Search results for: Doppler Effect.
4527 The Estimate Rate of Permanent Flow of a Liquid Simulating Blood by Doppler Effect
Authors: Malika.D Kedir-Talha, Mohammed Mehenni
Abstract:To improve the characterization of blood flows, we propose a method which makes it possible to use the spectral analysis of the Doppler signals. Our calculation induces a reasonable approximation, the error made on estimated speed reflects the fact that speed depends on the flow conditions as well as on measurement parameters like the bore and the volume flow rate. The estimate of the Doppler signal frequency enables us to determine the maximum Doppler frequencie Fd max as well as the maximum flow speed. The results show that the difference between the estimated frequencies ( Fde ) and the Doppler frequencies ( Fd ) is small, this variation tends to zero for important θ angles and it is proportional to the diameter D. The description of the speed of friction and the coefficient of friction justify the error rate obtained.
Keywords: Doppler frequency, Doppler spectrum, estimate speed, permanent flow.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1222
4526 Human Fall Detection by FMCW Radar Based on Time-Varying Range-Doppler Features
Authors: Xiang Yu, Chuntao Feng, Lu Yang, Meiyang Song, Wenhao Zhou
The existing two-dimensional micro-Doppler features extraction ignores the correlation information between the spatial and temporal dimension features. For the range-Doppler map, the time dimension is introduced, and a frequency modulation continuous wave (FMCW) radar human fall detection algorithm based on time-varying range-Doppler features is proposed. Firstly, the range-Doppler sequence maps are generated from the echo signals of the continuous motion of the human body collected by the radar. Then the three-dimensional data cube composed of multiple frames of range-Doppler maps is input into the three-dimensional Convolutional Neural Network (3D CNN). The spatial and temporal features of time-varying range-Doppler are extracted by the convolution layer and pool layer at the same time. Finally, the extracted spatial and temporal features are input into the fully connected layer for classification. The experimental results show that the proposed fall detection algorithm has a detection accuracy of 95.66%.
Keywords: FMCW radar, fall detection, 3D CNN, time-varying range-Doppler features.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 194
4525 Investigation of the Unbiased Characteristic of Doppler Frequency to Different Antenna Array Geometries
Authors: Somayeh Komeylian
Array signal processing techniques have been recently developing in a variety application of the performance enhancement of receivers by refraining the power of jamming and interference signals. In this scenario, biases induced to the antenna array receiver degrade significantly the accurate estimation of the carrier phase. Owing to the integration of frequency becomes the carrier phase, we have obtained the unbiased doppler frequency for the high precision estimation of carrier phase. The unbiased characteristic of Doppler frequency to the power jamming and the other interference signals allows achieving the highly accurate estimation of phase carrier. In this study, we have rigorously investigated the unbiased characteristic of Doppler frequency to the variation of the antenna array geometries. The simulation results have efficiently verified that the Doppler frequency remains also unbiased and accurate to the variation of antenna array geometries.
Keywords: Array signal processing, unbiased Doppler frequency, GNSS, carrier phase, slowly fluctuating point target.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 684
4524 Statically Fused Unbiased Converted Measurements Kalman Filter
Authors: Zhengkun Guo, Yanbin Li, Wenqing Wang, Bo Zou
Active radar and sonar systems often report Doppler measurements in addition to the position measurements such as range and bearing. The tracker can perform better by making full use of the Doppler measurements. However, due to the high nonlinearity of the Doppler measurements with respect to the target state in the Cartesian coordinate systems, those measurements are not always fully exploited. This paper mainly focuses on dealing with the Doppler measurements as well as the position measurements in Polar coordinates. The Statically Fused Converted Position and Doppler Measurements Kalman Filter (SF-CMKF) with additive debiased measurement conversion has been presented. However, the exact compensation for the bias of the measurement conversion are multiplicative and depend on the statistics of the cosine of the angle measurement errors. As a result, the consistency and performance of the SF-CMKF may be suboptimal in the large angle error situations. In this paper, the multiplicative unbiased position and Doppler measurement conversion for two-dimensional (Polar-to-Cartesian) tracking are derived, and the SF-CMKF is improved by using those conversion. Monte Carlo simulations are presented to demonstrate the statistic consistency of the multiplicative unbiased conversion and the superior performance of the modified SF-CMKF (SF-UCMKF).
