**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**524

# Search results for: Function Points

##### 524 A Case Study to Assess the Validity of Function Points

**Authors:**
Neelam Bawane nee' Singhal,
C. V. Srikrishna

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Function Points,
Data Flow Diagram,
Lines ofCodes.

##### 523 Locating Center Points for Radial Basis Function Networks Using Instance Reduction Techniques

**Authors:**
Rana Yousef,
Khalil el Hindi

**Abstract:**

The behavior of Radial Basis Function (RBF) Networks greatly depends on how the center points of the basis functions are selected. In this work we investigate the use of instance reduction techniques, originally developed to reduce the storage requirements of instance based learners, for this purpose. Five Instance-Based Reduction Techniques were used to determine the set of center points, and RBF networks were trained using these sets of centers. The performance of the RBF networks is studied in terms of classification accuracy and training time. The results obtained were compared with two Radial Basis Function Networks: RBF networks that use all instances of the training set as center points (RBF-ALL) and Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN). The former achieves high classification accuracies and the latter requires smaller training time. Results showed that RBF networks trained using sets of centers located by noise-filtering techniques (ALLKNN and ENN) rather than pure reduction techniques produce the best results in terms of classification accuracy. The results show that these networks require smaller training time than that of RBF-ALL and higher classification accuracy than that of PNN. Thus, using ALLKNN and ENN to select center points gives better combination of classification accuracy and training time. Our experiments also show that using the reduced sets to train the networks is beneficial especially in the presence of noise in the original training sets.

**Keywords:**
Radial basis function networks,
Instance-based
reduction,
PNN.

##### 522 The Number of Rational Points on Conics Cp,k : x2 − ky2 = 1 over Finite Fields Fp

**Authors:**
Ahmet Tekcan

**Abstract:**

Let p be a prime number, Fp be a finite field, and let k ∈ F*p. In this paper, we consider the number of rational points onconics Cp,k: x2 − ky2 = 1 over Fp. We proved that the order of Cp,k over Fp is p-1 if k is a quadratic residue mod p and is p + 1 if k is not a quadratic residue mod p. Later we derive some resultsconcerning the sums ΣC[x]p,k(Fp) and ΣC[y]p,k(Fp), the sum of x- and y-coordinates of all points (x, y) on Cp,k, respectively.

**Keywords:**
Elliptic curve,
conic,
rational points.

##### 521 The Determination of Rating Points of Objects with Qualitative Characteristics and their Usagein Decision Making Problems

**Authors:**
O. Poleshchuk,
E. Komarov

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
complete orthogonal semantic space,
qualitativecharacteristic,
rating points.

##### 520 Method for Determining the Probing Points for Efficient Measurement of Freeform Surface

**Authors:**
Yi Xu,
Zexiang Li

**Abstract:**

In inspection and workpiece localization, sampling point data is an important issue. Since the devices for sampling only sample discrete points, not the completely surface, sampling size and location of the points will be taken into consideration. In this paper a method is presented for determining the sampled points size and location for achieving efficient sampling. Firstly, uncertainty analysis of the localization parameters is investigated. A localization uncertainty model is developed to predict the uncertainty of the localization process. Using this model the minimum size of the sampled points is predicted. Secondly, based on the algebra theory an eigenvalue-optimal optimization is proposed. Then a freeform surface is used in the simulation. The proposed optimization is implemented. The simulation result shows its effectivity.

**Keywords:**
eigenvalue-optimal optimization,
freeform surface inspection,
sampling size and location,
sampled points.

##### 519 An Examination of the Factors Influencing Software Development Effort

**Authors:**
Zhizhong Jiang,
Peter Naudé

**Abstract:**

Effective evaluation of software development effort is an important aspect of successful project management. Based on a large database with 4106 projects ever developed, this study statistically examines the factors that influence development effort. The factors found to be significant for effort are project size, average number of developers that worked on the project, type of development, development language, development platform, and the use of rapid application development. Among these factors, project size is the most critical cost driver. Unsurprisingly, this study found that the use of CASE tools does not necessarily reduce development effort, which adds support to the claim that the use of tools is subtle. As many of the current estimation models are rarely or unsuccessfully used, this study proposes a parsimonious parametric model for the prediction of effort which is both simple and more accurate than previous models.

