Search results for: Doppler Effect.
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4594

Search results for: Doppler Effect.

4594 The Estimate Rate of Permanent Flow of a Liquid Simulating Blood by Doppler Effect

Authors: Malika.D Kedir-Talha, Mohammed Mehenni

Abstract:

To improve the characterization of blood flows, we propose a method which makes it possible to use the spectral analysis of the Doppler signals. Our calculation induces a reasonable approximation, the error made on estimated speed reflects the fact that speed depends on the flow conditions as well as on measurement parameters like the bore and the volume flow rate. The estimate of the Doppler signal frequency enables us to determine the maximum Doppler frequencie Fd max as well as the maximum flow speed. The results show that the difference between the estimated frequencies ( Fde ) and the Doppler frequencies ( Fd ) is small, this variation tends to zero for important θ angles and it is proportional to the diameter D. The description of the speed of friction and the coefficient of friction justify the error rate obtained.

Keywords: Doppler frequency, Doppler spectrum, estimate speed, permanent flow.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1307
4593 Human Fall Detection by FMCW Radar Based on Time-Varying Range-Doppler Features

Authors: Xiang Yu, Chuntao Feng, Lu Yang, Meiyang Song, Wenhao Zhou

Abstract:

The existing two-dimensional micro-Doppler features extraction ignores the correlation information between the spatial and temporal dimension features. For the range-Doppler map, the time dimension is introduced, and a frequency modulation continuous wave (FMCW) radar human fall detection algorithm based on time-varying range-Doppler features is proposed. Firstly, the range-Doppler sequence maps are generated from the echo signals of the continuous motion of the human body collected by the radar. Then the three-dimensional data cube composed of multiple frames of range-Doppler maps is input into the three-dimensional Convolutional Neural Network (3D CNN). The spatial and temporal features of time-varying range-Doppler are extracted by the convolution layer and pool layer at the same time. Finally, the extracted spatial and temporal features are input into the fully connected layer for classification. The experimental results show that the proposed fall detection algorithm has a detection accuracy of 95.66%.

Keywords: FMCW radar, fall detection, 3D CNN, time-varying range-Doppler features.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 464
4592 Investigation of the Unbiased Characteristic of Doppler Frequency to Different Antenna Array Geometries

Authors: Somayeh Komeylian

Abstract:

Array signal processing techniques have been recently developing in a variety application of the performance enhancement of receivers by refraining the power of jamming and interference signals. In this scenario, biases induced to the antenna array receiver degrade significantly the accurate estimation of the carrier phase. Owing to the integration of frequency becomes the carrier phase, we have obtained the unbiased doppler frequency for the high precision estimation of carrier phase. The unbiased characteristic of Doppler frequency to the power jamming and the other interference signals allows achieving the highly accurate estimation of phase carrier. In this study, we have rigorously investigated the unbiased characteristic of Doppler frequency to the variation of the antenna array geometries. The simulation results have efficiently verified that the Doppler frequency remains also unbiased and accurate to the variation of antenna array geometries.

Keywords: Array signal processing, unbiased Doppler frequency, GNSS, carrier phase, slowly fluctuating point target.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 855
4591 Statically Fused Unbiased Converted Measurements Kalman Filter

Authors: Zhengkun Guo, Yanbin Li, Wenqing Wang, Bo Zou

Abstract:

Active radar and sonar systems often report Doppler measurements in addition to the position measurements such as range and bearing. The tracker can perform better by making full use of the Doppler measurements. However, due to the high nonlinearity of the Doppler measurements with respect to the target state in the Cartesian coordinate systems, those measurements are not always fully exploited. This paper mainly focuses on dealing with the Doppler measurements as well as the position measurements in Polar coordinates. The Statically Fused Converted Position and Doppler Measurements Kalman Filter (SF-CMKF) with additive debiased measurement conversion has been presented. However, the exact compensation for the bias of the measurement conversion are multiplicative and depend on the statistics of the cosine of the angle measurement errors. As a result, the consistency and performance of the SF-CMKF may be suboptimal in the large angle error situations. In this paper, the multiplicative unbiased position and Doppler measurement conversion for two-dimensional (Polar-to-Cartesian) tracking are derived, and the SF-CMKF is improved by using those conversion. Monte Carlo simulations are presented to demonstrate the statistic consistency of the multiplicative unbiased conversion and the superior performance of the modified SF-CMKF (SF-UCMKF).