Keywords: Measurement conversion, Doppler, Kalman filter, estimation, tracking.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 100
4523 Error Effects on SAR Image Resolution using Range Doppler Imaging Algorithm
Authors: Su Su Yi Mon, Fang Jiancheng
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an imaging radar form by taking full advantage of the relative movement of the antenna with respect to the target. Through the simultaneous processing of the radar reflections over the movement of the antenna via the Range Doppler Algorithm (RDA), the superior resolution of a theoretical wider antenna, termed synthetic aperture, is obtained. Therefore, SAR can achieve high resolution two dimensional imagery of the ground surface. In addition, two filtering steps in range and azimuth direction provide accurate enough result. This paper develops a simulation in which realistic SAR images can be generated. Also, the effect of velocity errors in the resulting image has also been investigated. Taking some velocity errors into account, the simulation results on the image resolution would be presented. Most of the times, algorithms need to be adjusted for particular datasets, or particular applications.
Keywords: Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Range Doppler Algorithm (RDA), Image Resolution.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3213
4522 Laser Doppler Flowmetry in Diagnostics of Vascular Lesions in Lower Extremities
Authors: Petr V. Vasilev, Eduard V. Volkov, Alexej N. Godok, Alexej A, Grischschuk, Vitalij A. Rybalchenko
Abstract:Laser Doppler flowmetry is a modern method of noninvasive microcirculation investigation. The aim of our study was to use this method in the examination of patients with secondary lymphedema of the lower extremities and obliterating atherosclerosis of lower extremities. In the analysis of the amplitude-frequency spectrum of secondary lymphedema patients we have identified remarkable changes. To describe the changes we used a special amplitude rate. In both of patients groups this rate was significally (p<0.05) different with the control group. So the marker phenomena of the amplitude-frequency spectrum of the LDF signal were identified. It is suggested that there is a limfodynamics contribution to the formation of the output signal of laser Doppler flowmetry. These data have fundamental meaning and are interesting for practical medicine, as they give an opportunity to further developments for the use of laser Doppler flowmetry in the diagnostics and monitoring the effectiveness of the treatment.
Keywords: laser Doppler flowmetry, secondary lymphedema of the lower extremities, obliterating atherosclerosis, non-invasive diagnostics.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1638
4521 Statistical Modeling of Mobile Fading Channels Based on Triply Stochastic Filtered Marked Poisson Point Processes
Authors: Jihad S. Daba, J. P. Dubois
Understanding the statistics of non-isotropic scattering multipath channels that fade randomly with respect to time, frequency, and space in a mobile environment is very crucial for the accurate detection of received signals in wireless and cellular communication systems. In this paper, we derive stochastic models for the probability density function (PDF) of the shift in the carrier frequency caused by the Doppler Effect on the received illuminating signal in the presence of a dominant line of sight. Our derivation is based on a generalized Clarke’s and a two-wave partially developed scattering models, where the statistical distribution of the frequency shift is shown to be consistent with the power spectral density of the Doppler shifted signal.
Keywords: Doppler shift, filtered Poisson process, generalized Clark’s model, non-isotropic scattering, partially developed scattering, Rician distribution.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 716
4520 Non-Invasive Capillary Blood Flow Measurement: Laser Speckle and Laser Doppler
Authors: A.K.Jayanthy, N.Sujatha, M.Ramasubba Reddy
Abstract:Microcirculation is essential for the proper supply of oxygen and nutritive substances to the biological tissue and the removal of waste products of metabolism. The determination of blood flow in the capillaries is therefore of great interest to clinicians. A comparison has been carried out using the developed non-invasive, non-contact and whole field laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) based technique and as well as a commercially available laser Doppler blood flowmeter (LDF) to evaluate blood flow at the finger tip and elbow and is presented here. The LSCI technique gives more quantitative information on the velocity of blood when compared to the perfusion values obtained using the LDF. Measurement of blood flow in capillaries can be of great interest to clinicians in the diagnosis of vascular diseases of the upper extremities.
