Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6345

Search results for: Field data based model

6345 ANN Based Model Development for Material Removal Rate in Dry Turning in Indian Context

Authors: Mangesh R. Phate, V. H. Tatwawadi

Abstract:

This paper is intended to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) based model of material removal rate (MRR) in the turning of ferrous and nonferrous material in a Indian small-scale industry. MRR of the formulated model was proved with the testing data and artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed for the analysis and prediction of the relationship between inputs and output parameters during the turning of ferrous and nonferrous materials. The input parameters of this model are operator, work-piece, cutting process, cutting tool, machine and the environment.

The ANN model consists of a three layered feedforward back propagation neural network. The network is trained with pairs of independent/dependent datasets generated when machining ferrous and nonferrous material. A very good performance of the neural network, in terms of contract with experimental data, was achieved. The model may be used for the testing and forecast of the complex relationship between dependent and the independent parameters in turning operations.

Keywords: Field data based model, Artificial neural network, Simulation, Convectional Turning, Material removal rate.

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6344 The Relevance of Data Warehousing and Data Mining in the Field of Evidence-based Medicine to Support Healthcare Decision Making

Authors: Nevena Stolba, A Min Tjoa

Abstract:

Evidence-based medicine is a new direction in modern healthcare. Its task is to prevent, diagnose and medicate diseases using medical evidence. Medical data about a large patient population is analyzed to perform healthcare management and medical research. In order to obtain the best evidence for a given disease, external clinical expertise as well as internal clinical experience must be available to the healthcare practitioners at right time and in the right manner. External evidence-based knowledge can not be applied directly to the patient without adjusting it to the patient-s health condition. We propose a data warehouse based approach as a suitable solution for the integration of external evidence-based data sources into the existing clinical information system and data mining techniques for finding appropriate therapy for a given patient and a given disease. Through integration of data warehousing, OLAP and data mining techniques in the healthcare area, an easy to use decision support platform, which supports decision making process of care givers and clinical managers, is built. We present three case studies, which show, that a clinical data warehouse that facilitates evidence-based medicine is a reliable, powerful and user-friendly platform for strategic decision making, which has a great relevance for the practice and acceptance of evidence-based medicine.

Keywords: data mining, data warehousing, decision-support systems, evidence-based medicine.

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6343 Region Based Hidden Markov Random Field Model for Brain MR Image Segmentation

Authors: Terrence Chen, Thomas S. Huang

Abstract:

In this paper, we present the region based hidden Markov random field model (RBHMRF), which encodes the characteristics of different brain regions into a probabilistic framework for brain MR image segmentation. The recently proposed TV+L1 model is used for region extraction. By utilizing different spatial characteristics in different brain regions, the RMHMRF model performs beyond the current state-of-the-art method, the hidden Markov random field model (HMRF), which uses identical spatial information throughout the whole brain. Experiments on both real and synthetic 3D MR images show that the segmentation result of the proposed method has higher accuracy compared to existing algorithms.

Keywords: Finite Gaussian mixture model, Hidden Markov random field model, image segmentation, MRI.

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6342 Featured based Segmentation of Color Textured Images using GLCM and Markov Random Field Model

Authors: Dipti Patra, Mridula J

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new image segmentation approach for colour textured images. The proposed method for image segmentation consists of two stages. In the first stage, textural features using gray level co-occurrence matrix(GLCM) are computed for regions of interest (ROI) considered for each class. ROI acts as ground truth for the classes. Ohta model (I1, I2, I3) is the colour model used for segmentation. Statistical mean feature at certain inter pixel distance (IPD) of I2 component was considered to be the optimized textural feature for further segmentation. In the second stage, the feature matrix obtained is assumed to be the degraded version of the image labels and modeled as Markov Random Field (MRF) model to model the unknown image labels. The labels are estimated through maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation criterion using ICM algorithm. The performance of the proposed approach is compared with that of the existing schemes, JSEG and another scheme which uses GLCM and MRF in RGB colour space. The proposed method is found to be outperforming the existing ones in terms of segmentation accuracy with acceptable rate of convergence. The results are validated with synthetic and real textured images.

Keywords: Texture Image Segmentation, Gray Level Cooccurrence Matrix, Markov Random Field Model, Ohta colour space, ICM algorithm.

