Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 960

Search results for: Combination

960 Combination Scheme of Affine Projection Algorithm Filters with Complementary Order

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

This paper proposes a complementary combination scheme of affine projection algorithm (APA) filters with different order of input regressors. A convex combination provides an interesting way to keep the advantage of APA having different order of input regressors. Consequently, a novel APA which has the rapid convergence and the reduced steady-state error is derived. Experimental results show the good properties of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Adaptive filter, affine projection algorithm, convex combination, input order.

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959 Intrusion Detection based on Distance Combination

Authors: Joffroy Beauquier, Yongjie Hu

Abstract:

The intrusion detection problem has been frequently studied, but intrusion detection methods are often based on a single point of view, which always limits the results. In this paper, we introduce a new intrusion detection model based on the combination of different current methods. First we use a notion of distance to unify the different methods. Second we combine these methods using the Pearson correlation coefficients, which measure the relationship between two methods, and we obtain a combined distance. If the combined distance is greater than a predetermined threshold, an intrusion is detected. We have implemented and tested the combination model with two different public data sets: the data set of masquerade detection collected by Schonlau & al., and the data set of program behaviors from the University of New Mexico. The results of the experiments prove that the combination model has better performances.

Keywords: Intrusion detection, combination, distance, Pearson correlation coefficients.

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958 Efficacy of Garlic and Chili Combination Solution on Cabbage Insect Pests and Crop Growth in Vietnam

Authors: Nguyen Minh Tuan, Bui Lan Anh, Bui Nu Hoang Anh

Abstract:

The study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of Garlic and Chili combination solution on control of insect pests in cabbage crop. The solution was sprayed at different intervals after transplanting. The efficiency of Garlic and chili combination solution on cabbage insect pests was measured. Results revealed that Garlic and chili combination solution was the effectively reduced cabbage insect pests. On other hand, the spray solution not only reduced the number of days required for the cabbage growth but also greatly enhanced the leaf number, head diameter, head weight, and quality of cabbage. Garlic and chili combination solution have positive effects on pests reduction and improve growth, yield and quality of cabbage vegetable.

Keywords: Cabbage, Garlic, Chili, Diamondback moth, Cutworm, Flea Beetle, Quality.

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957 Optimal Combination for Modal Pushover Analysis by Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: K. Shakeri, M. Mohebbi

Abstract:

In order to consider the effects of the higher modes in the pushover analysis, during the recent years several multi-modal pushover procedures have been presented. In these methods the response of the considered modes are combined by the square-rootof- sum-of-squares (SRSS) rule while application of the elastic modal combination rules in the inelastic phases is no longer valid. In this research the feasibility of defining an efficient alternative combination method is investigated. Two steel moment-frame buildings denoted SAC-9 and SAC-20 under ten earthquake records are considered. The nonlinear responses of the structures are estimated by the directed algebraic combination of the weighted responses of the separate modes. The weight of the each mode is defined so that the resulted response of the combination has a minimum error to the nonlinear time history analysis. The genetic algorithm (GA) is used to minimize the error and optimize the weight factors. The obtained optimal factors for each mode in different cases are compared together to find unique appropriate weight factors for each mode in all cases.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Modal Pushover, Optimalweight.

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956 Experimental Study of Kiwi Juice under Sonication and Carbonation

Authors: N. Dizadji, P. Entezar, A. Afsari

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the experimental impacts of ultrasonic, carbonate and a combination of them on the quality of fresh kiwi juice. Today, non-thermal methods like ultrasonic, which have imperceptible effects on some properties of the juice such as taste, flavor and color, are commonly used for killing microorganisms.In this paper, some properties of kiwi fruit juice under ultrasonic, carbonate and a combination of them has been researched. Those properties include pH, acidity, transparency and Brix. Its impact on microorganisms has been studied as well.The results show that using a combination of carbonate and sonicate make the cavitation more severe without a perceptible effect on nonactivation of microorganisms.

