Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3456

Search results for: Froude Number

3456 Studying the Effect of Froude Number and Densimetric Froude Number on Local Scours around Circular Bridge Piers

Authors: Md Abdullah Al Faruque

Abstract:

A very large percentage of bridge failures are attributed to scouring around bridge piers and this directly influences public safety. Experiments are carried out in a 12-m long rectangular open channel flume made of transparent tempered glass. A 300 mm thick bed made up of sand particles is leveled horizontally to create the test bed and a 50 mm hollow plastic cylinder is used as a model bridge pier. Tests are carried out with varying flow depths and velocities. Data points of various scour parameters such as scour depth, width, and length are collected based on different flow conditions and visual observations of changes in the stream bed downstream the bridge pier are also made as the scour progresses. Result shows that all three major flow characteristics (flow depth, Froude number and densimetric Froude number) have one way or other affect the scour profile.

Keywords: Bridge pier scour, densimetric Froude number, flow depth, Froude Number, sand.

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3455 Investigation of Undular Hydraulic Jump over Smooth Beds

Authors: F. Rostami, M. Shahrokhi, M. A. Md Said, S.R. Sabbagh-Yazdi

Abstract:

Undular hydraulic jumps are illustrated by a smooth rise of the free surface followed by a train of stationary waves. They are sometimes experienced in natural waterways and rivers. The characteristics of undular hydraulic jumps are studied here. The height, amplitude and the main characteristics of undular jump is depended on the upstream Froude number and aspect ratio. The experiments were done on the smooth bed flume. These results compared with other researches and the main characteristics of the undular hydraulic jump were studied in this article.

Keywords: Undular Hydraulic Jump, low Froude Number, wave characteristics

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3454 Prediction of Scour Profile Caused by Submerged Three-Dimensional Wall Jets

Authors: Abdullah Al Faruque, Ram Balachandar

Abstract:

Series of laboratory tests were carried out to study the extent of scour caused by a three-dimensional wall jets exiting from a square cross-section nozzle and into a non-cohesive sand beds. Previous observations have indicated that the effect of the tail water depth was significant for densimetric Froude number greater than ten. However, the present results indicate that the cut off value could be lower depending on the value of grain size-to-nozzle width ratio. Numbers of equations are drawn out for a better scaling of numerous scour parameters. Also suggested the empirical prediction of scour to predict the scour centre line profile and plan view of scour profile at any particular time.

Keywords: Densimetric Froude Number, Jets, Nozzle, Sand, Scour, Tailwater, Time.

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3453 Experimental Study of Submersible Jet on Flow Hydraulic Parameters

Authors: Mohsen Solimani Babarsad, Habib Musavi Jahromi

Abstract:

Behavior of turbulent jet is relying on jet parameters, environmental and geometric parameters. In this research, it has attempt to Study effect of jet parameters of internal angle on maximum effective length and velocity on centerline from nozzle experimentally. Toward this end, four internal angles 30, 45, 60 and 90-degree are considered for this study in a flume with 600cm as long, 100cm as high and 150cm in width. Various discharges were used to evaluate effective length for a wide range of densimetric Froude numbers F0, from 17.9 to 39.4 that is defined at the nozzle. As a result, It is revealed that both velocity on centerline and effective length decreases when nozzle angle decreased from 90° to 30°. The results show that, for all range of Fr0 the Um/U0 ratio for nozzle with α=90° on centerline increases 20% - 27% than nozzle with α=30° that has lowest velocity on centerline than other nozzle.

Keywords: Turbulent jet, velocity, effective length, Froude number.

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3452 Laboratory Experiments: Influence of Rainfall Characteristics on Runoff and Water Erosion

Authors: A. Moussouni, L. Mouzai, M. Bouhadef

Abstract:

The study concerns an experimental investigation in the laboratory of the water erosion using a rainfall simulator. We have focused our attention on the influence of rainfall intensity on some hydraulic characteristics. The results obtained allow us to conclude that there is a significant correlation between rainfall intensity and hydraulic characteristics of runoff (Reynolds number, Froude number) and sediment concentration.