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6341 Spatial Behavioral Model-Based Dynamic Data-Driven Diagram Information Model

Authors: Chiung-Hui Chen

Abstract:

Diagram and drawing are important ways to communicate and the reproduce of architectural design, Due to the development of information and communication technology, the professional thinking of architecture and interior design are also change rapidly. In development process of design, diagram always play very important role. This study is based on diagram theories, observe and record interaction between man and objects, objects and space, and space and time in a modern nuclear family. Construct a method for diagram to systematically and visualized describe the space plan of a modern nuclear family toward an intelligent design, to assist designer to retrieve information and review event pattern of past and present.

Keywords: Digital diagram, information model, context aware, data analysis.

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6340 Mobile Phone as a Tool for Data Collection in Field Research

Authors: Sandro Mourão, Karla Okada

Abstract:

The necessity of accurate and timely field data is shared among organizations engaged in fundamentally different activities, public services or commercial operations. Basically, there are three major components in the process of the qualitative research: data collection, interpretation and organization of data, and analytic process. Representative technological advancements in terms of innovation have been made in mobile devices (mobile phone, PDA-s, tablets, laptops, etc). Resources that can be potentially applied on the data collection activity for field researches in order to improve this process. This paper presents and discuss the main features of a mobile phone based solution for field data collection, composed of basically three modules: a survey editor, a server web application and a client mobile application. The data gathering process begins with the survey creation module, which enables the production of tailored questionnaires. The field workforce receives the questionnaire(s) on their mobile phones to collect the interviews responses and sending them back to a server for immediate analysis.

Keywords: Data Gathering, Field Research, Mobile Phone, Survey.

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6339 A Frequency Dependence of the Phase Field Model in Laminar Boundary Layer with Periodic Perturbations

Authors: Yasuo Obikane

Abstract:

The frequency dependence of the phase field model(PFM) is studied. A simple PFM is proposed, and is tested in a laminar boundary layer. The Blasius-s laminar boundary layer solution on a flat plate is used for the flow pattern, and several frequencies are imposed on the PFM, and the decay times of the interfaces are obtained. The computations were conducted for three cases: 1) no-flow, and 2) a half ball on the laminar boundary layer, 3) a line of mass sources in the laminar boundary layer. The computations show the decay time becomes shorter as the frequency goes larger, and also show that it is sensitive to both background disturbances and surface tension parameters. It is concluded that the proposed simple PFM can describe the properties of decay process, and could give the fundamentals for the decay of the interface in turbulent flows.

Keywords: Phase field model, two phase flows, Laminarboundary Layer

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6338 Fuzzy Based Problem-Solution Data Structureas a Data Oriented Model for ABS Controlling

Authors: Ahmad Habibizad Navin, Mehdi Naghian Fesharaki, Mohamad Teshnelab, Ehsan Shahamatnia

Abstract:

The anti-lock braking systems installed on vehicles for safe and effective braking, are high-order nonlinear and timevariant. Using fuzzy logic controllers increase efficiency of such systems, but impose a high computational complexity as well. The main concept introduced by this paper is reducing computational complexity of fuzzy controllers by deploying problem-solution data structure. Unlike conventional methods that are based on calculations, this approach is based on data oriented modeling.

Keywords: ABS, Fuzzy controller, PSDS, Time-Memory tradeoff, Data oriented modeling.

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6337 Using Perspective Schemata to Model the ETL Process

Authors: Valeria M. Pequeno, Joao Carlos G. M. Pires

Abstract:

Data Warehouses (DWs) are repositories which contain the unified history of an enterprise for decision support. The data must be Extracted from information sources, Transformed and integrated to be Loaded (ETL) into the DW, using ETL tools. These tools focus on data movement, where the models are only used as a means to this aim. Under a conceptual viewpoint, the authors want to innovate the ETL process in two ways: 1) to make clear compatibility between models in a declarative fashion, using correspondence assertions and 2) to identify the instances of different sources that represent the same entity in the real-world. This paper presents the overview of the proposed framework to model the ETL process, which is based on the use of a reference model and perspective schemata. This approach provides the designer with a better understanding of the semantic associated with the ETL process.

Keywords: conceptual data model, correspondence assertions, data warehouse, data integration, ETL process, object relational database.