Keywords: carbonate, juice, inactivation, ultrasonic

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955 Combination of Electrodialysis and Electrodeionization for Treatment of Condensate from Ammonium Nitrate Production

Authors: Lubomir Machuca, Vit Fara

Abstract:

Ammonium nitrate (AN) is produced by the reaction of ammonia and nitric acid, and a waste condensate is obtained. The condensate contains pure AN in concentration up to 10g/L. The salt content in the condensate is too high to discharge immediately into the river thus it must be treated. This study is concerned with the treatment of condensates from an industrial AN production by combination of electrodialysis (ED) and electrodeionization (EDI). The condensate concentration was in range 1.9–2.5g/L of AN. A pilot ED module with 25 membrane pairs following by a laboratory EDI module with 10 membrane pairs operated continuously during 800 hours. Results confirmed that the combination of ED and EDI is suitable for the condensate treatment.

Keywords: Desalination, electrodialysis, electrodeionization, fertilizer industry.

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954 A Combination of Similarity Ranking and Time for Social Research Paper Searching

Authors: P. Jomsri

Abstract:

Nowadays social media are important tools for web resource discovery. The performance and capabilities of web searches are vital, especially search results from social research paper bookmarking. This paper proposes a new algorithm for ranking method that is a combination of similarity ranking with paper posted time or CSTRank. The paper posted time is static ranking for improving search results. For this particular study, the paper posted time is combined with similarity ranking to produce a better ranking than other methods such as similarity ranking or SimRank. The retrieval performance of combination rankings is evaluated using mean values of NDCG. The evaluation in the experiments implies that the chosen CSTRank ranking by using weight score at ratio 90:10 can improve the efficiency of research paper searching on social bookmarking websites.

Keywords: combination ranking, information retrieval, time, similarity ranking, static ranking, weight score

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953 Simulation of Surge Protection for a Direct Current Circuit

Authors: Pedro Luis Ferrer Penalver, Edmundo da Silva Braga

Abstract:

In this paper, the performance of a simple surge protection for a direct current circuit was simulated. The protection circuit was developed from modified electric macro models of a gas discharge tube and a transient voltage suppressor diode. Moreover, a combination wave generator circuit was used as source of energy surges. The simulations showed that the circuit presented ensures immunity corresponding with test level IV of the IEC 61000-4-5:2014 international standard. The developed circuit can be modified to meet the requirements of any other equipment to be protected. Similarly, the parameters of the combination wave generator can be changed to provide different surge amplitudes.

Keywords: Combination wave generator, IEC 61000-4-5, Pspice simulation, surge protection.

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952 Split-Pipe Design of Water Distribution Networks Using a Combination of Tabu Search and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: J. Tospornsampan, I. Kita, M. Ishii, Y. Kitamura

Abstract:

In this paper a combination approach of two heuristic-based algorithms: genetic algorithm and tabu search is proposed. It has been developed to obtain the least cost based on the split-pipe design of looped water distribution network. The proposed combination algorithm has been applied to solve the three well-known water distribution networks taken from the literature. The development of the combination of these two heuristic-based algorithms for optimization is aimed at enhancing their strengths and compensating their weaknesses. Tabu search is rather systematic and deterministic that uses adaptive memory in search process, while genetic algorithm is probabilistic and stochastic optimization technique in which the solution space is explored by generating candidate solutions. Split-pipe design may not be realistic in practice but in optimization purpose, optimal solutions are always achieved with split-pipe design. The solutions obtained in this study have proved that the least cost solutions obtained from the split-pipe design are always better than those obtained from the single pipe design. The results obtained from the combination approach show its ability and effectiveness to solve combinatorial optimization problems. The solutions obtained are very satisfactory and high quality in which the solutions of two networks are found to be the lowest-cost solutions yet presented in the literature. The concept of combination approach proposed in this study is expected to contribute some useful benefits in diverse problems.