Keywords: Laboratory experiments, rainfall intensity, rainfall simulator, runoff, sediment concentration, soil erosion

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3451 Sediment Patterns from Fluid-Bed Interactions: A Direct Numerical Simulations Study on Fluvial Turbulent Flows

Authors: Nadim Zgheib, Sivaramakrishnan Balachandar

Abstract:

We present results on the initial formation of ripples from an initially flattened erodible bed. We use direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent open channel flow over a fixed sinusoidal bed coupled with hydrodynamic stability analysis. We use the direct forcing immersed boundary method to account for the presence of the sediment bed. The resolved flow provides the bed shear stress and consequently the sediment transport rate, which is needed in the stability analysis of the Exner equation. The approach is different from traditional linear stability analysis in the sense that the phase lag between the bed topology, and the sediment flux is obtained from the DNS. We ran 11 simulations at a fixed shear Reynolds number of 180, but for different sediment bed wavelengths. The analysis allows us to sweep a large range of physical and modelling parameters to predict their effects on linear growth. The Froude number appears to be the critical controlling parameter in the early linear development of ripples, in contrast with the dominant role of particle Reynolds number during the equilibrium stage.

Keywords: Direct numerical simulation, immersed boundary method, sediment-bed interactions, turbulent multiphase flow, linear stability analysis.

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3450 Prediction for the Pressure Drop of Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone in Sub-Sea Production System

Authors: Xu Rumin, Chen Jianyi, Yue Ti, Wang Yaan

Abstract:

With the rapid development of subsea oil and gas exploitation, the demand for the related underwater process equipment is increasing fast. In order to reduce the energy consuming, people tend to separate the gas and oil phase directly on the seabed. Accordingly, an advanced separator is needed. In this paper, the pressure drop of a new type of separator named Gas Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone (GLCC) which is used in the subsea system is investigated by both experiments and numerical simulation. In the experiments, the single phase flow and gas-liquid two phase flow in GLCC were tested. For the simulation, the performance of GLCC under both laboratory and industrial conditions was calculated. The Eulerian model was implemented to describe the mixture flow field in the GLCC under experimental conditions and industrial oil-natural gas conditions. Furthermore, a relationship among Euler number (Eu), Reynolds number (Re), and Froude number (Fr) is generated according to similarity analysis and simulation data, which can present the GLCC separation performance of pressure drop. These results can give reference to the design and application of GLCC in deep sea.

Keywords: Dimensionless analysis, gas-liquid cylindrical cyclone, numerical simulation; pressure drop.

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3449 The Effect of the Side-Weir Crest Height to Scour in Clay-Sand Mixed Sediments

Authors: F. Ayça Varol Saraçoğlu, Hayrullah Ağaçcıoğlu

Abstract:

Experimental studies to investigate the depth of the scour conducted at a side-weir intersection located at the 1800 curved flume which located Hydraulic Laboratory of Yıldız Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey. Side weirs were located at the middle of the straight part of the main channel. Three different lengths (25, 40 and 50 cm) and three different weir crest height (7, 10 and 12 cm) of the side weir placed on the side weir station. There is no scour when the material is only kaolin. Therefore, the cohesive bed was prepared by properly mixing clay material (kaolin) with 31% sand in all experiments. Following 24h consolidation time, in order to observe the effect of flow intensity on the scour depth, experiments were carried out for five different upstream Froude numbers in the range of 0.33-0.81. As a result of this study the relation between scour depth and upstream flow intensity as a function of time have been established. The longitudinal velocities decreased along the side weir; towards the downstream due to overflow over the side-weirs. At the beginning, the scour depth increases rapidly with time and then asymptotically approached constant values in all experiments for all side weir dimensions as in non-cohesive sediment. Thus, the scour depth reached equilibrium conditions. Time to equilibrium depends on the approach flow intensity and the dimensions of side weirs. For different heights of the weir crest, dimensionless scour depths increased with increasing upstream Froude number. Equilibrium scour depths which formed 7 cm side-weir crest height were obtained higher than that of the 12 cm side-weir crest height. This means when side-weir crest height increased equilibrium scour depths decreased. Although the upstream side of the scour hole is almost vertical, the downstream side of the hole is inclined.