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6336 Interdisciplinary Principles of Field-Like Coordination in the Case of Self-Organized Social Systems1

Authors: D. Plikynas, S. Masteika, A. Budrionis

Abstract:

This interdisciplinary research aims to distinguish universal scale-free and field-like fundamental principles of selforganization observable across many disciplines like computer science, neuroscience, microbiology, social science, etc. Based on these universal principles we provide basic premises and postulates for designing holistic social simulation models. We also introduce pervasive information field (PIF) concept, which serves as a simulation media for contextual information storage, dynamic distribution and organization in social complex networks. PIF concept specifically is targeted for field-like uncoupled and indirect interactions among social agents capable of affecting and perceiving broadcasted contextual information. Proposed approach is expressive enough to represent contextual broadcasted information in a form locally accessible and immediately usable by network agents. This paper gives some prospective vision how system-s resources (tangible and intangible) could be simulated as oscillating processes immersed in the all pervasive information field.

Keywords: field-based coordination, multi-agent systems, information-rich social networks, pervasive information field

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6335 A Human Activity Recognition System Based On Sensory Data Related to Object Usage

Authors: M. Abdullah-Al-Wadud

Abstract:

Sensor-based Activity Recognition systems usually accounts which sensors have been activated to perform an activity. The system then combines the conditional probabilities of those sensors to represent different activities and takes the decision based on that. However, the information about the sensors which are not activated may also be of great help in deciding which activity has been performed. This paper proposes an approach where the sensory data related to both usage and non-usage of objects are utilized to make the classification of activities. Experimental results also show the promising performance of the proposed method.

Keywords: Naïve Bayesian-based classification, Activity recognition, sensor data, object-usage model.

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6334 Backcalculation of HMA Stiffness Based On Finite Element Model

Authors: Md Rashadul Islam, Umme Amina Mannan, Rafiqul A. Tarefder

Abstract:

Stiffness of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) in flexible pavement is largely dependent of temperature, mode of testing and age of pavement. Accurate measurement of HMA stiffness is thus quite challenging. This study determines HMA stiffness based on Finite Element Model (FEM) and validates the results using field data. As a first step, stiffnesses of different layers of a pavement section on Interstate 40 (I-40) in New Mexico were determined by Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) test. Pavement temperature was not measured at that time due to lack of temperature probe. Secondly, a FE model is developed in ABAQUS. Stiffness of the base, subbase and subgrade were taken from the FWD test output obtained from the first step. As HMA stiffness largely varies with temperature it was assigned trial and error approach. Thirdly, horizontal strain and vertical stress at the bottom of the HMA and temperature at different depths of the pavement were measured with installed sensors on the whole day on December 25th, 2012. Fourthly, outputs of FEM were correlated with measured stress-strain responses. After a number of trials a relationship was developed between the trial stiffness of HMA and measured mid-depth HMA temperature. At last, the obtained relationship between stiffness and temperature is verified by further FWD test when pavement temperature was recorded. A promising agreement between them is observed. Therefore, conclusion can be drawn that linear elastic FEM can accurately predict the stiffness and the structural response of flexible pavement.

Keywords: Asphalt pavement, falling weight deflectometer test, field instrumentation, finite element model, horizontal strain, temperature probes.

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6333 Predication Model for Leukemia Diseases Based on Data Mining Classification Algorithms with Best Accuracy

Authors: Fahd Sabry Esmail, M. Badr Senousy, Mohamed Ragaie

Abstract:

In recent years, there has been an explosion in the rate of using technology that help discovering the diseases. For example, DNA microarrays allow us for the first time to obtain a "global" view of the cell. It has great potential to provide accurate medical diagnosis, to help in finding the right treatment and cure for many diseases. Various classification algorithms can be applied on such micro-array datasets to devise methods that can predict the occurrence of Leukemia disease. In this study, we compared the classification accuracy and response time among eleven decision tree methods and six rule classifier methods using five performance criteria. The experiment results show that the performance of Random Tree is producing better result. Also it takes lowest time to build model in tree classifier. The classification rules algorithms such as nearest- neighbor-like algorithm (NNge) is the best algorithm due to the high accuracy and it takes lowest time to build model in classification.

Keywords: Data mining, classification techniques, decision tree, classification rule, leukemia diseases, microarray data.