Keywords: GAs, Heuristics, Looped network, Least-cost design, Pipe network, Optimization, TS

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951 Restarted GMRES Method Augmented with the Combination of Harmonic Ritz Vectors and Error Approximations

Authors: Qiang Niu, Linzhang Lu

Abstract:

Restarted GMRES methods augmented with approximate eigenvectors are widely used for solving large sparse linear systems. Recently a new scheme of augmenting with error approximations is proposed. The main aim of this paper is to develop a restarted GMRES method augmented with the combination of harmonic Ritz vectors and error approximations. We demonstrate that the resulted combination method can gain the advantages of two approaches: (i) effectively deflate the small eigenvalues in magnitude that may hamper the convergence of the method and (ii) partially recover the global optimality lost due to restarting. The effectiveness and efficiency of the new method are demonstrated through various numerical examples.

Keywords: Arnoldi process, GMRES, Krylov subspace, systems of linear equations.

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950 Edit Distance Algorithm to Increase Storage Efficiency of Javanese Corpora

Authors: Aji P. Wibawa, Andrew Nafalski, Neil Murray, Wayan F. Mahmudy

Abstract:

Since the one-to-one word translator does not have the facility to translate pragmatic aspects of Javanese, the parallel text alignment model described uses a phrase pair combination. The algorithm aligns the parallel text automatically from the beginning to the end of each sentence. Even though the results of the phrase pair combination outperform the previous algorithm, it is still inefficient. Recording all possible combinations consume more space in the database and time consuming. The original algorithm is modified by applying the edit distance coefficient to improve the data-storage efficiency. As a result, the data-storage consumption is 90% reduced as well as its learning period (42s).

Keywords: edit distance coefficient, Javanese, parallel text alignment, phrase pair combination

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949 Generation of Sets of Synthetic Classifiers for the Evaluation of Abstract-Level Combination Methods

Authors: N. Greco, S. Impedovo, R.Modugno, G. Pirlo

Abstract:

This paper presents a new technique for generating sets of synthetic classifiers to evaluate abstract-level combination methods. The sets differ in terms of both recognition rates of the individual classifiers and degree of similarity. For this purpose, each abstract-level classifier is considered as a random variable producing one class label as the output for an input pattern. From the initial set of classifiers, new slightly different sets are generated by applying specific operators, which are defined at the purpose. Finally, the sets of synthetic classifiers have been used to estimate the performance of combination methods for abstract-level classifiers. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Abstract-level Classifier, Dempster-Shafer Rule, Multi-expert Systems, Similarity Index, System Evaluation

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948 Using Different Aspects of the Signings for Appearance-based Sign Language Recognition

Authors: Morteza Zahedi, Philippe Dreuw, Thomas Deselaers, Hermann Ney

Abstract:

Sign language is used by the deaf and hard of hearing people for communication. Automatic sign language recognition is a challenging research area since sign language often is the only way of communication for the deaf people. Sign language includes different components of visual actions made by the signer using the hands, the face, and the torso, to convey his/her meaning. To use different aspects of signs, we combine the different groups of features which have been extracted from the image frames recorded directly by a stationary camera. We combine the features in two levels by employing three techniques. At the feature level, an early feature combination can be performed by concatenating and weighting different feature groups, or by concatenating feature groups over time and using LDA to choose the most discriminant elements. At the model level, a late fusion of differently trained models can be carried out by a log-linear model combination. In this paper, we investigate these three combination techniques in an automatic sign language recognition system and show that the recognition rate can be significantly improved.

Keywords: American sign language, appearance-based features, Feature combination, Sign language recognition

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947 The Effect of Sodium Chloride and pH on the Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Essential Oils Against Pathogenic and Food Spoilage Bacteria:Implications in Food Safety

Authors: P. O. Angienda, D. J. Hill

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to elucidate the factors affecting antimicrobial effectiveness of essential oils against food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. The minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) of the essential oils, were determined by turbidimetric technique using Biocreen C, analyzer. The effects of pH ranging from 7.3 to 5.5 in absence and presence of essential oils and/or NaCl on the lag time and mean generation time of the bacteria at 370C, were carried out and results were determined showed that, combination of low pH and essential oil at 370C had additive effects against the test micro-organisms. The combination of 1.2 % (w/v) of NaCl and clove essential oil at 0.0325% (v/v) was effective against E. coli. The use of concentrations less than MIC in combination with low pH and or NaCl has the potential of being used as an alternative to “traditional food preservatives".