Keywords: Clay-sand mixed sediments, scour, side weir.

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3448 Characteristics of Hydraulic Jump

Authors: Sumit Gandhi

Abstract:

The effect of an abruptly expanding channel on the main characteristics of hydraulic jump is considered experimentally. The present study was made for supercritical flow of Froude number varying between 2 to 9 and approach to expanded channel width ratios 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.8. Physical explanations of the variation of these characteristics under varying flow conditions are discussed based on the observation drawn from experimental results. The analytical equation for the sequent depth ratio in an abruptly expanding channel as given by eminent hydraulic engineers are verified well with the experimental data for all expansion ratios, and the empirical relation was also verified with the present experimental data.

Keywords: Abruptly Expanding Channel, Hydraulic Jump, Efficiency, Sequent Depth Ratio.

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3447 Influence of the Entropic Parameter on the Flow Geometry and Morphology

Authors: D. Mirauda, M. Greco, A. Volpe Plantamura

Abstract:

The necessity of updating the numerical models inputs, because of geometrical and resistive variations in rivers subject to solid transport phenomena, requires detailed control and monitoring activities. The human employment and financial resources of these activities moves the research towards the development of expeditive methodologies, able to evaluate the outflows through the measurement of more easily acquirable sizes. Recent studies highlighted the dependence of the entropic parameter on the kinematical and geometrical flow conditions. They showed a meaningful variability according to the section shape, dimension and slope. Such dependences, even if not yet well defined, could reduce the difficulties during the field activities, and also the data elaboration time. On the basis of such evidences, the relationships between the entropic parameter and the geometrical and resistive sizes, obtained through a large and detailed laboratory experience on steady free surface flows in conditions of macro and intermediate homogeneous roughness, are analyzed and discussed.

Keywords: Froude number, entropic parameter, roughness, water discharge.

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3446 Evolution of Developing Flushing Cone during the Pressurized Flushing in Reservoir Storage

Authors: Meshkati M. E., Dehghani A. A., Naser G., E mamgholizadeh S., Mosaedi A.

Abstract:

Sedimentation in reservoirs and the corresponding loss of storage capacity is one of the most serious problems in dam engineering. Pressurized flushing, a way to remove sediments from the reservoir, is flushing under a pressurized flow condition and nearly constant water level. Pressurized flushing has only local effects around the outlet. Sediment in the vicinity of the outlet openings is scoured and a funnel shaped crater is created. In this study, the temporal development of flushing cone under various hydraulic conditions was studied experimentally. Time variations of parameters such as maximum length and width of flushing and also depth of scouring cone was measured. Results indicated that an increase in flow velocity (and consequently in Froude number) established new hydraulically conditions for flushing mechanism and so a sudden growth was observed in the amount of sediment released and also scouring dimenssions. In addition, a set of nondimensional relationships were identified for temporal variations of flushing scour dimenssions, which can eventuallt be used to estimate the development of flushing cone.

Keywords: Pressure Flushing, Dam, Sediment, Scouring.

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3445 Completion Number of a Graph

Authors: Sudhakar G

Abstract:

In this paper a new concept of partial complement of a graph G is introduced and using the same a new graph parameter, called completion number of a graph G, denoted by c(G) is defined. Some basic properties of graph parameter, completion number, are studied and upperbounds for completion number of classes of graphs are obtained , the paper includes the characterization also.

Keywords: Completion Number, Maximum Independent subset, Partial complements, Partial self complementary

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3444 Natural Convection Heat Transfer from Inclined Cylinders: A Unified Correlation

Authors: Neetu Rani, Hema Setia, Marut Dutt. R.K. Wanchoo

Abstract:

An empirical correlation for predicting the heat transfer coefficient for a cylinder under free convection, inclined at any arbitrary angle with the horizontal has been developed in terms of Nusselt number, Prandtl number and Grashof number. Available experimental data was used to determine the parameters for the proposed correlation. The proposed correlation predicts the available data well within ±10%, for Prandtl number in the range 0.68-0.72 and Grashof number in the range 1.4×104–1.2×1010.