Keywords: Blood flow, Laser Doppler flowmeter, LSCI, speckleProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2416
4519 Cold Model Experimental Research on Particle Velocity Distribution in Gas-Solid Circulating Fluidized Bed for Methanol-to-Olefins Process
Authors: Yongzheng Li, Hongfang Ma, Qiwen Sun, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying
Abstract:Radial profiles of particle velocities were investigated in a 6.1m high methanol-to-olefins cold model experimental device using a TSI laser Doppler velocimeter. The effect of axial height on flow development was not obvious in fully developed region under the same operating condition. Superficial gas velocity and solid circulating rate had significant influence on particle velocity in the center region of the riser. Besides, comparisons among rising, descending and average particle velocity were conducted. The particle average velocity was similar to the rising particle velocity and higher than the descending particle velocity in radial locations except the wall region of riser.
Keywords: Circulating fluidized bed, laser doppler velocimeter, particle velocity, radial profile.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1656
4518 Motion Detection Method for Clutter Rejection in the Bio-Radar Signal Processing
Authors: Carolina Gouveia, José Vieira, Pedro Pinho
Abstract:The cardiopulmonary signal monitoring, without the usage of contact electrodes or any type of in-body sensors, has several applications such as sleeping monitoring and continuous monitoring of vital signals in bedridden patients. This system has also applications in the vehicular environment to monitor the driver, in order to avoid any possible accident in case of cardiac failure. Thus, the bio-radar system proposed in this paper, can measure vital signals accurately by using the Doppler effect principle that relates the received signal properties with the distance change between the radar antennas and the person’s chest-wall. Once the bio-radar aim is to monitor subjects in real-time and during long periods of time, it is impossible to guarantee the patient immobilization, hence their random motion will interfere in the acquired signals. In this paper, a mathematical model of the bio-radar is presented, as well as its simulation in MATLAB. The used algorithm for breath rate extraction is explained and a method for DC offsets removal based in a motion detection system is proposed. Furthermore, experimental tests were conducted with a view to prove that the unavoidable random motion can be used to estimate the DC offsets accurately and thus remove them successfully.
Keywords: Bio-signals, DC Component, Doppler Effect, ellipse fitting, radar, SDR.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 626
4517 Cardiac Function and Morphological Adaptations in Endurance and Resistance Athletes: Evaluation using a new Method
Authors: K. Hosseini, MD., R. Mazaheri, MD., H.R. Khoddami Vishteh, MD., M.A. Mansournia, MD., H. Angoorani, MD
Abstract:Background: Tissue Doppler Echocardiography (TDE) assesses diastolic function more accurately than routine pulse Doppler echo. Assessment of the effects of dynamic and static exercises on the heart by using TDE can provides new information about the athlete-s heart syndrome. Methods: This study was conducted on 20 elite wrestlers, 14 endurance runners at national level and 21 non-athletes as the control group. Participants underwent two-dimensional echocardiography, standard Doppler and TDE. Results: Wrestlers had the highest left ventricular mass index, enddiastolic inter-ventricular septum thickness and left ventricular Posterior wall thickness. Runners had the highest Left ventricular end-diastolic volume, LV ejection fraction, stroke volume and cardiac output. In TDE, the early diastolic velocity of mitral annulus to the late diastolic velocity ratio in athletic groups was greater than the controls with no significant difference. Conclusion: In spite of cardiac morphological changes in athletes, TDE shows that cardiac diastolic function won-t be adversely affected.