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Bacteria, Bioscreen C, essential oil.

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946 Parallel Text Processing: Alignment of Indonesian to Javanese Language

Authors: Aji P. Wibawa, Andrew Nafalski, Neil Murray, Wayan F. Mahmudy

Abstract:

Parallel text alignment is proposed as a way of aligning bahasa Indonesia to words in Javanese. Since the one-to-one word translator does not have the facility to translate pragmatic aspects of Javanese, the parallel text alignment model described uses a phrase pair combination. The algorithm aligns the parallel text automatically from the beginning to the end of each sentence. Even though the results of the phrase pair combination outperform the previous algorithm, it is still inefficient. Recording all possible combinations consume more space in the database and time consuming. The original algorithm is modified by applying the edit distance coefficient to improve the data-storage efficiency. As a result, the data-storage consumption is 90% reduced as well as its learning period (42s).

Keywords: Parallel text alignment, phrase pair combination, edit distance coefficient, Javanese-Indonesian language.

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945 Recovering Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin. via Seed and Callus Culture

Authors: K. Uteulin, S. Mukhambetzhanov, I. Rakhimbaev

Abstract:

This experiment was performed to optimize the medium for tissue culture of Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin. Different tissue culture approaches such as shoot regeneration from seed, callus formation from leaf explants and plant regeneration from callus were investigated in this study. All the explants were cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with 20g/l sucrose, 7g/l agar and different plant growth regulators. Seeds of Taraxacum kok-saghyzwere cultured on media containing different levels of BA and 2,4-D (0.5, 1.0 and 3.0mg/L) to direct shoot regeneration study. Leaf explants were cultured in different combination of BA (at three levels: 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0mg/L) and zeatin (at two levels: 0.5 and 1.0mg/L) to examine callus formation. After the callus formation the formed calli were cultured on different combinations of BA and NAA for shoot regeneration. BA at three levels (0.5 and 1.0 and 3.0mg/L) and NAA at two levels (0.5 and 1.0mg/L) in all possible combinations were used for shoot regeneration from callus. The results showed that the treatment containing 1.0mg/L 2,4-D in combination with 1.0mg/L BA was found to be the best one for shoot regeneration from seeds. The treatment with 1.0mg/L BA in combination with 1.0mg/L zeatin were found to be suitable treatments for callus production from leaf explants, as well. Moreover, 0.5mg/L BA alone or in combination with 1.0mg/L NAA were found to be the best treatments for shoot regeneration from callus.

Keywords: Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin., shoot regeneration, callus.

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944 Combination of Information Security Standards to Cover National Requirements

Authors: Sh. Ladan, A. Yari, H. Khodabandeh

Abstract:

The need for Information Security in organizations, regardless of their type and size, is being addressed by emerging standards and recommended best practices. The various standards and practices which evolved in recent years and are still being developed and constantly revised, address the issue of Information Security from different angles. This paper attempts to provide an overview of Information Security Standards and Practices by briefly discussing some of the most popular ones. Through a comparative study of their similarities and differences, some insight can be obtained on how their combination may lead to an increased level of Information Security.

Keywords: Information security management, information security standard, BS7799, ISO 17799, COBIT.

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943 Touching Interaction: An NFC-RFID Combination

Authors: Eduardo Álvarez, Gerardo Quiroga, Jorge Orozco, Gabriel Chavira

Abstract:

AmI proposes a new way of thinking about computers, which follows the ideas of the Ubiquitous Computing vision of Mark Weiser. In these, there is what is known as a Disappearing Computer Initiative, with users immersed in intelligent environments. Hence, technologies need to be adapted so that they are capable of replacing the traditional inputs to the system by embedding these in every-day artifacts. In this work, we present an approach, which uses Radiofrequency Identification (RFID) and Near Field Communication (NFC) technologies. In the latter, a new form of interaction appears by contact. We compare both technologies by analyzing their requirements and advantages. In addition, we propose using a combination of RFID and NFC.