Keywords: Heat transfer, inclined cylinders, natural convection, Nusselt number, Prandtl number, Grashof number.

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3443 Flow and Heat Transfer of a Nanofluid over a Shrinking Sheet

Authors: N. Bachok, N. L. Aleng, N. M. Arifin, A. Ishak, N. Senu

Abstract:

The problem of laminar fluid flow which results from the shrinking of a permeable surface in a nanofluid has been investigated numerically. The model used for the nanofluid incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. A similarity solution is presented which depends on the mass suction parameter S, Prandtl number Pr, Lewis number Le, Brownian motion number Nb and thermophoresis number Nt. It was found that the reduced Nusselt number is decreasing function of each dimensionless number.

Keywords: Boundary layer, Nanofluid, Shrinking sheet, Brownian motion, Thermophoresis, Similarity solution.

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3442 Numerical Modeling of Flow in USBR II Stilling Basin with End Adverse Slope

Authors: Hamidreza Babaali, Alireza Mojtahedi, Nasim Soori, Saba Soori

Abstract:

Hydraulic jump is one of the effective ways of energy dissipation in stilling basins that the ‎energy is highly dissipated by jumping. Adverse slope surface at the end stilling basin is ‎caused to increase energy dissipation and stability of the hydraulic jump. In this study, the adverse slope ‎has been added to end of United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) II stilling basin in hydraulic model of Nazloochay dam with scale 1:40, and flow simulated into stilling basin using Flow-3D ‎software. The numerical model is verified by experimental data of water depth in ‎stilling basin. Then, the parameters of water level profile, Froude Number, pressure, air ‎entrainment and turbulent dissipation investigated for discharging 300 m3/s using K-Ɛ and Re-Normalization Group (RNG) turbulence ‎models. The results showed a good agreement between numerical and experimental model‎ as ‎numerical model can be used to optimize of stilling basins.‎

Keywords: Experimental and numerical modeling, end adverse slope, flow ‎parameters, USBR II Stilling Basin.

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3441 Double-Diffusive Natural Convection with Marangoni and Cooling Effects

Authors: Norazam Arbin, Ishak Hashim

Abstract:

Double-diffusive natural convection in an open top square cavity and heated from the side is studied numerically. Constant temperatures and concentration are imposed along the right and left walls while the heat balance at the surface is assumed to obey Newton-s law of cooling. The finite difference method is used to solve the dimensionless governing equations. The numerical results are reported for the effect of Marangoni number, Biot number and Prandtl number on the contours of streamlines, temperature and concentration. The predicted results for the average Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented for various parametric conditions. The parameters involved are as follows; the thermal Marangoni number, 0 ≤ MaT ≤1000 , the solutal Marangoni number, 0 1000 c ≤ Ma ≤ , the Biot number, 0 ≤ Bi ≤ 6 , Grashof number, 5 Gr = 10 and aspect ratio 1. The study focused on both flows; thermal dominated, N = 0.8 , and compositional dominated, N = 1.3 .

Keywords: Double-diffusive, Marangoni effects, heat and mass transfer.

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3440 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Number of Waves on Heat Transfer in a Wavy Wall Enclosure

Authors: Ali Reza Tahavvor, Saeed Hosseini, Afshin Karimzadeh Fard

Abstract:

In this paper the effect of wall waviness of side walls in a two-dimensional wavy enclosure is numerically investigated. Two vertical wavy walls and straight top wall are kept isothermal and the bottom wall temperature is higher and spatially varying with cosinusoidal temperature distribution. A computational code based on Finite-volume approach is used to solve governing equations and SIMPLE method is used for pressure velocity coupling. Test is performed for several different numbers of undulations. The Prandtl number was kept constant and the Ra number denotes that the flow is laminar. Temperature and velocity fields are determined. Therefore, according to the obtained results a correlation is proposed for average Nusselt number as a function of number of side wall waves. The results indicate that the Nusselt number is highly affected by number of waves and increasing it decreases the wavy walls Nusselt number; although the Nusselt number is not highly affected by surface waviness when the number of undulations is below one.

Keywords: Cavity, natural convection, Nusselt number, wavy wall.

