuring Strategy, Roughness Deviation, Accuracy.

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417 Investigating Simple Multipath Compensation for Frequency Modulated Signals at Lower Frequencies

Authors: Lusungu Ndovi

Abstract:

Radio propagation from point-to-point is affected by the physical channel in many ways. A signal arriving at a destination travels through a number of different paths which are referred to as multi-paths. Research in this area of wireless communications has progressed well over the years with the research taking different angles of focus. By this is meant that some researchers focus on ways of reducing or eluding Multipath effects whilst others focus on ways of mitigating the effects of Multipath through compensation schemes. Baseband processing is seen as one field of signal processing that is cardinal to the advancement of software defined radio technology. This has led to wide research into the carrying out certain algorithms at baseband. This paper considers compensating for Multipath for Frequency Modulated signals. The compensation process is carried out at Radio frequency (RF) and at Quadrature baseband (QBB) and the results are compared. Simulations are carried out using MatLab so as to show the benefits of working at lower QBB frequencies than at RF.

Keywords: Quadrature baseband, Radio frequency, MultipathCompensation, Frequency modulation, Signal Processing.

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416 Cost-Optimized SSB Transmitter with High Frequency Stability and Selectivity

Authors: J. P. Dubois

Abstract:

Single side band modulation is a widespread technique in communication with significant impact on communication technologies such as DSL modems and ATSC TV. Its widespread utilization is due to its bandwidth and power saving characteristics. In this paper, we present a new scheme for SSB signal generation which is cost efficient and enjoys superior characteristics in terms of frequency stability, selectivity, and robustness to noise. In the process, we develop novel Hilbert transform properties.

Keywords: Crystal filter, frequency drift, frequency mixing, Hilbert transform, phasing, selectivity, single side band AM.

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415 A Robust Frequency Offset Estimator for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

Authors: Keunhong Chae, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

We address the integer frequency offset (IFO) estimation under the influence of the timing offset (TO) in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. Incorporating the IFO and TO into the symbol set used to represent the received OFDM symbol, we investigate the influence of the TO on the IFO, and then, propose a combining method between two consecutive OFDM correlations, reducing the influence. The proposed scheme has almost the same complexity as that of the conventional schemes, whereas it does not need the TO knowledge contrary to the conventional schemes. From numerical results it is confirmed that the proposed scheme is insensitive to the TO, consequently, yielding an improvement of the IFO estimation performance over the conventional schemes when the TO exists.

Keywords: Estimation, integer frequency offset, OFDM, timing offset.

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414 Static Priority Approach to Under-Frequency Based Load Shedding Scheme in Islanded Industrial Networks: Using the Case Study of Fatima Fertilizer Company Ltd - FFL

Authors: S. H. Kazmi, T. Ahmed, K. Javed, A. Ghani

Abstract:

In this paper static scheme of under-frequency based load shedding is considered for chemical and petrochemical industries with islanded distribution networks relying heavily on the primary commodity to ensure minimum production loss, plant downtime or critical equipment shutdown. A simplistic methodology is proposed for in-house implementation of this scheme using underfrequency relays and a step by step guide is provided including the techniques to calculate maximum percentage overloads, frequency decay rates, time based frequency response and frequency based time response of the system. Case study of FFL electrical system is utilized, presenting the actual system parameters and employed load shedding settings following the similar series of steps. The arbitrary settings are then verified for worst overload conditions (loss of a generation source in this case) and comprehensive system response is then investigated.

Keywords: Islanding, under-frequency load shedding, frequency rate of change, static UFLS.

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413 Frequency Transformation with Pascal Matrix Equations

Authors: Phuoc Si Nguyen

Abstract:

Frequency transformation with Pascal matrix equations is a method for transforming an electronic filter (analogue or digital) into another filter. The technique is based on frequency transformation in the s-domain, bilinear z-transform with pre-warping frequency, inverse bilinear transformation and a very useful application of the Pascal’s triangle that simplifies computing and enables calculation by hand when transforming from one filter to another. This paper will introduce two methods to transform a filter into a digital filter: frequency transformation from the s-domain into the z-domain; and frequency transformation in the z-domain. Further, two Pascal matrix equations are derived: an analogue to digital filter Pascal matrix equation and a digital to digital filter Pascal matrix equation. These are used to design a desired digital filter from a given filter.