Keywords: Tissue Doppler Echocardiography, Diastolic function, Athlete's heart syndrome, Static exercise, Dynamic exerciseProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1473
4516 Automatic Discrimimation of the Modes of Permanent Flow of a Liquid Simulating Blood
Authors: Malika.D Kedir-Talha, Mohamed Mehenni
Abstract:In order to be able to automatically differentiate between two modes of permanent flow of a liquid simulating blood, it was imperative to put together a data bank. Thus, the acquisition of the various amplitude spectra of the Doppler signal of this liquid in laminar flow and other spectra in turbulent flow enabled us to establish an automatic difference between the two modes. According to the number of parameters and their nature, a comparative study allowed us to choose the best classifier.
Keywords: Doppler spectrum, flow mode, pattern recognition, permanent flow.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1081
4515 Laser Ultrasonic Imaging Based on Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique Algorithm
Authors: Sundara Subramanian Karuppasamy, Che Hua Yang
In this work, the laser ultrasound technique has been used for analyzing and imaging the inner defects in metal blocks. To detect the defects in blocks, traditionally the researchers used piezoelectric transducers for the generation and reception of ultrasonic signals. These transducers can be configured into the sparse and phased array. But these two configurations have their drawbacks including the requirement of many transducers, time-consuming calculations, limited bandwidth, and provide confined image resolution. Here, we focus on the non-contact method for generating and receiving the ultrasound to examine the inner defects in aluminum blocks. A Q-switched pulsed laser has been used for the generation and the reception is done by using Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV). Based on the Doppler effect, LDV provides a rapid and high spatial resolution way for sensing ultrasonic waves. From the LDV, a series of scanning points are selected which serves as the phased array elements. The side-drilled hole of 10 mm diameter with a depth of 25 mm has been introduced and the defect is interrogated by the linear array of scanning points obtained from the LDV. With the aid of the Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) algorithm, based on the time-shifting principle the inspected images are generated from the A-scan data acquired from the 1-D linear phased array elements. Thus the defect can be precisely detected with good resolution.
Keywords: Laser ultrasonics, linear phased array, nondestructive testing, synthetic aperture focusing technique, ultrasonic imaging.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 733
4514 Automatic Classification of the Stand-to-Sit Phase in the TUG Test Using Machine Learning
Authors: Y. A. Adla, R. Soubra, M. Kasab, M. O. Diab, A. Chkeir
Over the past several years, researchers have shown a great interest in assessing the mobility of elderly people to measure their functional status. Usually, such an assessment is done by conducting tests that require the subject to walk a certain distance, turn around, and finally sit back down. Consequently, this study aims to provide an at home monitoring system to assess the patient’s status continuously. Thus, we proposed a technique to automatically detect when a subject sits down while walking at home. In this study, we utilized a Doppler radar system to capture the motion of the subjects. More than 20 features were extracted from the radar signals out of which 11 were chosen based on their Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC > 0.75). Accordingly, the sequential floating forward selection wrapper was applied to further narrow down the final feature vector. Finally, five features were introduced to the Linear Discriminant Analysis classifier and an accuracy of 93.75% was achieved as well as a precision and recall of 95% and 90% respectively.
Keywords: Doppler radar system, stand-to-sit phase, TUG test, machine learning, classificationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 268
4513 Low Air Velocity Measurement Characteristics- Variation Due to Flow Regime
Authors: A. Pedišius, V. Janušas, A. Bertašienė
The paper depicts air velocity values, reproduced by laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) and ultrasonic anemometer (UA), relations with calculated ones from flow rate measurements using the gas meter which calibration uncertainty is ± (0.15 – 0.30) %. Investigation had been performed in channel installed in aerodynamical facility used as a part of national standard of air velocity. Relations defined in a research let us confirm the LDA and UA for air velocity reproduction to be the most advantageous measures. The results affirm ultrasonic anemometer to be reliable and favourable instrument for measurement of mean velocity or control of velocity stability in the velocity range of 0.05 m/s – 10 (15) m/s when the LDA used. The main aim of this research is to investigate low velocity regularities, starting from 0.05 m/s, including region of turbulent, laminar and transitional air flows. Theoretical and experimental results and brief analysis of it are given in the paper. Maximum and mean velocity relations for transitional air flow having unique distribution are represented. Transitional flow having distinctive and different from laminar and turbulent flow characteristics experimentally have not yet been analysed.