Keywords: Measurement conversion, Doppler, Kalman filter, estimation, tracking.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 328
4590 Laser Doppler Flowmetry in Diagnostics of Vascular Lesions in Lower Extremities

Authors: Petr V. Vasilev, Eduard V. Volkov, Alexej N. Godok, Alexej A, Grischschuk, Vitalij A. Rybalchenko

Abstract:

Laser Doppler flowmetry is a modern method of noninvasive microcirculation investigation. The aim of our study was to use this method in the examination of patients with secondary lymphedema of the lower extremities and obliterating atherosclerosis of lower extremities. In the analysis of the amplitude-frequency spectrum of secondary lymphedema patients we have identified remarkable changes. To describe the changes we used a special amplitude rate. In both of patients groups this rate was significally (p<0.05) different with the control group. So the marker phenomena of the amplitude-frequency spectrum of the LDF signal were identified. It is suggested that there is a limfodynamics contribution to the formation of the output signal of laser Doppler flowmetry. These data have fundamental meaning and are interesting for practical medicine, as they give an opportunity to further developments for the use of laser Doppler flowmetry in the diagnostics and monitoring the effectiveness of the treatment.

Keywords: laser Doppler flowmetry, secondary lymphedema of the lower extremities, obliterating atherosclerosis, non-invasive diagnostics.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1701
4589 Error Effects on SAR Image Resolution using Range Doppler Imaging Algorithm

Authors: Su Su Yi Mon, Fang Jiancheng

Abstract:

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an imaging radar form by taking full advantage of the relative movement of the antenna with respect to the target. Through the simultaneous processing of the radar reflections over the movement of the antenna via the Range Doppler Algorithm (RDA), the superior resolution of a theoretical wider antenna, termed synthetic aperture, is obtained. Therefore, SAR can achieve high resolution two dimensional imagery of the ground surface. In addition, two filtering steps in range and azimuth direction provide accurate enough result. This paper develops a simulation in which realistic SAR images can be generated. Also, the effect of velocity errors in the resulting image has also been investigated. Taking some velocity errors into account, the simulation results on the image resolution would be presented. Most of the times, algorithms need to be adjusted for particular datasets, or particular applications.

Keywords: Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Range Doppler Algorithm (RDA), Image Resolution.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3310
4588 Statistical Modeling of Mobile Fading Channels Based on Triply Stochastic Filtered Marked Poisson Point Processes

Authors: Jihad S. Daba, J. P. Dubois

Abstract:

Understanding the statistics of non-isotropic scattering multipath channels that fade randomly with respect to time, frequency, and space in a mobile environment is very crucial for the accurate detection of received signals in wireless and cellular communication systems. In this paper, we derive stochastic models for the probability density function (PDF) of the shift in the carrier frequency caused by the Doppler Effect on the received illuminating signal in the presence of a dominant line of sight. Our derivation is based on a generalized Clarke’s and a two-wave partially developed scattering models, where the statistical distribution of the frequency shift is shown to be consistent with the power spectral density of the Doppler shifted signal.

Keywords: Doppler shift, filtered Poisson process, generalized Clark’s model, non-isotropic scattering, partially developed scattering, Rician distribution.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 805
4587 Non-Invasive Capillary Blood Flow Measurement: Laser Speckle and Laser Doppler

Authors: A.K.Jayanthy, N.Sujatha, M.Ramasubba Reddy

Abstract:

Microcirculation is essential for the proper supply of oxygen and nutritive substances to the biological tissue and the removal of waste products of metabolism. The determination of blood flow in the capillaries is therefore of great interest to clinicians. A comparison has been carried out using the developed non-invasive, non-contact and whole field laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) based technique and as well as a commercially available laser Doppler blood flowmeter (LDF) to evaluate blood flow at the finger tip and elbow and is presented here. The LSCI technique gives more quantitative information on the velocity of blood when compared to the perfusion values obtained using the LDF. Measurement of blood flow in capillaries can be of great interest to clinicians in the diagnosis of vascular diseases of the upper extremities.