Keywords: Frequency transformation, Bilinear z-transformation, Pre-warping frequency, Digital filters, Analog filters, Pascal’s triangle.

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412 A Novel Estimation Method for Integer Frequency Offset in Wireless OFDM Systems

Authors: Taeung Yoon, Youngpo Lee, Chonghan Song, Na Young Ha, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

Ren et al. presented an efficient carrier frequency offset (CFO) estimation method for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), which has an estimation range as large as the bandwidth of the OFDM signal and achieves high accuracy without any constraint on the structure of the training sequence. However, its detection probability of the integer frequency offset (IFO) rapidly varies according to the fractional frequency offset (FFO) change. In this paper, we first analyze the Ren-s method and define two criteria suitable for detection of IFO. Then, we propose a novel method for the IFO estimation based on the maximum-likelihood (ML) principle and the detection criteria defined in this paper. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the Ren-s method in terms of the IFO detection probability irrespective of a value of the FFO.

Keywords: Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, integer frequency offset, estimation, training symbol

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411 Dataset Analysis Using Membership-Deviation Graph

Authors: Itgel Bayarsaikhan, Jimin Lee, Sejong Oh

Abstract:

Classification is one of the primary themes in computational biology. The accuracy of classification strongly depends on quality of a dataset, and we need some method to evaluate this quality. In this paper, we propose a new graphical analysis method using 'Membership-Deviation Graph (MDG)' for analyzing quality of a dataset. MDG represents degree of membership and deviations for instances of a class in the dataset. The result of MDG analysis is used for understanding specific feature and for selecting best feature for classification.

Keywords: feature, classification, machine learning algorithm.

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410 Enhanced Performance of Fading Dispersive Channel Using Dynamic Frequency Hopping(DFH)

Authors: Walid M. Saad

Abstract:

techniques are examined to overcome the performance degradation caused by the channel dispersion using slow frequency hopping (SFH) with dynamic frequency hopping (DFH) pattern adaptation. In DFH systems, the frequency slots are selected by continuous quality monitoring of all frequencies available in a system and modification of hopping patterns for each individual link based on replacing slots which its signal to interference ratio (SIR) measurement is below a required threshold. Simulation results will show the improvements in BER obtained by DFH in comparison with matched frequency hopping (MFH), random frequency hopping (RFH) and multi-carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) in multipath slowly fading dispersive channels using a generalized bandpass two-path transfer function model, and will show the improvement obtained according to the threshold selection.

Keywords: code division multiple access (CDMA), dynamic channel allocation (DCA), dynamic channel assignment, frequency hopping, matched frequency hopping (MFH).

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409 Fundamental Natural Frequency of Chromite Composite Floor System

Authors: Farhad Abbas Gandomkar, Mona Danesh

Abstract:

This paper aims to determine Fundamental Natural Frequency (FNF) of a structural composite floor system known as Chromite. To achieve this purpose, FNFs of studied panels are determined by development of Finite Element Models (FEMs) in ABAQUS program. American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) code in Steel Design Guide Series 11 presents a fundamental formula to calculate FNF of a steel framed floor system. This formula has been used to verify results of the FEMs. The variability in the FNF of the studied system under various parameters such as dimensions of floor, boundary conditions, rigidity of main and secondary beams around the floor, thickness of concrete slab, height of composite joists, distance between composite joists, thickness of top and bottom flanges of the open web steel joists, and adding tie beam perpendicular on the composite joists, is determined. The results show that changing in dimensions of the system, its boundary conditions, rigidity of main beam, and also adding tie beam, significant changes the FNF of the system up to 452.9%, 50.8%, - 52.2%, %52.6%, respectively. In addition, increasing thickness of concrete slab increases the FNF of the system up to 10.8%. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that variation in rigidity of secondary beam, height of composite joist, and distance between composite joists, and thickness of top and bottom flanges of open web steel joists insignificant changes the FNF of the studied system up to -0.02%, -3%, -6.1%, and 0.96%, respectively. Finally, the results of this study help designer predict occurrence of resonance, comfortableness, and design criteria of the studied system.