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6332 Estimation of Geotechnical Parameters by Comparing Monitoring Data with Numerical Results: Case Study of Arash–Esfandiar-Niayesh Under-Passing Tunnel, Africa Tunnel, Tehran, Iran

Authors: Aliakbar Golshani, Seyyed Mehdi Poorhashemi, Mahsa Gharizadeh

Abstract:

The under passing tunnels are strongly influenced by the soils around. There are some complexities in the specification of real soil behavior, owing to the fact that lots of uncertainties exist in soil properties, and additionally, inappropriate soil constitutive models. Such mentioned factors may cause incompatible settlements in numerical analysis with the obtained values in actual construction. This paper aims to report a case study on a specific tunnel constructed by NATM. The tunnel has a depth of 11.4 m, height of 12.2 m, and width of 14.4 m with 2.5 lanes. The numerical modeling was based on a 2D finite element program. The soil material behavior was modeled by hardening soil model. According to the field observations, the numerical estimated settlement at the ground surface was approximately four times more than the measured one, after the entire installation of the initial lining, indicating that some unknown factors affect the values. Consequently, the geotechnical parameters are accurately revised by a numerical back-analysis using laboratory and field test data and based on the obtained monitoring data. The obtained result confirms that typically, the soil parameters are conservatively low-estimated. And additionally, the constitutive models cannot be applied properly for all soil conditions.

Keywords: NATM tunnel, initial lining, field test data, laboratory test data, monitoring data, numerical back-analysis.

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6331 Suppression of Narrowband Interference in Impulse Radio Based High Data Rate UWB WPAN Communication System Using NLOS Channel Model

Authors: Bikramaditya Das, Susmita Das

Abstract:

Study on suppression of interference in time domain equalizers is attempted for high data rate impulse radio (IR) ultra wideband communication system. The narrow band systems may cause interference with UWB devices as it is having very low transmission power and the large bandwidth. SRAKE receiver improves system performance by equalizing signals from different paths. This enables the use of SRAKE receiver techniques in IRUWB systems. But Rake receiver alone fails to suppress narrowband interference (NBI). A hybrid SRake-MMSE time domain equalizer is proposed to overcome this by taking into account both the effect of the number of rake fingers and equalizer taps. It also combats intersymbol interference. A semi analytical approach and Monte-Carlo simulation are used to investigate the BER performance of SRAKEMMSE receiver on IEEE 802.15.3a UWB channel models. Study on non-line of sight indoor channel models (both CM3 and CM4) illustrates that bit error rate performance of SRake-MMSE receiver with NBI performs better than that of Rake receiver without NBI. We show that for a MMSE equalizer operating at high SNR-s the number of equalizer taps plays a more significant role in suppressing interference.

Keywords: IR-UWB, UWB, IEEE 802.15.3a, NBI, data rate, bit error rate.

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6330 Agile Methodology for Modeling and Design of Data Warehouses -AM4DW-

Authors: Nieto Bernal Wilson, Carmona Suarez Edgar

Abstract:

The organizations have structured and unstructured information in different formats, sources, and systems. Part of these come from ERP under OLTP processing that support the information system, however these organizations in OLAP processing level, presented some deficiencies, part of this problematic lies in that does not exist interesting into extract knowledge from their data sources, as also the absence of operational capabilities to tackle with these kind of projects.  Data Warehouse and its applications are considered as non-proprietary tools, which are of great interest to business intelligence, since they are repositories basis for creating models or patterns (behavior of customers, suppliers, products, social networks and genomics) and facilitate corporate decision making and research. The following paper present a structured methodology, simple, inspired from the agile development models as Scrum, XP and AUP. Also the models object relational, spatial data models, and the base line of data modeling under UML and Big data, from this way sought to deliver an agile methodology for the developing of data warehouses, simple and of easy application. The methodology naturally take into account the application of process for the respectively information analysis, visualization and data mining, particularly for patterns generation and derived models from the objects facts structured.

Keywords: Data warehouse, model data, big data, object fact, object relational fact, process developed data warehouse.