Keywords: Blood flow, Laser Doppler flowmeter, LSCI, speckle

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2527
4586 Cardiac Function and Morphological Adaptations in Endurance and Resistance Athletes: Evaluation using a new Method

Authors: K. Hosseini, MD., R. Mazaheri, MD., H.R. Khoddami Vishteh, MD., M.A. Mansournia, MD., H. Angoorani, MD

Abstract:

Background: Tissue Doppler Echocardiography (TDE) assesses diastolic function more accurately than routine pulse Doppler echo. Assessment of the effects of dynamic and static exercises on the heart by using TDE can provides new information about the athlete-s heart syndrome. Methods: This study was conducted on 20 elite wrestlers, 14 endurance runners at national level and 21 non-athletes as the control group. Participants underwent two-dimensional echocardiography, standard Doppler and TDE. Results: Wrestlers had the highest left ventricular mass index, enddiastolic inter-ventricular septum thickness and left ventricular Posterior wall thickness. Runners had the highest Left ventricular end-diastolic volume, LV ejection fraction, stroke volume and cardiac output. In TDE, the early diastolic velocity of mitral annulus to the late diastolic velocity ratio in athletic groups was greater than the controls with no significant difference. Conclusion: In spite of cardiac morphological changes in athletes, TDE shows that cardiac diastolic function won-t be adversely affected.

Keywords: Tissue Doppler Echocardiography, Diastolic function, Athlete's heart syndrome, Static exercise, Dynamic exercise

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1583
4585 Automatic Discrimimation of the Modes of Permanent Flow of a Liquid Simulating Blood

Authors: Malika.D Kedir-Talha, Mohamed Mehenni

Abstract:

In order to be able to automatically differentiate between two modes of permanent flow of a liquid simulating blood, it was imperative to put together a data bank. Thus, the acquisition of the various amplitude spectra of the Doppler signal of this liquid in laminar flow and other spectra in turbulent flow enabled us to establish an automatic difference between the two modes. According to the number of parameters and their nature, a comparative study allowed us to choose the best classifier.

Keywords: Doppler spectrum, flow mode, pattern recognition, permanent flow.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1177
4584 Cold Model Experimental Research on Particle Velocity Distribution in Gas-Solid Circulating Fluidized Bed for Methanol-to-Olefins Process

Authors: Yongzheng Li, Hongfang Ma, Qiwen Sun, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Radial profiles of particle velocities were investigated in a 6.1m high methanol-to-olefins cold model experimental device using a TSI laser Doppler velocimeter. The effect of axial height on flow development was not obvious in fully developed region under the same operating condition. Superficial gas velocity and solid circulating rate had significant influence on particle velocity in the center region of the riser. Besides, comparisons among rising, descending and average particle velocity were conducted. The particle average velocity was similar to the rising particle velocity and higher than the descending particle velocity in radial locations except the wall region of riser.

Keywords: Circulating fluidized bed, laser doppler velocimeter, particle velocity, radial profile.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1906
4583 Motion Detection Method for Clutter Rejection in the Bio-Radar Signal Processing

Authors: Carolina Gouveia, José Vieira, Pedro Pinho

Abstract:

The cardiopulmonary signal monitoring, without the usage of contact electrodes or any type of in-body sensors, has several applications such as sleeping monitoring and continuous monitoring of vital signals in bedridden patients. This system has also applications in the vehicular environment to monitor the driver, in order to avoid any possible accident in case of cardiac failure. Thus, the bio-radar system proposed in this paper, can measure vital signals accurately by using the Doppler effect principle that relates the received signal properties with the distance change between the radar antennas and the person’s chest-wall. Once the bio-radar aim is to monitor subjects in real-time and during long periods of time, it is impossible to guarantee the patient immobilization, hence their random motion will interfere in the acquired signals. In this paper, a mathematical model of the bio-radar is presented, as well as its simulation in MATLAB. The used algorithm for breath rate extraction is explained and a method for DC offsets removal based in a motion detection system is proposed. Furthermore, experimental tests were conducted with a view to prove that the unavoidable random motion can be used to estimate the DC offsets accurately and thus remove them successfully.