Keywords: Fundamental natural frequency, chromite composite floor system, finite element method, low and high frequency floors, comfortableness, resonance.

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408 Arabic Character Recognition using Artificial Neural Networks and Statistical Analysis

Authors: Ahmad M. Sarhan, Omar I. Al Helalat

Abstract:

In this paper, an Arabic letter recognition system based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and statistical analysis for feature extraction is presented. The ANN is trained using the Least Mean Squares (LMS) algorithm. In the proposed system, each typed Arabic letter is represented by a matrix of binary numbers that are used as input to a simple feature extraction system whose output, in addition to the input matrix, are fed to an ANN. Simulation results are provided and show that the proposed system always produces a lower Mean Squared Error (MSE) and higher success rates than the current ANN solutions.

Keywords: ANN, Backpropagation, Gaussian, LMS, MSE, Neuron, standard deviation, Widrow-Hoff rule.

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407 Effect of Low Frequency Memory on High Power 12W LDMOS Transistors Intermodulation Distortion

Authors: A. Alghanim, J. Benedikt, P. J. Tasker

Abstract:

The increasing demand for higher data rates in wireless communication systems has led to the more effective and efficient use of all allocated frequency bands. In order to use the whole bandwidth at maximum efficiency, one needs to have RF power amplifiers with a higher linear level and memory-less performance. This is considered to be a major challenge to circuit designers. In this thesis the linearity and memory are studied and examined via the behavior of the intermodulation distortion (IMD). A major source of the in-band distortion can be shown to be influenced by the out-of-band impedances presented at either the input or the output of the device, especially those impedances terminated the low frequency (IF) components. Thus, in order to regulate the in-band distortion, the out of-band distortion must be controllable. These investigations are performed on a 12W LDMOS device characterised at 2.1 GHz within a purpose built, high-power measurement system.

Keywords: Low Frequency Memory, IntermodulationDistortion (IMD).

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406 Epileptic Seizure Prediction by Exploiting Signal Transitions Phenomena

Authors: Mohammad Zavid Parvez, Manoranjan Paul

Abstract:

A seizure prediction method is proposed by extracting global features using phase correlation between adjacent epochs for detecting relative changes and local features using fluctuation/ deviation within an epoch for determining fine changes of different EEG signals. A classifier and a regularization technique are applied for the reduction of false alarms and improvement of the overall prediction accuracy. The experiments show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods and provides high prediction accuracy (i.e., 97.70%) with low false alarm using EEG signals in different brain locations from a benchmark data set.

Keywords: Epilepsy, Seizure, Phase Correlation, Fluctuation, Deviation.

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405 Evaluating per-user Fairness of Goal-Oriented Parallel Computer Job Scheduling Policies

Authors: Sangsuree Vasupongayya

Abstract:

Fair share objective has been included into the goaloriented parallel computer job scheduling policy recently. However, the previous work only presented the overall scheduling performance. Thus, the per-user performance of the policy is still lacking. In this work, the details of per-user fair share performance under the Tradeoff-fs(Tx:avgX) policy will be further evaluated. A basic fair share priority backfill policy namely RelShare(1d) is also studied. The performance of all policies is collected using an event-driven simulator with three real job traces as input. The experimental results show that the high demand users are usually benefited under most policies because their jobs are large or they have a lot of jobs. In the large job case, one job executed may result in over-share during that period. In the other case, the jobs may be backfilled for performances. However, the users with a mixture of jobs may suffer because if the smaller jobs are executing the priority of the remaining jobs from the same user will be lower. Further analysis does not show any significant impact of users with a lot of jobs or users with a large runtime approximation error.

Keywords: deviation, fair share, discrepancy search, priority scheduling.