Keywords: Touching interaction, ambient intelligence, NFC, RFID.

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942 Synthesis of TiO2 Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel and Sonochemical Combination

Authors: Sabriye Piskin, Sibel Kasap, Muge Sari Yilmaz

Abstract:

Nanocrystalline TiO2 particles were successfully synthesized via sol-gel and sonochemical combination using titanium tetraisopropoxide as a precursor at lower temperature for a short time. The effect of the reaction parameters (hydrolysis media, acid media, and reaction temperatures) on the synthesis of TiO2 particles were investigated in the present study. Characterizations of synthesized samples were prepared by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. It was shown that the reaction parameters played a significant role in the synthesis of TiO2 particles.

Keywords: Crystalline TiO2, sonochemical mechanism, sol-gel reaction.

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941 New Approach for Constructing a Secure Biometric Database

Authors: A. Kebbeb, M. Mostefai, F. Benmerzoug, Y. Chahir

Abstract:

The multimodal biometric identification is the combination of several biometric systems; the challenge of this combination is to reduce some limitations of systems based on a single modality while significantly improving performance. In this paper, we propose a new approach to the construction and the protection of a multimodal biometric database dedicated to an identification system. We use a topological watermarking to hide the relation between face image and the registered descriptors extracted from other modalities of the same person for more secure user identification.

Keywords: Biometric databases, Multimodal biometrics, security authentication, Digital watermarking.

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940 Experimental Study on Thermomechanical Properties of New-Generation ODS Alloys

Authors: O. Khalaj, B. Mašek, H. Jirková, J. Svoboda

Abstract:

By using a combination of new technologies together with an unconventional use of different types of materials, specific mechanical properties and structures of the material can be achieved. Some possibilities are enabled by a combination of powder metallurgy in the preparation of a metal matrix with dispersed stable particles achieved by mechanical alloying and hot consolidation. This paper explains the thermomechanical properties of new generation of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened alloys (ODS) within three ranges of temperature with specified deformation profiles. The results show that the mechanical properties of new ODS alloys are significantly affected by the thermomechanical treatment.

Keywords: Hot forming, ODS, alloys, thermomechanical, Fe-Al, Al2O3.

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939 Simulating Action Potential as a Linear Combination of Gating Dynamics

Authors: S. H. Sabzpoushan

Abstract:

In this research we show that the dynamics of an action potential in a cell can be modeled with a linear combination of the dynamics of the gating state variables. It is shown that the modeling error is negligible. Our findings can be used for simplifying cell models and reduction of computational burden i.e. it is useful for simulating action potential propagation in large scale computations like tissue modeling. We have verified our finding with the use of several cell models.

Keywords: Linear model, Action potential, gating dynamics.

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938 A New Image Encryption Approach using Combinational Permutation Techniques

Authors: A. Mitra, Y. V. Subba Rao, S. R. M. Prasanna

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new approach for image encryption using a combination of different permutation techniques. The main idea behind the present work is that an image can be viewed as an arrangement of bits, pixels and blocks. The intelligible information present in an image is due to the correlations among the bits, pixels and blocks in a given arrangement. This perceivable information can be reduced by decreasing the correlation among the bits, pixels and blocks using certain permutation techniques. This paper presents an approach for a random combination of the aforementioned permutations for image encryption. From the results, it is observed that the permutation of bits is effective in significantly reducing the correlation thereby decreasing the perceptual information, whereas the permutation of pixels and blocks are good at producing higher level security compared to bit permutation. A random combination method employing all the three techniques thus is observed to be useful for tactical security applications, where protection is needed only against a casual observer.

Keywords: Encryption, Permutation, Good key, Combinationalpermutation, Pseudo random index generator.