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6329 Vibration and Operation Technical Consideration before Field Balance of Gas Turbine Utilities (In Iran Power Plants SIEMENS V94.2 Gas Turbines)

Authors: Omid A. Zargar

Abstract:

One of the most challenging times in operation of big industrial plant or utilities is the time that alert lamp of Bently Nevada connection in main board substation turn on and show the alert condition of machine. All of the maintenance groups usually make a lot of discussion with operation and together rather this alert signal is real or fake. This will be more challenging when condition monitoring vibrationdata shows 1X(X=current rotor frequency) in fast Fourier transform(FFT) and vibration phase trends show 90 degree shift between two non-contact probedirections with overall high radial amplitude amounts. In such situations, CM (condition monitoring) groups usually suspicious about unbalance in rotor. In this paper, four critical case histories related to SIEMENS V94.2 Gas Turbines in Iran power industry discussed in details. Furthermore, probe looseness and fake (unreal) trip in gas turbine power plants discussed. In addition, critical operation decision in alert condition in power plants discussed in details.

Keywords: Gas turbine, field balance, turbine compressors, balancing tools, balancing data collectors.

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6328 Brain Image Segmentation Using Conditional Random Field Based On Modified Artificial Bee Colony Optimization Algorithm

Authors: B. Thiagarajan, R. Bremananth

Abstract:

Tumor is an uncontrolled growth of tissues in any part of the body. Tumors are of different types and they have different characteristics and treatments. Brain tumor is inherently serious and life-threatening because of its character in the limited space of the intracranial cavity (space formed inside the skull). Locating the tumor within MR (magnetic resonance) image of brain is integral part of the treatment of brain tumor. This segmentation task requires classification of each voxel as either tumor or non-tumor, based on the description of the voxel under consideration. Many studies are going on in the medical field using Markov Random Fields (MRF) in segmentation of MR images. Even though the segmentation process is better, computing the probability and estimation of parameters is difficult. In order to overcome the aforementioned issues, Conditional Random Field (CRF) is used in this paper for segmentation, along with the modified artificial bee colony optimization and modified fuzzy possibility c-means (MFPCM) algorithm. This work is mainly focused to reduce the computational complexities, which are found in existing methods and aimed at getting higher accuracy. The efficiency of this work is evaluated using the parameters such as region non-uniformity, correlation and computation time. The experimental results are compared with the existing methods such as MRF with improved Genetic Algorithm (GA) and MRF-Artificial Bee Colony (MRF-ABC) algorithm.

Keywords: Conditional random field, Magnetic resonance, Markov random field, Modified artificial bee colony.

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6327 Markov Random Field-Based Segmentation Algorithm for Detection of Land Cover Changes Using Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar Polarimetric Images

Authors: Mehrnoosh Omati, Mahmod Reza Sahebi

Abstract:

The information on land use/land cover changing plays an essential role for environmental assessment, planning and management in regional development. Remotely sensed imagery is widely used for providing information in many change detection applications. Polarimetric Synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) image, with the discrimination capability between different scattering mechanisms, is a powerful tool for environmental monitoring applications. This paper proposes a new boundary-based segmentation algorithm as a fundamental step for land cover change detection. In this method, first, two PolSAR images are segmented using integration of marker-controlled watershed algorithm and coupled Markov random field (MRF). Then, object-based classification is performed to determine changed/no changed image objects. Compared with pixel-based support vector machine (SVM) classifier, this novel segmentation algorithm significantly reduces the speckle effect in PolSAR images and improves the accuracy of binary classification in object-based level. The experimental results on Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) polarimetric images show a 3% and 6% improvement in overall accuracy and kappa coefficient, respectively. Also, the proposed method can correctly distinguish homogeneous image parcels.

Keywords: Coupled Markov random field, environment, object-based analysis, Polarimetric SAR images.

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6326 Improvement of Stator Slot Structure based on Electro-Thermal Analysis in HV Generator

Authors: Diako Azizi, Ahmad Gholami, Vahid Abbasi

Abstract:

High voltage generators are being subject to higher voltage rating and are being designed to operate in harsh conditions. Stator windings are the main component of generators in which Electrical, magnetically and thermal stresses remain major failures for insulation degradation accelerated aging. A large number of generators failed due to stator winding problems, mainly insulation deterioration. Insulation degradation assessment plays vital role in the asset life management. Mostly the stator failure is catastrophic causing significant damage to the plant. Other than generation loss, stator failure involves heavy repair or replacement cost. Electro thermal analysis is the main characteristic for improvement design of stator slot-s insulation. Dielectric parameters such as insulation thickness, spacing, material types, geometry of winding and slot are major design consideration. A very powerful method available to analyze electro thermal performance is Finite Element Method (FEM) which is used in this paper. The analysis of various stator coil and slot configurations are used to design the better dielectric system to reduce electrical and thermal stresses in order to increase the power of generator in the same volume of core. This paper describes the process used to perform classical design and improvement analysis of stator slot-s insulation.