**Keywords:**
Development effort,
function points,
team size,
development language,
CASE tool,
rapid application development.

##### 518 Roll of Membership functions in Fuzzy Logic for Prediction of Shoot Length of Mustard Plant Based on Residual Analysis

**Authors:**
Satyendra Nath Mandal,
J. Pal Choudhury,
Dilip De,
S. R. Bhadra Chaudhuri

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Fuzzification,
defuzzification,
gaussian function,
triangular function,
trapezoidal function,
s-function,
,
membership function,
residual analysis.

##### 517 Rational Points on Elliptic Curves 2 3 3y = x + a inF , where p 5(mod 6) is Prime

**Authors:**
Gokhan Soydan,
Musa Demirci,
Nazli Yildiz Ikikardes,
Ismail Naci Cangul

**Abstract:**

In this work, we consider the rational points on elliptic curves over finite fields Fp where p ≡ 5 (mod 6). We obtain results on the number of points on an elliptic curve y2 ≡ x3 + a3(mod p), where p ≡ 5 (mod 6) is prime. We give some results concerning the sum of the abscissae of these points. A similar case where p ≡ 1 (mod 6) is considered in [5]. The main difference between two cases is that when p ≡ 5 (mod 6), all elements of Fp are cubic residues.

**Keywords:**
Elliptic curves over finite fields,
rational points.

##### 516 Stability Analysis of a Human-Mosquito Model of Malaria with Infective Immigrants

**Authors:**
Nisha Budhwar,
Sunita Daniel

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Susceptible,
exposed,
infective,
recovered,
infective
immigrants,
reproduction number,
Lyapunov function,
equilibrium
points,
global stability.

##### 515 The Number of Rational Points on Singular Curvesy 2 = x(x - a)2 over Finite Fields Fp

**Authors:**
Ahmet Tekcan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Singular curve,
elliptic curve,
rational points.

##### 514 Implicit Two Step Continuous Hybrid Block Methods with Four Off-Steps Points for Solving Stiff Ordinary Differential Equation

**Authors:**
O. A. Akinfenwa,
N.M. Yao,
S. N. Jator

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Collocation and Interpolation,
Continuous HybridBlock Formulae,
Off-Step Points,
Stability,
Stiff ODEs.

##### 513 An Implementation of MacMahon's Partition Analysis in Ordering the Lower Bound of Processing Elements for the Algorithm of LU Decomposition

**Authors:**
Halil Snopce,
Ilir Spahiu,
Lavdrim Elmazi

**Abstract:**

A lot of Scientific and Engineering problems require the solution of large systems of linear equations of the form bAx in an effective manner. LU-Decomposition offers good choices for solving this problem. Our approach is to find the lower bound of processing elements needed for this purpose. Here is used the so called Omega calculus, as a computational method for solving problems via their corresponding Diophantine relation. From the corresponding algorithm is formed a system of linear diophantine equalities using the domain of computation which is given by the set of lattice points inside the polyhedron. Then is run the Mathematica program DiophantineGF.m. This program calculates the generating function from which is possible to find the number of solutions to the system of Diophantine equalities, which in fact gives the lower bound for the number of processors needed for the corresponding algorithm. There is given a mathematical explanation of the problem as well. Keywordsgenerating function, lattice points in polyhedron, lower bound of processor elements, system of Diophantine equationsand : calculus.

**Keywords:**
generating function,
lattice points in polyhedron,
lower bound of processor elements,
system of Diophantine equations and calculus.

##### 512 Automated Feature Points Management for Video Mosaic Construction

**Authors:**
Jing Li,
Quan Pan,
Stan. Z. Li,
Tao Yang

**Abstract:**

A novel algorithm for construct a seamless video mosaic of the entire panorama continuously by automatically analyzing and managing feature points, including management of quantity and quality, from the sequence is presented. Since a video contains significant redundancy, so that not all consecutive video images are required to create a mosaic. Only some key images need to be selected. Meanwhile, feature-based methods for mosaicing rely on correction of feature points? correspondence deeply, and if the key images have large frame interval, the mosaic will often be interrupted by the scarcity of corresponding feature points. A unique character of the method is its ability to handle all the problems above in video mosaicing. Experiments have been performed under various conditions, the results show that our method could achieve fast and accurate video mosaic construction. Keywords?video mosaic, feature points management, homography estimation.