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3439 A Two-Phase Flow Interface Tracking Algorithm Using a Fully Coupled Pressure-Based Finite Volume Method

Authors: Shidvash Vakilipour, Scott Ormiston, Masoud Mohammadi, Rouzbeh Riazi, Kimia Amiri, Sahar Barati

Abstract:

Two-phase and multi-phase flows are common flow types in fluid mechanics engineering. Among the basic and applied problems of these flow types, two-phase parallel flow is the one that two immiscible fluids flow in the vicinity of each other. In this type of flow, fluid properties (e.g. density, viscosity, and temperature) are different at the two sides of the interface of the two fluids. The most challenging part of the numerical simulation of two-phase flow is to determine the location of interface accurately. In the present work, a coupled interface tracking algorithm is developed based on Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) approach using a cell-centered, pressure-based, coupled solver. To validate this algorithm, an analytical solution for fully developed two-phase flow in presence of gravity is derived, and then, the results of the numerical simulation of this flow are compared with analytical solution at various flow conditions. The results of the simulations show good accuracy of the algorithm despite using a nearly coarse and uniform grid. Temporal variations of interface profile toward the steady-state solution show that a greater difference between fluids properties (especially dynamic viscosity) will result in larger traveling waves. Gravity effect studies also show that favorable gravity will result in a reduction of heavier fluid thickness and adverse gravity leads to increasing it with respect to the zero gravity condition. However, the magnitude of variation in favorable gravity is much more than adverse gravity.

Keywords: Coupled solver, gravitational force, interface tracking, Reynolds number to Froude number, two-phase flow.

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3438 On the Multiplicity of Discriminants of Relative Quadratic Extensions of Quintic Fields

Authors: Schehrazad Selmane

Abstract:

According to Hermite there exists only a finite number of number fields having a given degree, and a given value of the discriminant, nevertheless this number is not known generally. The determination of a maximum number of number fields of degree 10 having a given discriminant that contain a subfield of degree 5 having a fixed class number, narrow class number and Galois group is the purpose of this work. The constructed lists of the first coincidences of 52 (resp. 50, 40, 48, 22, 6) nonisomorphic number fields with same discriminant of degree 10 of signature (6,2) (resp. (4,3), (8,1), (2,4), (0,5), (10,0)) containing a quintic field. For each field in the lists, we indicate its discriminant, the discriminant of its subfield, a relative polynomial generating the field over its quintic field and its relative discriminant, the corresponding polynomial over Q and its Galois closure are presented with concluding remarks.

Keywords: Discriminant, nonisomorphic fields, quintic fields, relative quadratic extensions.

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3437 Effects of Roughness on Forward Facing Step in an Open Channel

Authors: S. M. Rifat, André L. Marchildon, Mark F. Tachie

Abstract:

Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of roughness on the reattachment and redevelopment regions over a 12 mm forward facing step (FFS) in an open channel flow. The experiments were performed over an upstream smooth wall and a smooth FFS, an upstream wall coated with sandpaper 36 grit and a smooth FFS and an upstream rough wall produced from sandpaper 36 grit and a FFS coated with sandpaper 36 grit. To investigate only the wall roughness effects, Reynolds number, Froude number, aspect ratio and blockage ratio were kept constant. Upstream profiles showed reduced streamwise mean velocities close to the rough wall compared to the smooth wall, but the turbulence level was increased by upstream wall roughness. The reattachment length for the smooth-smooth wall experiment was 1.78h; however, when it is replaced with rough-smooth wall the reattachment length decreased to 1.53h. It was observed that the upstream roughness increased the physical size of contours of maximum turbulence level; however, the downstream roughness decreased both the size and magnitude of contours in the vicinity of the leading edge of the step. Quadrant analysis was performed to investigate the dominant Reynolds shear stress contribution in the recirculation region. The Reynolds shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy profiles after the reattachment showed slower recovery compared to the streamwise mean velocity, however all the profiles fairly collapse on their corresponding upstream profiles at x/h = 60. It was concluded that to obtain a complete collapse several more streamwise distances would be required.

Keywords: Forward facing step, open channel, separated and reattached turbulent flows, wall roughness.