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404 Model Order Reduction for Frequency Response and Effect of Order of Method for Matching Condition

Authors: Aref Ghafouri, Mohammad Javad Mollakazemi, Farhad Asadi

Abstract:

In this paper, model order reduction method is used for approximation in linear and nonlinearity aspects in some experimental data. This method can be used for obtaining offline reduced model for approximation of experimental data and can produce and follow the data and order of system and also it can match to experimental data in some frequency ratios. In this study, the method is compared in different experimental data and influence of choosing of order of the model reduction for obtaining the best and sufficient matching condition for following the data is investigated in format of imaginary and reality part of the frequency response curve and finally the effect and important parameter of number of order reduction in nonlinear experimental data is explained further.

Keywords: Frequency response, Order of model reduction, frequency matching condition.

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403 Comparison of Frequency Estimation Methods for Reflected Signals in Mobile Platforms

Authors: Kathrin Reinhold

Abstract:

Precise frequency estimation methods for pulseshaped echoes are a prerequisite to determine the relative velocity between sensor and reflector. Signal frequencies are analysed using three different methods: Fourier Transform, Chirp ZTransform and the MUSIC algorithm. Simulations of echoes are performed varying both the noise level and the number of reflecting points. The superposition of echoes with a random initial phase is found to influence the precision of frequency estimation severely for FFT and MUSIC. The standard deviation of the frequency using FFT is larger than for MUSIC. However, MUSIC is more noise-sensitive. The distorting effect of superpositions is less pronounced in experimental data.

Keywords: Frequency estimation, pulse-echo-method, superposition, echoes.

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402 A New Time-Frequency Speech Analysis Approach Based On Adaptive Fourier Decomposition

Authors: Liming Zhang

Abstract:

In this paper, a new adaptive Fourier decomposition (AFD) based time-frequency speech analysis approach is proposed. Given the fact that the fundamental frequency of speech signals often undergo fluctuation, the classical short-time Fourier transform (STFT) based spectrogram analysis suffers from the difficulty of window size selection. AFD is a newly developed signal decomposition theory. It is designed to deal with time-varying non-stationary signals. Its outstanding characteristic is to provide instantaneous frequency for each decomposed component, so the time-frequency analysis becomes easier. Experiments are conducted based on the sample sentence in TIMIT Acoustic-Phonetic Continuous Speech Corpus. The results show that the AFD based time-frequency distribution outperforms the STFT based one.

Keywords: Adaptive fourier decomposition, instantaneous frequency, speech analysis, time-frequency distribution.

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401 Investigation of the Effects of Sampling Frequency on the THD of 3-Phase Inverters Using Space Vector Modulation

Authors: Khattab Ibrahim Al Qaisi, Nicholas Bowring

Abstract:

This paper presents the simulation results of the effects of sampling frequency on the total harmonic distortion (THD) of three-phase inverters using the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) and space vector control (SVC) algorithms. The relationship between the variables was studied using curve fitting techniques, and it has been shown that, for 50 Hz inverters, there is an exponential relation between the sampling frequency and THD up to around 8500 Hz, beyond which the performance of the model becomes irregular, and there is an negative exponential relation between the sampling frequency and the marginal improvement to the THD. It has also been found that the performance of SVPWM is better than that of SVC with the same sampling frequency in most frequency range, including the range where the performance of the former is irregular.

Keywords: SVPWM, THD, DC-AC Inverter, Sampling Frequency.