Keywords: Electromagnetic field, field distribution, insulation, winding, finite element method

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6325 Extraction of Data from Web Pages: A Vision Based Approach

Authors: P. S. Hiremath, Siddu P. Algur

Abstract:

With the explosive growth of information sources available on the World Wide Web, it has become increasingly difficult to identify the relevant pieces of information, since web pages are often cluttered with irrelevant content like advertisements, navigation-panels, copyright notices etc., surrounding the main content of the web page. Hence, tools for the mining of data regions, data records and data items need to be developed in order to provide value-added services. Currently available automatic techniques to mine data regions from web pages are still unsatisfactory because of their poor performance and tag-dependence. In this paper a novel method to extract data items from the web pages automatically is proposed. It comprises of two steps: (1) Identification and Extraction of the data regions based on visual clues information. (2) Identification of data records and extraction of data items from a data region. For step1, a novel and more effective method is proposed based on visual clues, which finds the data regions formed by all types of tags using visual clues. For step2 a more effective method namely, Extraction of Data Items from web Pages (EDIP), is adopted to mine data items. The EDIP technique is a list-based approach in which the list is a linear data structure. The proposed technique is able to mine the non-contiguous data records and can correctly identify data regions, irrespective of the type of tag in which it is bound. Our experimental results show that the proposed technique performs better than the existing techniques.

Keywords: Web data records, web data regions, web mining.

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6324 Elemental Graph Data Model: A Semantic and Topological Representation of Building Elements

Authors: Yasmeen A. S. Essawy, Khaled Nassar

Abstract:

With the rapid increase of complexity in the building industry, professionals in the A/E/C industry were forced to adopt Building Information Modeling (BIM) in order to enhance the communication between the different project stakeholders throughout the project life cycle and create a semantic object-oriented building model that can support geometric-topological analysis of building elements during design and construction. This paper presents a model that extracts topological relationships and geometrical properties of building elements from an existing fully designed BIM, and maps this information into a directed acyclic Elemental Graph Data Model (EGDM). The model incorporates BIM-based search algorithms for automatic deduction of geometrical data and topological relationships for each building element type. Using graph search algorithms, such as Depth First Search (DFS) and topological sortings, all possible construction sequences can be generated and compared against production and construction rules to generate an optimized construction sequence and its associated schedule. The model is implemented in a C# platform.

Keywords: Building information modeling, elemental graph data model, geometric and topological data models, and graph theory.

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6323 Experimental Investigation of Indirect Field Oriented Control of Field Programmable Gate Array Based Five-Phase Induction Motor Drive

Authors: G. Renuka Devi

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the experimental investigation of indirect field oriented control of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based five-phase induction motor drive. A detailed d-q modeling and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) technique of 5-phase drive is elaborated in this paper. In the proposed work, the prototype model of 1 hp 5-phase Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) fed drive is implemented in hardware. SVPWM pulses are generated in FPGA platform through Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL) coding. The experimental results are observed under different loading conditions and compared with simulation results to validate the simulation model.

Keywords: Five-phase induction motor drive, field programmable gate array, indirect field oriented control, multi-phase, space vector pulse width modulation, voltage source inverter, very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language.

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6322 Equivalent Field Calculation to Irregular Symmetric and Asymmetric Photon Fields

Authors: N. Chegeni, M. J. Tahmasebi Birgani

Abstract:

Equivalent fields are frequently used for central axis depth-dose calculations of rectangular and irregular shaped photon beam. Since most of the proposed models to calculate the equivalent square field, are dosimetry-based, a simple physical-based method to calculate the equivalent square field size was used as the basis of this study. The table of the sides of the equivalent square for rectangular fields was constructed and then compared with the well-known tables of BJR and Venselaar with the average relative error percentage of 2.5±2.5 % and 1.5±1.5 % respectively. To evaluate the accuracy of this method, the PDDs were measured for some special irregular symmetric and asymmetric treatment fields and their equivalent squares for Siemens Primus Plus linear accelerator for both energies 6 and 18MV. The mean relative differences of PDDs measurement for these fields and their equivalent square was approximately 1% or less. As a result, this method can be employed to calculate equivalent field not only for rectangular fields but also for any irregular symmetric or asymmetric field.