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3436 Effect of Hartmann Number on Free Convective Flow in a Square Cavity with Different Positions of Heated Square Block

Authors: Abdul Halim Bhuiyan, M. A. Alim, Md. Nasir Uddin

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with the effect of Hartmann number on the free convective flow in a square cavity with different positions of heated square block. The two-dimensional Physical and mathematical model have been developed, and mathematical model includes the system of governing mass, momentum and energy equations are solved by the finite element method. The calculations have been computed for Prandtl number Pr = 0.71, the Rayleigh number Ra = 1000 and the different values of Hartmann number. The results are illustrated with the streamlines, isotherms, velocity and temperature fields as well as local Nusselt number.

Keywords: Finite element method, free convection, Hartmann number, square cavity.

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3435 Behavior of Ice Melting in Natural Convention

Authors: N. Dizadji, P. Entezar

Abstract:

In this paper, the ice melting in rectangular, cylindrical and conical forms, which are erected vertically against air flow, are experimentally studied in the free convection regime.The results obtained are: Nusslet Number, heat transfer coefficient andGrashof Number, and the variations of the said numbers in relation to the time. The variations of ice slab area and volume are measured, too.

Keywords: Nusselt Number, Heat Transfer, Grashof Number, Heat Transfer Coefficient.

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3434 Marangoni Convection in a Fluid Saturated Porous Layer with a Deformable Free Surface

Authors: Nor Fadzillah Mohd Mokhtar, Norihan Md Arifin, Roslinda Nazar, Fudziah Ismail, MohamedSuleiman

Abstract:

The stability analysis of Marangoni convection in porous media with a deformable upper free surface is investigated. The linear stability theory and the normal mode analysis are applied and the resulting eigenvalue problem is solved exactly. The Darcy law and the Brinkman model are used to describe the flow in the porous medium heated from below. The effect of the Crispation number, Bond number and the Biot number are analyzed for the stability of the system. It is found that a decrease in the Crispation number and an increase in the Bond number delay the onset of convection in porous media. In addition, the system becomes more stable when the Biot number is increases and the Daeff number is decreases.

Keywords: Deformable, Marangoni, Porous, Stability.

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3433 Image Segmentation Using Suprathreshold Stochastic Resonance

Authors: Rajib Kumar Jha, P.K.Biswas, B.N.Chatterji

Abstract:

In this paper a new concept of partial complement of a graph G is introduced and using the same a new graph parameter, called completion number of a graph G, denoted by c(G) is defined. Some basic properties of graph parameter, completion number, are studied and upperbounds for completion number of classes of graphs are obtained , the paper includes the characterization also.

Keywords: Completion Number, Maximum Independent subset, Partial complements, Partial self complementary.

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3432 Scheduling of Bus Fleet Departure Time Based on Mathematical Model of Number of Bus Stops for Municipality Bus Organization

Authors: Ali Abdi Kordani, Hamid Bigdelirad, Sid Mohammad Boroomandrad

Abstract:

Operating Urban Bus Transit System is a phenomenon that has a major role in transporting passengers in cities. There are many factors involved in planning and operating an Urban Bus Transit System, one of which is selecting optimized number of stops and scheduling of bus fleet departure. In this paper, we tried to introduce desirable methodology to select number of stops and schedule properly. Selecting the right number of stops causes convenience in accessibility and reduction in travel time and finally increase in public preference of this transportation mode. The achieved results revealed that number of stops must reduce from 33 to 25. Also according to scheduling and conducted economic analysis, the number of buses must decrease from 17 to 11 to have the most appropriate status for the Bus Organization.

Keywords: Number of optimized stops, organizing bus system, scheduling, urban transit.