Keywords: Laser Doppler anemometer, ultrasonic anemometer, air flow velocities, transitional flow regime, measurement, uncertainty.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1889
4512 Impact of Modeling Different Fading Channels on Wireless MAN Fixed IEEE802.16d OFDM System with Diversity Transmission Technique
Authors: Shanar Askar, Shahzad Memon, LachhmanDas, MSKalhoro
Abstract:Wimax (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a promising technology which can offer high speed data, voice and video service to the customer end, which is presently, dominated by the cable and digital subscriber line (DSL) technologies. The performance assessment of Wimax systems is dealt with. The biggest advantage of Broadband wireless application (BWA) over its wired competitors is its increased capacity and ease of deployment. The aims of this paper are to model and simulate the fixed OFDM IEEE 802.16d physical layer under variant combinations of digital modulation (BPSK, QPSK, and 16-QAM) over diverse combination of fading channels (AWGN, SUIs). Stanford University Interim (SUI) Channel serial was proposed to simulate the fixed broadband wireless access channel environments where IEEE 802.16d is to be deployed. It has six channel models that are grouped into three categories according to three typical different outdoor Terrains, in order to give a comprehensive effect of fading channels on the overall performance of the system.
Keywords: WIMAX, OFDM, Additive White Gaussian Noise, Fading Channel, SUI, Doppler Effect.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1991
4511 Despiking of Turbulent Flow Data in Gravel Bed Stream
Authors: Ratul Das
The present experimental study insights the decontamination of instantaneous velocity fluctuations captured by Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) in gravel-bed streams to ascertain near-bed turbulence for low Reynolds number. The interference between incidental and reflected pulses produce spikes in the ADV data especially in the near-bed flow zone and therefore filtering the data are very essential. Nortek’s Vectrino four-receiver ADV probe was used to capture the instantaneous three-dimensional velocity fluctuations over a non-cohesive bed. A spike removal algorithm based on the acceleration threshold method was applied to note the bed roughness and its influence on velocity fluctuations and velocity power spectra in the carrier fluid. The velocity power spectra of despiked signals with a best combination of velocity threshold (VT) and acceleration threshold (AT) are proposed which ascertained velocity power spectra a satisfactory fit with the Kolmogorov “–5/3 scaling-law” in the inertial sub-range. Also, velocity distributions below the roughness crest level fairly follows a third-degree polynomial series.
Keywords: Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter, gravel-bed, spike removal, Reynolds shear stress, near-bed turbulence, velocity power spectra.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1034
4510 Study of Unsteady Swirling Flow in a Hydrodynamic Vortex Chamber
Authors: Sergey I. Shtork, Aleksey P. Vinokurov, Sergey V. Alekseenko
Abstract:The paper reports on the results of experimental and numerical study of nonstationary swirling flow in an isothermal model of vortex burner. It has been identified that main source of the instability is related to a precessing vortex core (PVC) phenomenon. The PVC induced flow pulsation characteristics such as precession frequency and its variation as a function of flowrate and swirl number have been explored making use of acoustic probes. Additionally pressure transducers were used to measure the pressure drops on the working chamber and across the vortex flow. The experiments have been included also the mean velocity measurements making use of a laser-Doppler anemometry. The features of instantaneous flowfield generated by the PVC were analyzed employing a commercial CFD code (Star-CCM+) based on Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) approach. Validity of the numerical code has been checked by comparison calculated flowfield data with the obtained experimental results. It has been confirmed particularly that the CFD code applied correctly reproduces the flow features.