Keywords: Bio-signals, DC Component, Doppler Effect, ellipse fitting, radar, SDR.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 765
4582 Laser Ultrasonic Imaging Based on Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique Algorithm

Authors: Sundara Subramanian Karuppasamy, Che Hua Yang

Abstract:

In this work, the laser ultrasound technique has been used for analyzing and imaging the inner defects in metal blocks. To detect the defects in blocks, traditionally the researchers used piezoelectric transducers for the generation and reception of ultrasonic signals. These transducers can be configured into the sparse and phased array. But these two configurations have their drawbacks including the requirement of many transducers, time-consuming calculations, limited bandwidth, and provide confined image resolution. Here, we focus on the non-contact method for generating and receiving the ultrasound to examine the inner defects in aluminum blocks. A Q-switched pulsed laser has been used for the generation and the reception is done by using Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV). Based on the Doppler effect, LDV provides a rapid and high spatial resolution way for sensing ultrasonic waves. From the LDV, a series of scanning points are selected which serves as the phased array elements. The side-drilled hole of 10 mm diameter with a depth of 25 mm has been introduced and the defect is interrogated by the linear array of scanning points obtained from the LDV. With the aid of the Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) algorithm, based on the time-shifting principle the inspected images are generated from the A-scan data acquired from the 1-D linear phased array elements. Thus the defect can be precisely detected with good resolution.

Keywords: Laser ultrasonics, linear phased array, nondestructive testing, synthetic aperture focusing technique, ultrasonic imaging.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 911
4581 Automatic Classification of the Stand-to-Sit Phase in the TUG Test Using Machine Learning

Authors: Y. A. Adla, R. Soubra, M. Kasab, M. O. Diab, A. Chkeir

Abstract:

Over the past several years, researchers have shown a great interest in assessing the mobility of elderly people to measure their functional status. Usually, such an assessment is done by conducting tests that require the subject to walk a certain distance, turn around, and finally sit back down. Consequently, this study aims to provide an at home monitoring system to assess the patient’s status continuously. Thus, we proposed a technique to automatically detect when a subject sits down while walking at home. In this study, we utilized a Doppler radar system to capture the motion of the subjects. More than 20 features were extracted from the radar signals out of which 11 were chosen based on their Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC > 0.75). Accordingly, the sequential floating forward selection wrapper was applied to further narrow down the final feature vector. Finally, five features were introduced to the Linear Discriminant Analysis classifier and an accuracy of 93.75% was achieved as well as a precision and recall of 95% and 90% respectively.

Keywords: Doppler radar system, stand-to-sit phase, TUG test, machine learning, classification

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 395
4580 Low Air Velocity Measurement Characteristics- Variation Due to Flow Regime

Authors: A. Pedišius, V. Janušas, A. Bertašienė

Abstract:

The paper depicts air velocity values, reproduced by laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) and ultrasonic anemometer (UA), relations with calculated ones from flow rate measurements using the gas meter which calibration uncertainty is ± (0.15 – 0.30) %. Investigation had been performed in channel installed in aerodynamical facility used as a part of national standard of air velocity. Relations defined in a research let us confirm the LDA and UA for air velocity reproduction to be the most advantageous measures. The results affirm ultrasonic anemometer to be reliable and favourable instrument for measurement of mean velocity or control of velocity stability in the velocity range of 0.05 m/s – 10 (15) m/s when the LDA used. The main aim of this research is to investigate low velocity regularities, starting from 0.05 m/s, including region of turbulent, laminar and transitional air flows. Theoretical and experimental results and brief analysis of it are given in the paper. Maximum and mean velocity relations for transitional air flow having unique distribution are represented. Transitional flow having distinctive and different from laminar and turbulent flow characteristics experimentally have not yet been analysed.