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3431 Scour Depth Prediction around Bridge Piers Using Neuro-Fuzzy and Neural Network Approaches

Authors: H. Bonakdari, I. Ebtehaj

Abstract:

The prediction of scour depth around bridge piers is frequently considered in river engineering. One of the key aspects in efficient and optimum bridge structure design is considered to be scour depth estimation around bridge piers. In this study, scour depth around bridge piers is estimated using two methods, namely the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Therefore, the effective parameters in scour depth prediction are determined using the ANN and ANFIS methods via dimensional analysis, and subsequently, the parameters are predicted. In the current study, the methods’ performances are compared with the nonlinear regression (NLR) method. The results show that both methods presented in this study outperform existing methods. Moreover, using the ratio of pier length to flow depth, ratio of median diameter of particles to flow depth, ratio of pier width to flow depth, the Froude number and standard deviation of bed grain size parameters leads to optimal performance in scour depth estimation.

Keywords: Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, ANFIS, artificial neural network, ANN, bridge pier, scour depth, nonlinear regression, NLR.

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3430 Mixed Convective Heat Transfer in Water-Based Al2O3 Nanofluid in Horizontal Rectangular Duct

Authors: Nur Irmawati, H.A. Mohammed

Abstract:

In the present study, mixed convection in a horizontal rectangular duct using Al2O3 is numerically investigated. The effects of different Rayleigh number, Reynolds number and radiation on flow and heat transfer characteristics are studied in detail. This study covers Rayleigh number in the range of 2 × 10^6 ≤ Ra ≤ 2 × 10^7 and Reynolds number in the range of 100 ≤ Re ≤ 1100. Results reveal that the Nusselt number increases as Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers increase. It is also found that the dimensionless temperature distribution increases as Rayleigh number increases.

Keywords: Numerical simulation, Mixed convection, Horizontal rectangular duct, Nanofluids.

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3429 A Dynamically Reconfigurable Arithmetic Circuit for Complex Number and Double Precision Number

Authors: Haruo Shimada, Akinori Kanasugi

Abstract:

This paper proposes an architecture of dynamically reconfigurable arithmetic circuit. Dynamic reconfiguration is a technique to realize required functions by changing hardware construction during operations. The proposed circuit is based on a complex number multiply-accumulation circuit which is used frequently in the field of digital signal processing. In addition, the proposed circuit performs real number double precision arithmetic operations. The data formats are single and double precision floating point number based on IEEE754. The proposed circuit is designed using VHDL, and verified the correct operation by simulations and experiments.

Keywords: arithmetic circuit, complex number, double precision, dynamic reconfiguration

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3428 Numerical Study of Mixed Convection Coupled to Radiation in a Square Cavity with a Lid-Driven

Authors: Mohamed Amine Belmiloud, Nord Eddine Sad Chemloul

Abstract:

In this study, we investigated numerically heat transfer by mixed convection coupled to radiation in a square cavity; the upper horizontal wall is movable. The purpose of this study is to see the influence of the emissivity ε and the varying of the Richardson number Ri on the variation of average Nusselt number Nu. The vertical walls of the cavity are differentially heated, the left wall is maintained at a uniform temperature higher than the right wall, and the two horizontal walls are adiabatic. The finite volume method is used for solving the dimensionless Governing Equations. Emissivity values used in this study are ranged between 0 and 1, the Richardson number in the range 0.1 to 10. The Rayleigh number is fixed to Ra=104 and the Prandtl number is maintained constant Pr=0.71. Streamlines, isothermal lines and the average Nusselt number are presented according to the surface emissivity. The results of this study show that the Richardson number Ri and emissivity ε affect the average Nusselt number.

Keywords: Numerical study, mixed convection, square cavity, wall emissivity, lid-driven.

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3427 Blind Source Separation based on the Estimation for the Number of the Blind Sources under a Dynamic Acoustic Environment

Authors: Takaaki Ishibashi

Abstract:

Independent component analysis can estimate unknown source signals from their mixtures under the assumption that the source signals are statistically independent. However, in a real environment, the separation performance is often deteriorated because the number of the source signals is different from that of the sensors. In this paper, we propose an estimation method for the number of the sources based on the joint distribution of the observed signals under two-sensor configuration. From several simulation results, it is found that the number of the sources is coincident to that of peaks in the histogram of the distribution. The proposed method can estimate the number of the sources even if it is larger than that of the observed signals. The proposed methods have been verified by several experiments.

Keywords: blind source separation, independent component analysys, estimation for the number of the blind sources, voice activity detection, target extraction.

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