Keywords: Acoustic probes, detached eddy simulation (DES), laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA), precessing vortex core (PVC).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2159
4509 Classification of State Transition by Using a Microwave Doppler Sensor for Wandering Detection
Authors: K. Shiba, T. Kaburagi, Y. Kurihara
Abstract:With global aging, people who require care, such as people with dementia (PwD), are increasing within many developed countries. And PwDs may wander and unconsciously set foot outdoors, it may lead serious accidents, such as, traffic accidents. Here, round-the-clock monitoring by caregivers is necessary, which can be a burden for the caregivers. Therefore, an automatic wandering detection system is required when an elderly person wanders outdoors, in which case the detection system transmits a ‘moving’ followed by an ‘absence’ state. In this paper, we focus on the transition from the ‘resting’ to the ‘absence’ state, via the ‘moving’ state as one of the wandering transitions. To capture the transition of the three states, our method based on the hidden Markov model (HMM) is built. Using our method, the restraint where the ‘resting’ state and ‘absence’ state cannot be transmitted to each other is applied. To validate our method, we conducted the experiment with 10 subjects. Our results show that the method can classify three states with 0.92 accuracy.
Keywords: Wander, microwave Doppler sensor, respiratory frequency band, the state transition, hidden Markov model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 737
4508 A General Framework for Knowledge Discovery Using High Performance Machine Learning Algorithms
Authors: S. Nandagopalan, N. Pradeep
Abstract:The aim of this paper is to propose a general framework for storing, analyzing, and extracting knowledge from two-dimensional echocardiographic images, color Doppler images, non-medical images, and general data sets. A number of high performance data mining algorithms have been used to carry out this task. Our framework encompasses four layers namely physical storage, object identification, knowledge discovery, user level. Techniques such as active contour model to identify the cardiac chambers, pixel classification to segment the color Doppler echo image, universal model for image retrieval, Bayesian method for classification, parallel algorithms for image segmentation, etc., were employed. Using the feature vector database that have been efficiently constructed, one can perform various data mining tasks like clustering, classification, etc. with efficient algorithms along with image mining given a query image. All these facilities are included in the framework that is supported by state-of-the-art user interface (UI). The algorithms were tested with actual patient data and Coral image database and the results show that their performance is better than the results reported already.
Keywords: Active Contour, Bayesian, Echocardiographic image, Feature vector.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1604
4507 Prediction of Watermelon Consumer Acceptability based on Vibration Response Spectrum
Authors: R.Abbaszadeh, A.Rajabipour, M.Delshad, M.J.Mahjub, H.Ahmadi
Abstract:It is difficult to judge ripeness by outward characteristics such as size or external color. In this paper a nondestructive method was studied to determine watermelon (Crimson Sweet) quality. Responses of samples to excitation vibrations were detected using laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) technology. Phase shift between input and output vibrations were extracted overall frequency range. First and second were derived using frequency response spectrums. After nondestructive tests, watermelons were sensory evaluated. So the samples were graded in a range of ripeness based on overall acceptability (total desired traits consumers). Regression models were developed to predict quality using obtained results and sample mass. The determination coefficients of the calibration and cross validation models were 0.89 and 0.71 respectively. This study demonstrated feasibility of information which is derived vibration response curves for predicting fruit quality. The vibration response of watermelon using the LDV method is measured without direct contact; it is accurate and timely, which could result in significant advantage for classifying watermelons based on consumer opinions.
Keywords: Laser Doppler vibrometry, Phase shift, Overallacceptability, Regression model , Resonance frequency, WatermelonProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2555
4506 Heat and Mass Transfer for Viscous Flow with Radiation Effect past a Nonlinearly Stretching Sheet
Authors: Kai-Long Hsiao
Abstract:In this study, an analysis has been performed for heat and mass transfer of a steady laminar boundary-layer flow of a viscous flow past a nonlinearly stretching sheet. Parameters n, Ec, k0, Sc represent the dominance of the nonlinearly effect, viscous effect, radiation effect and mass transfer effect which have presented in governing equations, respectively. The similarity transformation and the finite-difference method have been used to analyze the present problem.