Keywords: Laser Doppler anemometer, ultrasonic anemometer, air flow velocities, transitional flow regime, measurement, uncertainty.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1979
4579 Despiking of Turbulent Flow Data in Gravel Bed Stream

Authors: Ratul Das

Abstract:

The present experimental study insights the decontamination of instantaneous velocity fluctuations captured by Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) in gravel-bed streams to ascertain near-bed turbulence for low Reynolds number. The interference between incidental and reflected pulses produce spikes in the ADV data especially in the near-bed flow zone and therefore filtering the data are very essential. Nortek’s Vectrino four-receiver ADV probe was used to capture the instantaneous three-dimensional velocity fluctuations over a non-cohesive bed. A spike removal algorithm based on the acceleration threshold method was applied to note the bed roughness and its influence on velocity fluctuations and velocity power spectra in the carrier fluid. The velocity power spectra of despiked signals with a best combination of velocity threshold (VT) and acceleration threshold (AT) are proposed which ascertained velocity power spectra a satisfactory fit with the Kolmogorov “–5/3 scaling-law” in the inertial sub-range. Also, velocity distributions below the roughness crest level fairly follows a third-degree polynomial series.

Keywords: Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter, gravel-bed, spike removal, Reynolds shear stress, near-bed turbulence, velocity power spectra.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1153
4578 Study of Unsteady Swirling Flow in a Hydrodynamic Vortex Chamber

Authors: Sergey I. Shtork, Aleksey P. Vinokurov, Sergey V. Alekseenko

Abstract:

The paper reports on the results of experimental and numerical study of nonstationary swirling flow in an isothermal model of vortex burner. It has been identified that main source of the instability is related to a precessing vortex core (PVC) phenomenon. The PVC induced flow pulsation characteristics such as precession frequency and its variation as a function of flowrate and swirl number have been explored making use of acoustic probes. Additionally pressure transducers were used to measure the pressure drops on the working chamber and across the vortex flow. The experiments have been included also the mean velocity measurements making use of a laser-Doppler anemometry. The features of instantaneous flowfield generated by the PVC were analyzed employing a commercial CFD code (Star-CCM+) based on Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) approach. Validity of the numerical code has been checked by comparison calculated flowfield data with the obtained experimental results. It has been confirmed particularly that the CFD code applied correctly reproduces the flow features.

Keywords: Acoustic probes, detached eddy simulation (DES), laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA), precessing vortex core (PVC).

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2230
4577 Classification of State Transition by Using a Microwave Doppler Sensor for Wandering Detection

Authors: K. Shiba, T. Kaburagi, Y. Kurihara

Abstract:

With global aging, people who require care, such as people with dementia (PwD), are increasing within many developed countries. And PwDs may wander and unconsciously set foot outdoors, it may lead serious accidents, such as, traffic accidents. Here, round-the-clock monitoring by caregivers is necessary, which can be a burden for the caregivers. Therefore, an automatic wandering detection system is required when an elderly person wanders outdoors, in which case the detection system transmits a ‘moving’ followed by an ‘absence’ state. In this paper, we focus on the transition from the ‘resting’ to the ‘absence’ state, via the ‘moving’ state as one of the wandering transitions. To capture the transition of the three states, our method based on the hidden Markov model (HMM) is built. Using our method, the restraint where the ‘resting’ state and ‘absence’ state cannot be transmitted to each other is applied. To validate our method, we conducted the experiment with 10 subjects. Our results show that the method can classify three states with 0.92 accuracy.

Keywords: Wander, microwave Doppler sensor, respiratory frequency band, the state transition, hidden Markov model.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 821
4576 A General Framework for Knowledge Discovery Using High Performance Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: S. Nandagopalan, N. Pradeep

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to propose a general framework for storing, analyzing, and extracting knowledge from two-dimensional echocardiographic images, color Doppler images, non-medical images, and general data sets. A number of high performance data mining algorithms have been used to carry out this task. Our framework encompasses four layers namely physical storage, object identification, knowledge discovery, user level. Techniques such as active contour model to identify the cardiac chambers, pixel classification to segment the color Doppler echo image, universal model for image retrieval, Bayesian method for classification, parallel algorithms for image segmentation, etc., were employed. Using the feature vector database that have been efficiently constructed, one can perform various data mining tasks like clustering, classification, etc. with efficient algorithms along with image mining given a query image. All these facilities are included in the framework that is supported by state-of-the-art user interface (UI). The algorithms were tested with actual patient data and Coral image database and the results show that their performance is better than the results reported already.