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937 In vitro Propagation of Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) for Useful Chemical Extraction

Authors: Chockpisit Thepsithar, Nongnuch Euawong, Nukul Jonghomkajorn

Abstract:

The in vitro culture procedure of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) for multiple shoot induction and tuber formation was established. Multiple shoots were significantly induced from a single shoot of about 0.5 – 0.8 cm long, on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.44 μM 6- benzyladinine (BA) alone or in combination with 2.85 μM 1- indoleacetic acid (IAA), providing 17.6 and 15.3 shoots per explant with 31.2 and 27.5 leaves per explant, respectively, within 6 weeks of culturing. Moreover, MS medium supplemented with 4.44 μM BA and 2.85 μM IAA was suitable for tuber induction, obtaining 5.9 tubers with 3.4 rhizomes per explant. In combination with ancymidol and higher concentration of sucrose, 11.1 μM BA and 60 g/L sucrose or 11.1 μM BA, 7.8 μM ancymidol and 60 g/L sucrose induced 3.5 tubers with 1.6 rhizomes or 3.5 tubers without rhizome, respectively. However, MS medium containing 3.9 or 7.8 μM ancymidol in combination with either 60 or 80 g/L sucrose enchanced significant root formation at 20.9 – 23.6 roots per explant.

Keywords: Purple nutsedge, Cyperus rotundus, multiple shoot induction, tuber formation

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936 Packaging the Alkaloids of Cinchona Bark in Combination with Etoposide in Polymeric Micelles Nanoparticles

Authors: Diky Mudhakir, Satrialdi, Sukmadjaja Asyarie, Yeyet C. Sumirtapura

Abstract:

Today, cancer remains one of the major diseases that lead to death. The main obstacle in chemotherapy as a main cancer treatment is the toxicity to normal cells due to Multidrug Resistance (MDR) after the use of anticancer drugs. Proposed solution to overcome this problem is the use of MDR efflux inhibitor of cinchona alkaloids which is delivered together with anticancer drugs encapsulated in the form of polymeric nanoparticles. The particles were prepared by the hydration method. The characterization of nanoparticles was particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. Combination nanoparticle size ranged 29-45 nm with a neutral surface charge. Entrapment efficiency was above 87% for the use quinine, quinidine or cinchonidine in combination with etoposide. The release test results exhibited that the cinchona alkaloids release released faster than that of etoposide. Collectively, cinchona alkaloids can be packaged along with etoposide in nanomicelles for better cancer therapy.

Keywords: Cinchona alkaloids, etoposide, MDR efflux inhitor, polymeric nanomicelles.

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935 Optimization of Growth of Rhodobacter Sphaeroides Using Mixed Volatile Fatty Acidsby Response Surface Methodology

Authors: R.Sangeetha, T.Karunanithi

Abstract:

A combination of photosynthetic bacteria along with anaerobic acidogenic bacteria is an ideal option for efficient hydrogen production. In the present study, the optimum concentration of substrates for the growth of Rhodobacter sphaeroides was found by response surface methodology. The optimum combination of three individual fatty acids was determined by Box Behnken design. Increase of volatile fatty acid concentration decreased the growth. Combination of sodium acetate and sodium propionate was most significant for the growth of the organism. The results showed that a maximum biomass concentration of 0.916 g/l was obtained when the concentrations of acetate, propionate and butyrate were 0.73g/l,0.99g/l and 0.799g/l, respectively. The growth was studied under an optimum concentration of volatile fatty acids and at a light intensity of 3000 lux, initial pH of 7 and a temperature of 35°C.The maximum biomass concentration of 0.92g/l was obtained which verified the practicability of this optimization.