**Keywords:**
Video mosaic,
feature points management,
homography estimation.

##### 511 Representing Shared Join Points with State Charts: A High Level Design Approach

**Authors:**
Muhammad Naveed,
Muhammad Khalid Abdullah,
Khalid Rashid,
Hafiz Farooq Ahmad

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Aspect Oriented Software Development,
Shared Join
Points.

##### 510 X-Corner Detection for Camera Calibration Using Saddle Points

**Authors:**
Abdulrahman S. Alturki,
John S. Loomis

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Camera Calibration,
Corner Detector,
Saddle
Points,
X-Corners.

##### 509 Facial Expressions Animation and Lip Tracking Using Facial Characteristic Points and Deformable Model

**Authors:**
Hadi Seyedarabi,
Ali Aghagolzadeh,
Sohrab Khanmohammadi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Deformable face model,
facial animation,
facialcharacteristic points,
optical flow.

##### 508 The Number of Rational Points on Elliptic Curves y2 = x3 + a3 on Finite Fields

**Authors:**
Musa Demirci,
Nazlı Yıldız İkikardeş,
Gökhan Soydan,
İsmail Naci Cangül

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Elliptic curves over finite fields,
rational points,
quadratic residue.

##### 507 A Survey on Facial Feature Points Detection Techniques and Approaches

**Authors:**
Rachid Ahdid,
Khaddouj Taifi,
Said Safi,
Bouzid Manaut

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Facial feature points,
face recognition,
facial feature
tracking,
two-dimensional data,
three-dimensional data.

##### 506 An Extension of the Kratzel Function and Associated Inverse Gaussian Probability Distribution Occurring in Reliability Theory

**Authors:**
R. K. Saxena,
Ravi Saxena

**Abstract:**

In view of their importance and usefulness in reliability theory and probability distributions, several generalizations of the inverse Gaussian distribution and the Krtzel function are investigated in recent years. This has motivated the authors to introduce and study a new generalization of the inverse Gaussian distribution and the Krtzel function associated with a product of a Bessel function of the third kind )(zKQ and a Z - Fox-Wright generalized hyper geometric function introduced in this paper. The introduced function turns out to be a unified gamma-type function. Its incomplete forms are also discussed. Several properties of this gamma-type function are obtained. By means of this generalized function, we introduce a generalization of inverse Gaussian distribution, which is useful in reliability analysis, diffusion processes, and radio techniques etc. The inverse Gaussian distribution thus introduced also provides a generalization of the Krtzel function. Some basic statistical functions associated with this probability density function, such as moments, the Mellin transform, the moment generating function, the hazard rate function, and the mean residue life function are also obtained.KeywordsFox-Wright function, Inverse Gaussian distribution, Krtzel function & Bessel function of the third kind.

**Keywords:**
Fox-Wright function,
Inverse Gaussian distribution,
Krtzel function & Bessel function of the third kind.

##### 505 The Number of Rational Points on Elliptic Curves y2 = x3 + b2 Over Finite Fields

**Authors:**
Betül Gezer,
Hacer Özden,
Ahmet Tekcan,
Osman Bizim

**Abstract:**

Let p be a prime number, Fpbe a finite field and let Qpdenote the set of quadratic residues in Fp. In the first section we givesome notations and preliminaries from elliptic curves. In the secondsection, we consider some properties of rational points on ellipticcurves Ep,b: y2= x3+ b2 over Fp, where b ∈ F*p. Recall that theorder of Ep,bover Fpis p + 1 if p ≡ 5(mod 6). We generalize thisresult to any field Fnp for an integer n≥ 2. Further we obtain someresults concerning the sum Σ[x]Ep,b(Fp) and Σ[y]Ep,b(Fp), thesum of x- and y- coordinates of all points (x, y) on Ep,b, and alsothe the sum Σ(x,0)Ep,b(Fp), the sum of points (x, 0) on Ep,b.