Keywords: Active Contour, Bayesian, Echocardiographic image, Feature vector.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1679
4575 Prediction of Watermelon Consumer Acceptability based on Vibration Response Spectrum

Authors: R.Abbaszadeh, A.Rajabipour, M.Delshad, M.J.Mahjub, H.Ahmadi

Abstract:

It is difficult to judge ripeness by outward characteristics such as size or external color. In this paper a nondestructive method was studied to determine watermelon (Crimson Sweet) quality. Responses of samples to excitation vibrations were detected using laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) technology. Phase shift between input and output vibrations were extracted overall frequency range. First and second were derived using frequency response spectrums. After nondestructive tests, watermelons were sensory evaluated. So the samples were graded in a range of ripeness based on overall acceptability (total desired traits consumers). Regression models were developed to predict quality using obtained results and sample mass. The determination coefficients of the calibration and cross validation models were 0.89 and 0.71 respectively. This study demonstrated feasibility of information which is derived vibration response curves for predicting fruit quality. The vibration response of watermelon using the LDV method is measured without direct contact; it is accurate and timely, which could result in significant advantage for classifying watermelons based on consumer opinions.

Keywords: Laser Doppler vibrometry, Phase shift, Overallacceptability, Regression model , Resonance frequency, Watermelon

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2675
4574 Impact of Modeling Different Fading Channels on Wireless MAN Fixed IEEE802.16d OFDM System with Diversity Transmission Technique

Authors: Shanar Askar, Shahzad Memon, LachhmanDas, MSKalhoro

Abstract:

Wimax (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a promising technology which can offer high speed data, voice and video service to the customer end, which is presently, dominated by the cable and digital subscriber line (DSL) technologies. The performance assessment of Wimax systems is dealt with. The biggest advantage of Broadband wireless application (BWA) over its wired competitors is its increased capacity and ease of deployment. The aims of this paper are to model and simulate the fixed OFDM IEEE 802.16d physical layer under variant combinations of digital modulation (BPSK, QPSK, and 16-QAM) over diverse combination of fading channels (AWGN, SUIs). Stanford University Interim (SUI) Channel serial was proposed to simulate the fixed broadband wireless access channel environments where IEEE 802.16d is to be deployed. It has six channel models that are grouped into three categories according to three typical different outdoor Terrains, in order to give a comprehensive effect of fading channels on the overall performance of the system.

Keywords: WIMAX, OFDM, Additive White Gaussian Noise, Fading Channel, SUI, Doppler Effect.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2094
4573 Least Square-SVM Detector for Wireless BPSK in Multi-Environmental Noise

Authors: J. P. Dubois, Omar M. Abdul-Latif

Abstract:

Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a statistical learning tool developed to a more complex concept of structural risk minimization (SRM). In this paper, SVM is applied to signal detection in communication systems in the presence of channel noise in various environments in the form of Rayleigh fading, additive white Gaussian background noise (AWGN), and interference noise generalized as additive color Gaussian noise (ACGN). The structure and performance of SVM in terms of the bit error rate (BER) metric is derived and simulated for these advanced stochastic noise models and the computational complexity of the implementation, in terms of average computational time per bit, is also presented. The performance of SVM is then compared to conventional binary signaling optimal model-based detector driven by binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation. We show that the SVM performance is superior to that of conventional matched filter-, innovation filter-, and Wiener filter-driven detectors, even in the presence of random Doppler carrier deviation, especially for low SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) ranges. For large SNR, the performance of the SVM was similar to that of the classical detectors. However, the convergence between SVM and maximum likelihood detection occurred at a higher SNR as the noise environment became more hostile.

Keywords: Colour noise, Doppler shift, innovation filter, least square-support vector machine, matched filter, Rayleigh fading, Wiener filter.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1783
4572 Performance Evaluation of an ANC-based Hybrid Algorithm for Multi-target Wideband Active Sonar Echolocation System

Authors: Jason Chien-Hsun Tseng

Abstract:

This paper evaluates performances of an adaptive noise cancelling (ANC) based target detection algorithm on a set of real test data supported by the Defense Evaluation Research Agency (DERA UK) for multi-target wideband active sonar echolocation system. The hybrid algorithm proposed is a combination of an adaptive ANC neuro-fuzzy scheme in the first instance and followed by an iterative optimum target motion estimation (TME) scheme. The neuro-fuzzy scheme is based on the adaptive noise cancelling concept with the core processor of ANFIS (adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system) to provide an effective fine tuned signal. The resultant output is then sent as an input to the optimum TME scheme composed of twogauge trimmed-mean (TM) levelization, discrete wavelet denoising (WDeN), and optimal continuous wavelet transform (CWT) for further denosing and targets identification. Its aim is to recover the contact signals in an effective and efficient manner and then determine the Doppler motion (radial range, velocity and acceleration) at very low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Quantitative results have shown that the hybrid algorithm have excellent performance in predicting targets- Doppler motion within various target strength with the maximum false detection of 1.5%.

Keywords: Wideband Active Sonar Echolocation, ANC Neuro-Fuzzy, Wavelet Denoise, CWT, Hybrid Algorithm.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2018
4571 Clinical Parameters Response to Low-Level Laser versus Monochromatic Near-Infrared Photo Energy in Diabetic Patients with Peripheral Neuropathy

Authors: Abeer A. Abdelhamed

Abstract:

Background: Diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSP) is one of the most common microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes. Loss of sensation is thought to contribute to a lack of static and dynamic stability and increased risk of falling. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of low-level laser (LLL) and monochromatic near-infrared photo energy (MIRE) on pain, cutaneous sensation, static stability, and index of lower limb blood flow in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy. Methods: Forty diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy were recruited for participation in this study. They were divided into two groups: The MIRE group, which contained 20 patients, and the LLL group, which contained 20 patients. All patients who participated in the study had been subjected to various physical assessment procedures, including pain, cutaneous sensation, Doppler flow meter, and static stability assessments. The baseline measurements were followed by treatment sessions that were conducted twice a week for six successive weeks. Results: The statistical analysis of the data revealed significant improvement of pain in both groups, with significant improvement in cutaneous sensation and static balance in the MIRE group compared to the LLL group; on the other hand, the results showed no significant differences in lower limb blood flow between the groups. Conclusion: LLL and MIRE can improve painful symptoms in patients with diabetic neuropathy. On the other hand, MIRE is also useful in improving cutaneous sensation and static stability in patients with diabetic neuropathy.

Keywords: Diabetic neuropathy, Doppler flow meter, –Lowlevel laser, Monochromatic near-infrared photo energy.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1860
4570 Sediment Transport Monitoring in the Port of Veracruz Expansion Project

Authors: Francisco Liaño-Carrera, José Isaac Ramírez-Macías, David Salas-Monreal, Mayra Lorena Riveron-Enzastiga, Marcos Rangel-Avalos, Adriana Andrea Roldán-Ubando

Abstract:

The construction of most coastal infrastructure developments around the world are usually made considering wave height, current velocities and river discharges; however, little effort has been paid to surveying sediment transport during dredging or the modification to currents outside the ports or marinas during and after the construction. This study shows a complete survey during the construction of one of the largest ports of the Gulf of Mexico. An anchored Acoustic Doppler Current Velocity profiler (ADCP), a towed ADCP and a combination of model outputs were used at the Veracruz port construction in order to describe the hourly sediment transport and current modifications in and out of the new port. Owing to the stability of the system the new port was construction inside Vergara Bay, a low wave energy system with a tidal range of up to 0.40 m. The results show a two-current system pattern within the bay. The north side of the bay has an anticyclonic gyre, while the southern part of the bay shows a cyclonic gyre. Sediment transport trajectories were made every hour using the anchored ADCP, a numerical model and the weekly data obtained from the towed ADCP within the entire bay. The sediment transport trajectories were carefully tracked since the bay is surrounded by coral reef structures which are sensitive to sedimentation rate and water turbidity. The survey shows that during dredging and rock input used to build the wave breaker sediments were locally added (< 2500 m2) and local currents disperse it in less than 4 h. While the river input located in the middle of the bay and the sewer system plant may add more than 10 times this amount during a rainy day or during the tourist season. Finally, the coastal line obtained seasonally with a drone suggests that the southern part of the bay has not been modified by the construction of the new port located in the northern part of the bay, owing to the two subsystem division of the bay.