Keywords: Biohydrogen, Response Surface Methodology, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Volatile fatty acid

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934 Prediction of Research Topics Using Ensemble of Best Predictors from Similar Dataset

Authors: Indra Budi, Rizal Fathoni Aji, Agus Widodo

Abstract:

Prediction of future research topics by using time series analysis either statistical or machine learning has been conducted previously by several researchers. Several methods have been proposed to combine the forecasting results into single forecast. These methods use fixed combination of individual forecast to get the final forecast result. In this paper, quite different approach is employed to select the forecasting methods, in which every point to forecast is calculated by using the best methods used by similar validation dataset. The dataset used in the experiment is time series derived from research report in Garuda, which is an online sites belongs to the Ministry of Education in Indonesia, over the past 20 years. The experimental result demonstrates that the proposed method may perform better compared to the fix combination of predictors. In addition, based on the prediction result, we can forecast emerging research topics for the next few years.

Keywords: Combination, emerging topics, ensemble, forecasting, machine learning, prediction, research topics, similarity measure, time series.

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933 A Community Compromised Approach to Combinatorial Coalition Problem

Authors: Laor Boongasame, Veera Boonjing, Ho-fung Leung

Abstract:

Buyer coalition with a combination of items is a group of buyers joining together to purchase a combination of items with a larger discount. The primary aim of existing buyer coalition with a combination of items research is to generate a large total discount. However, the aim is hard to achieve because this research is based on the assumption that each buyer completely knows other buyers- information or at least one buyer knows other buyers- information in a coalition by exchange of information. These assumption contrast with the real world environment where buyers join a coalition with incomplete information, i.e., they concerned only with their expected discounts. Therefore, this paper proposes a new buyer community coalition formation with a combination of items scheme, called the Community Compromised Combinatorial Coalition scheme, under such an environment of incomplete information. In order to generate a larger total discount, after buyers who want to join a coalition propose their minimum required saving, a coalition structure that gives a maximum total retail prices is formed. Then, the total discount division of the coalition is divided among buyers in the coalition depending on their minimum required saving and is a Pareto optimal. In mathematical analysis, we compare concepts of this scheme with concepts of the existing buyer coalition scheme. Our mathematical analysis results show that the total discount of the coalition in this scheme is larger than that in the existing buyer coalition scheme.

Keywords: group decision and negotiations, group buying, gametheory, combinatorial coalition formation, Pareto optimality

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932 Multiple Shoot Formation of Paphiopedilum 'Delrosi'

Authors: Aree Thongpukdee, Ekasit Nisayan, Chockpisit Thepsithar

Abstract:

Shoots, with three leaves, of Paphiopedilum 'Delrosi' were used as explants for multiple shoot induction. Modified Hyponex medium was supplemented with thidiazuron (TDZ), N6- benzyladenine (BA) or kinetin (Kn) alone and in combinations with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). All explants were cultured for 15 weeks. It was found that TDZ alone at the concentration of 0.45μM or in combination with 4.52μM 2,4-D and 8.88μM BA in combination with 13.56μM 2,4-D promoted multiple shoots. The highest shoot sprouting efficiencies (80.0, 90.0 and 80.0%) and new shoot numbers (1.5, 1.3 and 1.1) were obtained, respectively. Fresh weight, height, numbers of leaf and root of new shoots and initial explants were discussed.

Keywords: Paphiopedilum, terrestrial orchids, in vitro culture, micropropagation, multiple shoot induction

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931 Comparative Study on Recent Integer DCTs

Authors: Sakol Udomsiri, Masahiro Iwahashi

Abstract:

This paper presents comparative study on recent integer DCTs and a new method to construct a low sensitive structure of integer DCT for colored input signals. The method refers to sensitivity of multiplier coefficients to finite word length as an indicator of how word length truncation effects on quality of output signal. The sensitivity is also theoretically evaluated as a function of auto-correlation and covariance matrix of input signal. The structure of integer DCT algorithm is optimized by combination of lower sensitive lifting structure types of IRT. It is evaluated by the sensitivity of multiplier coefficients to finite word length expression in a function of covariance matrix of input signal. Effectiveness of the optimum combination of IRT in integer DCT algorithm is confirmed by quality improvement comparing with existing case. As a result, the optimum combination of IRT in each integer DCT algorithm evidently improves output signal quality and it is still compatible with the existing one.

Keywords: DCT, sensitivity, lossless, wordlength.

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