**Keywords:**
Elliptic curves over finite fields,
rational points on elliptic curves.

##### 504 The Effects of Software Size on Development Effort and Software Quality

**Authors:**
Zhizhong Jiang,
Peter Naudé,
Binghua Jiang

**Abstract:**

Effective evaluation of software development effort is an important issue during project plan. This study provides a model to predict development effort based on the software size estimated with function points. We generalize the average amount of effort spent on each phase of the development, and give the estimates for the effort used in software building, testing, and implementation. Finally, this paper finds a strong correlation between software defects and software size. As the size of software constantly increases, the quality remains to be a matter which requires major concern.

**Keywords:**
Development effort,
function points,
software quality,
software size.

##### 503 The Vulnerability Analysis of Java Bytecode Based on Points-to Dataflow

**Authors:**
Tang Hong,
Zhang Lufeng,
Chen Hua,
Zhang Jianbo

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Java bytecode,
points-to dataflow,
vulnerability analysis

##### 502 Salient Points Reduction for Content-Based Image Retrieval

**Authors:**
Yao-Hong Tsai

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Barnard detector,
Content-based image retrieval,
Points reduction,
Salient point.

##### 501 The Number of Rational Points on Elliptic Curves and Circles over Finite Fields

**Authors:**
Betül Gezer,
Ahmet Tekcan,
Osman Bizim

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Elliptic curves over finite fields,
rational points on
elliptic curves and circles.

##### 500 Function Approximation with Radial Basis Function Neural Networks via FIR Filter

**Authors:**
Kyu Chul Lee,
Sung Hyun Yoo,
Choon Ki Ahn,
Myo Taeg Lim

**Abstract:**

Recent experimental evidences have shown that because of a fast convergence and a nice accuracy, neural networks training via extended kalman filter (EKF) method is widely applied. However, as to an uncertainty of the system dynamics or modeling error, the performance of the method is unreliable. In order to overcome this problem in this paper, a new finite impulse response (FIR) filter based learning algorithm is proposed to train radial basis function neural networks (RBFN) for nonlinear function approximation. Compared to the EKF training method, the proposed FIR filter training method is more robust to those environmental conditions. Furthermore , the number of centers will be considered since it affects the performance of approximation.

**Keywords:**
Extended kalmin filter (EKF),
classification problem,
radial basis function networks (RBFN),
finite impulse response (FIR)filter.

##### 499 Certain Conditions for Strongly Starlike and Strongly Convex Functions

**Authors:**
Sukhwinder Singh Billing,
Sushma Gupta,
Sukhjit Singh Dhaliwal

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Analytic function,
Multiplier transformation,
Strongly starlike function,
Strongly convex function.

##### 498 Positive Solutions for Semipositone Discrete Eigenvalue Problems via Three Critical Points Theorem

**Authors:**
Benshi Zhu

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Discrete eigenvalue problems,
positive solutions,
semipositone,
three critical points theorem

##### 497 Software Effort Estimation Models Using Radial Basis Function Network

**Authors:**
E. Praynlin,
P. Latha

**Abstract:**

Software Effort Estimation is the process of estimating the effort required to develop software. By estimating the effort, the cost and schedule required to estimate the software can be determined. Accurate Estimate helps the developer to allocate the resource accordingly in order to avoid cost overrun and schedule overrun. Several methods are available in order to estimate the effort among which soft computing based method plays a prominent role. Software cost estimation deals with lot of uncertainty among all soft computing methods neural network is good in handling uncertainty. In this paper Radial Basis Function Network is compared with the back propagation network and the results are validated using six data sets and it is found that RBFN is best suitable to estimate the effort. The Results are validated using two tests the error test and the statistical test.

**Keywords:**
Software cost estimation,
Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN),
Back propagation function network,
Mean Magnitude of Relative Error (MMRE).

##### 496 The Global Stability Using Lyapunov Function

**Authors:**
R. Kongnuy,
E. Naowanich,
T. Kruehong

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Age Group,
Leptospirosis,
Lyapunov Function,
Ordinary Differential Equation.

##### 495 Application the Statistical Conditional Entropy Function for Definition of Cause-and-Effect Relations during Primary Soil Formation

**Authors:**
Vladimir K. Mukhomorov

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Chemical elements,
entropy function,
information,
plants.