Keywords: Acoustic Doppler current profiler, time series, port construction, construction around coral reefs, sediment transport monitoring.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1240
4569 A General Stochastic Spatial MIMO Channel Model for Evaluating Various MIMO Techniques

Authors: Fang Shu, Li Lihua, Zhang Ping

Abstract:

A general stochastic spatial MIMO channel model is proposed for evaluating various MIMO techniques in this paper. It can generate MIMO channels complying with various MIMO configurations such as smart antenna, spatial diversity and spatial multiplexing. The modeling method produces the stochastic fading involving delay spread, Doppler spread, DOA (direction of arrival), AS (angle spread), PAS (power azimuth Spectrum) of the scatterers, antenna spacing and the wavelength. It can be applied in various MIMO technique researches flexibly with low computing complexity.

Keywords: MIMO channel, Spatial Correlation, DOA, AS, PAS.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1646
4568 A PN Sequence Generator based on Residue Arithmetic for Multi-User DS-CDMA Applications

Authors: Chithra R, Pallab Maji, Sarat Kumar Patra, Girija Sankar Rath

Abstract:

The successful use of CDMA technology is based on the construction of large families of encoding sequences with good correlation properties. This paper discusses PN sequence generation based on Residue Arithmetic with an effort to improve the performance of existing interference-limited CDMA technology for mobile cellular systems. All spreading codes with residual number system proposed earlier did not consider external interferences, multipath propagation, Doppler effect etc. In literature the use of residual arithmetic in DS-CDMA was restricted to encoding of already spread sequence; where spreading of sequence is done by some existing techniques. The novelty of this paper is the use of residual number system in generation of the PN sequences which is used to spread the message signal. The significance of cross-correlation factor in alleviating multi-access interference is also discussed. The RNS based PN sequence has superior performance than most of the existing codes that are widely used in DS-CDMA applications. Simulation results suggest that the performance of the proposed system is superior to many existing systems.

Keywords: Direct-Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DSCDMA), Multiple-Access Interference (MAI), PN Sequence, Residue Number System (RNS).

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2399
4567 Heat and Mass Transfer for Viscous Flow with Radiation Effect past a Nonlinearly Stretching Sheet

Authors: Kai-Long Hsiao

Abstract:

In this study, an analysis has been performed for heat and mass transfer of a steady laminar boundary-layer flow of a viscous flow past a nonlinearly stretching sheet. Parameters n, Ec, k0, Sc represent the dominance of the nonlinearly effect, viscous effect, radiation effect and mass transfer effect which have presented in governing equations, respectively. The similarity transformation and the finite-difference method have been used to analyze the present problem.

Keywords: Nonlinearly stretching sheet, heat and mass transfer, radiation effect, viscous effect.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1469
4566 An Experimental Helicopter Wind Envelope for Ship Operations

Authors: R. Bardera Mora

Abstract:

Launch and recovery helicopter wind envelope for a ship type was determined as the first step to the helicopter qualification program. Flight deck velocities data were obtained by means of a two components laser Doppler anemometer testing a 1/50th model in the wind tunnel stream. Full-scale flight deck measurements were obtained on board the ship using a sonic anemometer. Wind tunnel and full-scale measurements were compared, showing good agreement and finally, a preliminary launch and recovery helicopter wind envelope for this specific ship was built.

Keywords: Flight deck flow, relative wind, ship airwake, wind envelope

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3210
4565 Measurements of Radial Velocity in Fixed Fluidized Bed for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Using LDV

Authors: Xiaolai Zhang, Haitao Zhang, Qiwen Sun, Weixin Qian, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

High temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process use fixed fluidized bed as a reactor. In order to understand the flow behavior in the fluidized bed better, the research of how the radial velocity affects the entire flow field is necessary. Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) was used to study the radial velocity distribution along the diameter direction of the cross-section of the particle in a fixed fluidized bed. The velocity in the cross-section is fluctuating within a small range. The direction of the speed is a random phenomenon. In addition to r/R is 1, the axial velocity are more than 6 times of the radial velocity, the radial velocity has little impact on the axial velocity in a fixed fluidized bed.

Keywords: LDV, fixed fluidized bed, velocity, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1602