Keywords: Nonlinearly stretching sheet, heat and mass transfer, radiation effect, viscous effect.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1344
4505 Least Square-SVM Detector for Wireless BPSK in Multi-Environmental Noise
Authors: J. P. Dubois, Omar M. Abdul-Latif
Abstract:Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a statistical learning tool developed to a more complex concept of structural risk minimization (SRM). In this paper, SVM is applied to signal detection in communication systems in the presence of channel noise in various environments in the form of Rayleigh fading, additive white Gaussian background noise (AWGN), and interference noise generalized as additive color Gaussian noise (ACGN). The structure and performance of SVM in terms of the bit error rate (BER) metric is derived and simulated for these advanced stochastic noise models and the computational complexity of the implementation, in terms of average computational time per bit, is also presented. The performance of SVM is then compared to conventional binary signaling optimal model-based detector driven by binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation. We show that the SVM performance is superior to that of conventional matched filter-, innovation filter-, and Wiener filter-driven detectors, even in the presence of random Doppler carrier deviation, especially for low SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) ranges. For large SNR, the performance of the SVM was similar to that of the classical detectors. However, the convergence between SVM and maximum likelihood detection occurred at a higher SNR as the noise environment became more hostile.
Keywords: Colour noise, Doppler shift, innovation filter, least square-support vector machine, matched filter, Rayleigh fading, Wiener filter.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1696
4504 Effect of Heat Treatment on the Portevin-Le Chatelier Effect of Al-2.5%Mg Alloy
Authors: A. Chatterjee, A. Sarkar, N. Gayathri, P. Mukherjee, P. Barat
Abstract:An experimental study is presented on the effect of microstructural change on the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect behaviour of Al-2.5%Mg alloy. Tensile tests are performed on the as received and heat treated (at 400 ºC for 16 hours) samples for a wide range of strain rates. The serrations observed in the stress-time curve are investigated from statistical analysis point of view. Microstructures of the samples are characterized by optical metallography and X-ray diffraction. It is found that the excess vacancy generated due to heat treatment leads to decrease in the strain rate sensitivity and the increase in the number of stress drop occurrences per unit time during the PLC effect. The microstructural parameters like domain size, dislocation density have no appreciable effect on the PLC effect as far as the statistical behavior of the serrations is considered.
Keywords: Dynamic strain ageing, Heat treatment, Portevin-LeChatelier effectProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2109
4503 Payment for Pain: Differences between Hypothetical and Real Preferences
Authors: J. Trarbach, S. Schosser, B. Vogt
Decision-makers tend to prefer the first alternative over subsequent alternatives which is called the primacy effect. To reliably measure this effect, we conducted an experiment with real consequences for preference statements. Therefore, we elicit preferences of subjects using a rating scale, i.e. hypothetical preferences, and willingness to pay, i.e. real preferences, for two sequences of pain. Within these sequences, both overall intensity and duration of pain are identical. Hence, a rational decision-maker should be indifferent, whereas the primacy effect predicts a stronger preference for the first sequence. What we see is a primacy effect only for hypothetical preferences. This effect vanishes for real preferences.
Keywords: Decision making, primacy effect, real incentives, willingness to pay.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 741
4502 Performance Evaluation of an ANC-based Hybrid Algorithm for Multi-target Wideband Active Sonar Echolocation System
Authors: Jason Chien-Hsun Tseng
Abstract:This paper evaluates performances of an adaptive noise cancelling (ANC) based target detection algorithm on a set of real test data supported by the Defense Evaluation Research Agency (DERA UK) for multi-target wideband active sonar echolocation system. The hybrid algorithm proposed is a combination of an adaptive ANC neuro-fuzzy scheme in the first instance and followed by an iterative optimum target motion estimation (TME) scheme. The neuro-fuzzy scheme is based on the adaptive noise cancelling concept with the core processor of ANFIS (adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system) to provide an effective fine tuned signal. The resultant output is then sent as an input to the optimum TME scheme composed of twogauge trimmed-mean (TM) levelization, discrete wavelet denoising (WDeN), and optimal continuous wavelet transform (CWT) for further denosing and targets identification. Its aim is to recover the contact signals in an effective and efficient manner and then determine the Doppler motion (radial range, velocity and acceleration) at very low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Quantitative results have shown that the hybrid algorithm have excellent performance in predicting targets- Doppler motion within various target strength with the maximum false detection of 1.5%.