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400 Frequency Response of Complex Systems with Localized Nonlinearities

Authors: E. Menga, S. Hernandez

Abstract:

Finite Element Models (FEMs) are widely used in order to study and predict the dynamic properties of structures and usually, the prediction can be obtained with much more accuracy in the case of a single component than in the case of assemblies. Especially for structural dynamics studies, in the low and middle frequency range, most complex FEMs can be seen as assemblies made by linear components joined together at interfaces. From a modelling and computational point of view, these types of joints can be seen as localized sources of stiffness and damping and can be modelled as lumped spring/damper elements, most of time, characterized by nonlinear constitutive laws. On the other side, most of FE programs are able to run nonlinear analysis in time-domain. They treat the whole structure as nonlinear, even if there is one nonlinear degree of freedom (DOF) out of thousands of linear ones, making the analysis unnecessarily expensive from a computational point of view. In this work, a methodology in order to obtain the nonlinear frequency response of structures, whose nonlinearities can be considered as localized sources, is presented. The work extends the well-known Structural Dynamic Modification Method (SDMM) to a nonlinear set of modifications, and allows getting the Nonlinear Frequency Response Functions (NLFRFs), through an ‘updating’ process of the Linear Frequency Response Functions (LFRFs). A brief summary of the analytical concepts is given, starting from the linear formulation and understanding what the implications of the nonlinear one, are. The response of the system is formulated in both: time and frequency domain. First the Modal Database is extracted and the linear response is calculated. Secondly the nonlinear response is obtained thru the NL SDMM, by updating the underlying linear behavior of the system. The methodology, implemented in MATLAB, has been successfully applied to estimate the nonlinear frequency response of two systems. The first one is a two DOFs spring-mass-damper system, and the second example takes into account a full aircraft FE Model. In spite of the different levels of complexity, both examples show the reliability and effectiveness of the method. The results highlight a feasible and robust procedure, which allows a quick estimation of the effect of localized nonlinearities on the dynamic behavior. The method is particularly powerful when most of the FE Model can be considered as acting linearly and the nonlinear behavior is restricted to few degrees of freedom. The procedure is very attractive from a computational point of view because the FEM needs to be run just once, which allows faster nonlinear sensitivity analysis and easier implementation of optimization procedures for the calibration of nonlinear models.

Keywords: Frequency response, nonlinear dynamics, structural dynamic modification, softening effect, rubber.

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399 Application of Wavelet Neural Networks in Optimization of Skeletal Buildings under Frequency Constraints

Authors: Mohammad Reza Ghasemi, Amin Ghorbani

Abstract:

The main goal of the present work is to decrease the computational burden for optimum design of steel frames with frequency constraints using a new type of neural networks called Wavelet Neural Network. It is contested to train a suitable neural network for frequency approximation work as the analysis program. The combination of wavelet theory and Neural Networks (NN) has lead to the development of wavelet neural networks. Wavelet neural networks are feed-forward networks using wavelet as activation function. Wavelets are mathematical functions within suitable inner parameters, which help them to approximate arbitrary functions. WNN was used to predict the frequency of the structures. In WNN a RAtional function with Second order Poles (RASP) wavelet was used as a transfer function. It is shown that the convergence speed was faster than other neural networks. Also comparisons of WNN with the embedded Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and with approximate techniques and also with analytical solutions are available in the literature.

Keywords: Weight Minimization, Frequency Constraints, Steel Frames, ANN, WNN, RASP Function.

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398 Rapid Frequency Response Measurement of Power Conversion Products with Coherence-Based Confidence Analysis

Authors: Tomi Roinila, Aki Taskinen, Matti Vilkko

Abstract:

Switched-mode converters play now a significant role in modern society. Their operation are often crucial in various electrical applications affecting the every day life. Therefore, the quality of the converters needs to be reliably verified. Recent studies have shown that the converters can be fully characterized by a set of frequency responses which can be efficiently used to validate the proper operation of the converters. Consequently, several methods have been proposed to measure the frequency responses fast and accurately. Most often correlation-based techniques have been applied. The presented measurement methods are highly sensitive to external errors and system nonlinearities. This fact has been often forgotten and the necessary uncertainty analysis of the measured responses has been neglected. This paper presents a simple approach to analyze the noise and nonlinearities in the frequency-response measurements of switched-mode converters. Coherence analysis is applied to form a confidence interval characterizing the noise and nonlinearities involved in the measurements. The presented method is verified by practical measurements from a high-frequency switchedmode converter.

Keywords: Switched-mode converters, Frequency analysis, CoherenceAnalysis.

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