Keywords: Equivalent field, asymmetric field, irregular field, multi leaf collimators.

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6321 A Physically-Based Analytical Model for Reduced Surface Field Laterally Double Diffused MOSFETs

Authors: M. Abouelatta, A. Shaker, M. El-Banna, G. T. Sayah, C. Gontrand, A. Zekry

Abstract:

In this paper, a methodology for physically modeling the intrinsic MOS part and the drift region of the n-channel Laterally Double-diffused MOSFET (LDMOS) is presented. The basic physical effects like velocity saturation, mobility reduction, and nonuniform impurity concentration in the channel are taken into consideration. The analytical model is implemented using MATLAB. A comparison of the simulations from technology computer aided design (TCAD) and that from the proposed analytical model, at room temperature, shows a satisfactory accuracy which is less than 5% for the whole voltage domain.

Keywords: LDMOS, MATLAB, RESURF, modeling, TCAD.

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6320 Enhancement Effect of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Based MRI Contrast Agent at Different Concentrations and Magnetic Field Strengths

Authors: Bimali Sanjeevani Weerakoon, Toshiaki Osuga, Takehisa Konishi

Abstract:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents (MRI-CM) are significant in the clinical and biological imaging as they have the ability to alter the normal tissue contrast, thereby affecting the signal intensity to enhance the visibility and detectability of images. Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles, coated with dextran or carboxydextran are currently available for clinical MR imaging of the liver. Most SPIO contrast agents are T2 shortening agents and Resovist (Ferucarbotran) is one of a clinically tested, organ-specific, SPIO agent which has a low molecular carboxydextran coating. The enhancement effect of Resovist depends on its relaxivity which in turn depends on factors like magnetic field strength, concentrations, nanoparticle properties, pH and temperature. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the impact of field strength and different contrast concentrations on enhancement effects of Resovist. The study explored the MRI signal intensity of Resovist in the physiological range of plasma from T2-weighted spin echo sequence at three magnetic field strengths: 0.47 T (r1=15, r2=101), 1.5 T (r1=7.4, r2=95), and 3 T (r1=3.3, r2=160) and the range of contrast concentrations by a mathematical simulation. Relaxivities of r1 and r2 (L mmol-1 Sec-1) were obtained from a previous study and the selected concentrations were 0.05, 0.06, 0.07, 0.08, 0.09, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 mmol/L. T2-weighted images were simulated using TR/TE ratio as 2000 ms /100 ms. According to the reference literature, with increasing magnetic field strengths, the r1 relaxivity tends to decrease while the r2 did not show any systematic relationship with the selected field strengths. In parallel, this study results revealed that the signal intensity of Resovist at lower concentrations tends to increase than the higher concentrations. The highest reported signal intensity was observed in the low field strength of 0.47 T. The maximum signal intensities for 0.47 T, 1.5 T and 3 T were found at the concentration levels of 0.05, 0.06 and 0.05 mmol/L, respectively. Furthermore, it was revealed that, the concentrations higher than the above, the signal intensity was decreased exponentially. An inverse relationship can be found between the field strength and T2 relaxation time, whereas, the field strength was increased, T2 relaxation time was decreased accordingly. However, resulted T2 relaxation time was not significantly different between 0.47 T and 1.5 T in this study. Moreover, a linear correlation of transverse relaxation rates (1/T2, s–1) with the concentrations of Resovist can be observed. According to these results, it can conclude that the concentration of SPIO nanoparticle contrast agents and the field strengths of MRI are two important parameters which can affect the signal intensity of T2-weighted SE sequence. Therefore, when MR imaging those two parameters should be considered prudently.

Keywords: Concentration, Resovist, Field strength, Relaxivity, Signal intensity.