Keywords: Wideband Active Sonar Echolocation, ANC Neuro-Fuzzy, Wavelet Denoise, CWT, Hybrid Algorithm.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1895
4501 Channel Length Modulation Effect on Monolayer Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistor
Authors: Mehdi Saeidmanesh, Razali Ismail
Abstract:Recently, Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistors (GNR FETs) attract a great deal of attention due to their better performance in comparison with conventional devices. In this paper, channel length Modulation (CLM) effect on the electrical characteristics of GNR FETs is analytically studied and modeled. To this end, the special distribution of the electric potential along the channel and current-voltage characteristic of the device is modeled. The obtained results of analytical model are compared to the experimental data of published works. As a result, it is observable that considering the effect of CLM, the current-voltage response of GNR FET is more realistic.
Keywords: Graphene nanoribbon, field effect transistors, short channel effects, channel length modulation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1094
4500 The Relationship between the Disposition Effect and Herding Behavior: Evidence from Taiwan’s Information Technology Stocks
Authors: Chih-Hsiang Chang
This study aims to explore the relationship between the disposition effect and herding behavior of investors trading Taiwanese information technology stocks. This study differs from previous literature in two aspects. First, in contrast with the earlier studies that focused on investigating investors’ herding behavior, this study explores the possibility that the disposition effect drives investors’ herding behavior. Additionally, it takes an in-depth look at the interdependence between the disposition effect and herding behavior of investors, including lead-lag relationship and volatility transmission effect. Empirical results show that investors trading Taiwan’s information technology stocks exhibit pronounced herding behavior and that the disposition effect has a great impact on their herding behavior.
Keywords: Herding behavior, Disposition effect, Behavioral finance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2504
4499 The Causation and Solution of Ringing Effect in DCT-based Video Coding
Authors: Yu Yuan, David Feng, Yu-Zhuo Zhong
Abstract:Ringing effect is one of the most annoying visual artifacts in digital video. It is a significant factor of subjective quality deterioration. However, there is a widely-accepted misunderstanding of its cause. In this paper, we propose a reasonable interpretation of the cause of ringing effect. Based on the interpretation, we suggest further two methods to reduce ringing effect in DCT-based video coding. The methods adaptively adjust quantizers according to video features. Our experiments proved that the methods could efficiently improve subjective quality with acceptable additional computing costs.
Keywords: ringing effect, video coding, subjective quality, DCT.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1586
4498 Ambipolar Effect Free Double Gate PN Diode Based Tunnel FET
Authors: Hardik Vaghela, Mamta Khosla, Balwindar Raj
In this paper, we present and investigate a double gate PN diode based tunnel field effect transistor (DGPNTFET). The importance of proposed structure is that the formation of different drain doping is not required and ambipolar effect in OFF state is completely removed for this structure. Validation of this structure to behave like a Tunnel Field Effect Transistor (TFET) is carried out through energy band diagrams and transfer characteristics. Simulated result shows point subthreshold slope (SS) of 19.14 mV/decade and ON to OFF current ratio (ION / IOFF) of 2.66 × 1014 (ION at VGS=1.5V, VDS=1V and IOFF at VGS=0V, VDS=1V) for gate length of 20nm and HfO2 as gate oxide at room temperature. Which indicate that the DGPNTFET is a promising candidate for nano-scale, ambipolar free switch.
Keywords: Ambipolar effect, double gate PN diode based tunnel field effect transistor, high-κ dielectric material, subthreshold slope, tunnel field effect transistor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 866