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6319 Improvement of Stator Slot Structure based on Insulation Stresses Analysis in HV Generator

Authors: Diako Azizi, Ahmad Gholami, Vahid Abbasi

Abstract:

High voltage generators are being subject to higher voltage rating and are being designed to operate in harsh conditions. Stator windings are the main component of generators in which Electrical, magnetical and thermal stresses remain major failures for insulation degradation accelerated aging. A large number of generators failed due to stator winding problems, mainly insulation deterioration. Insulation degradation assessment plays vital role in the asset life management. Mostly the stator failure is catastrophic causing significant damage to the plant. Other than generation loss, stator failure involves heavy repair or replacement cost. Electro thermal analysis is the main characteristic for improvement design of stator slot-s insulation. Dielectric parameters such as insulation thickness, spacing, material types, geometry of winding and slot are major design consideration. A very powerful method available to analyze electro thermal performance is Finite Element Method (FEM) which is used in this paper. The analysis of various stator coil and slot configurations are used to design the better dielectric system to reduce electrical and thermal stresses in order to increase the power of generator in the same volume of core. This paper describes the process used to perform classical design and improvement analysis of stator slot-s insulation.

Keywords: Electrical field, field distribution, insulation, winding, finite element method, electro thermal

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6318 Profile Calculation in Water Phantom of Symmetric and Asymmetric Photon Beam

Authors: N. Chegeni, M. J. Tahmasebi Birgani

Abstract:

Nowadays, in most radiotherapy departments, the commercial treatment planning systems (TPS) used to calculate dose distributions needs to be verified; therefore, quick, easy-to-use and low cost dose distribution algorithms are desirable to test and verify the performance of the TPS. In this paper, we put forth an analytical method to calculate the phantom scatter contribution and depth dose on the central axis based on the equivalent square concept. Then, this method was generalized to calculate the profiles at any depth and for several field shapes regular or irregular fields under symmetry and asymmetry photon beam conditions. Varian 2100 C/D and Siemens Primus Plus Linacs with 6 and 18 MV photon beam were used for irradiations. Percentage depth doses (PDDs) were measured for a large number of square fields for both energies, and for 45º wedges which were employed to obtain the profiles in any depth. To assess the accuracy of the calculated profiles, several profile measurements were carried out for some treatment fields. The calculated and measured profiles were compared by gamma-index calculation. All γ–index calculations were based on a 3% dose criterion and a 3 mm dose-to-agreement (DTA) acceptance criterion. The γ values were less than 1 at most points. However, the maximum γ observed was about 1.10 in the penumbra region in most fields and in the central area for the asymmetric fields. This analytical approach provides a generally quick and fairly accurate algorithm to calculate dose distribution for some treatment fields in conventional radiotherapy.

Keywords: Dose distribution, equivalent field, asymmetric field, irregular field.

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6317 Selection the Optimum Cooling Scheme for Generators based on the Electro-Thermal Analysis

Authors: Diako Azizi, Ahmad Gholami, Vahid Abbasi

Abstract:

Optimal selection of electrical insulations in electrical machinery insures reliability during operation. From the insulation studies of view for electrical machines, stator is the most important part. This fact reveals the requirement for inspection of the electrical machine insulation along with the electro-thermal stresses. In the first step of the study, a part of the whole structure of machine in which covers the general characteristics of the machine is chosen, then based on the electromagnetic analysis (finite element method), the machine operation is simulated. In the simulation results, the temperature distribution of the total structure is presented simultaneously by using electro-thermal analysis. The results of electro-thermal analysis can be used for designing an optimal cooling system. In order to design, review and comparing the cooling systems, four wiring structures in the slots of Stator are presented. The structures are compared to each other in terms of electrical, thermal distribution and remaining life of insulation by using Finite Element analysis. According to the steps of the study, an optimization algorithm has been presented for selection of appropriate structure.

Keywords: Electrical field, field distribution, insulation, winding, finite element method, electro thermal

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6316 Analyzing Multi-Labeled Data Based on the Roll of a Concept against a Semantic Range

Authors: Masahiro Kuzunishi, Tetsuya Furukawa, Ke Lu

Abstract:

Classifying data hierarchically is an efficient approach to analyze data. Data is usually classified into multiple categories, or annotated with a set of labels. To analyze multi-labeled data, such data must be specified by giving a set of labels as a semantic range. There are some certain purposes to analyze data. This paper shows which multi-labeled data should be the target to be analyzed for those purposes, and discusses the role of a label against a set of labels by investigating the change when a label is added to the set of labels. These discussions give the methods for the advanced analysis of multi-labeled data, which are based on the role of a label against a semantic range.

Keywords: Classification Hierarchies, Data Analysis, Multilabeled Data, Orders of Sets of Labels

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