Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32586
Association of Smoking with Chest Radiographic and Lung Function Findings in Retired Bauxite Mining Workers

Authors: L. R. Ferreira, R. C. G. Bianchi, L. C.R. Ferreira, C. M. Galhardi, E. P. Baciuk, L. H. Oliveira


Inhalation hazards are associated with potentially injurious exposure and increased risk for lung diseases, within the bauxite mining industry, especially for the smelter workers. Smoking is related to decreased lung function and leads to chronic lung diseases. This study had the objective to evaluate whether smoking is related to functional and radiographic respiratory changes in retired bauxite mining workers. Methods: This was a retrospective and cross-sectional study involving the analysis of database information of 140 retired bauxite mining workers from Poços de Caldas-MG evaluated at Worker’s Health Reference Center and at the Social Security Brazilian National Institute, from July 1st, 2015 until June 30th, 2016. The workers were divided into three groups: non-smokers (n = 47), ex-smokers (n = 46), and smokers (n = 47). The data included: age, gender, spirometry results, and the presence or not of pulmonary pleural and/or parenchymal changes in chest radiographs. Chi-Squared test was used (p < 0,05). Results: In the smokers’ group, 83% of spirometry tests and 64% of chest x-rays were altered. In the non-smokers’ group, 19% of spirometry tests and 13% of chest x-rays were altered. In the ex-smokers’ group, 35% of spirometry tests and 30% of chest x-rays were altered. Most of the results were statistically significant. Results demonstrated a significant difference between smokers’ and non-smokers’ groups in regard to spirometric and radiographic pulmonary alterations. Ex-smokers’ and non-smokers’ group demonstrated better results when compared to the smokers’ group in relation to altered spirometry and radiograph findings. These data may contribute to planning strategies to enhance smoking cessation programs within the bauxite mining industry.

Keywords: Bauxite mining, spirometry, chest radiography, smoking.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 584


[1] FritschI L, Hoving JL, Sim MR, Del Monaco A, McFarlane E, MckenziE, D. All cause mortality and incidence of cancer in workers in bauxite mines and alumina refineries. Int J Cancer. 2008; 123: 882-87.
[2] Spinelli J, Demers P, LE N, Friesen M, Lorenzi M, Fang R, Gallagher R. Cancer risk in aluminum reduction plant workers (Canada). Can Causes Cont. 2006; 17: 939-48.
[3] Dennekamp M, de Klerk NH, Reid A, Abramson MJ, Cui J, Del Monaco A, Fritschi L, et al. Longitudinal analysis of respiratory outcomes among bauxite exposed workers in Western Australia. Am J Ind Med. 2015; 58(8): 897-904.
[4] Benke G, Abramson M, Sim M. Exposures in the alumina and primary aluminum industry: na historical review. Ann OccupHyp. 1998; 42: 173-89.
[5] Wesdock JC, Arnold IMF. Occupational and Environmental Health in the Aluminum Industry. JOEM. 2014; 56(55): S5-S11.
[6] Taiwo OA, Slade MD, Cantley LF, Tessier-Sherman B, Galusha D, Kirsche SR, et al. Bladder cancer screening in aluminum smelter workers. JOEM. 2015; 57(4): 421-427.
[7] Meo SA, Azeem MA, Subhan MMF. Lung function in Pakistani welding workers. JOEM. 2013; 45(10): 1068-73.
[8] Kongerud J, Soyseth V. Respiratory disorders in aluminum smelter workers. JOEM. 2014; 56 (5S):S60-S70.
[9] Axelsson M, Ekerljung L, Eriksson J, Hagstad S, RönmarkE, LötvallJ,et al. Chronic bronchitis in West Sweden a matter of smoking and social class. EurClinRespir J. 2016; 3: 1-10.
[10] Silkoff PE, Laviolette M, Singh D, Fitzgerald J. M, Kelsen S, Backer V, et al. Longitudinal stability of asthma characteristics and biomarkers from the Airways Disease Endotyping for Personalized Therapeutics (ADEPT) study. Respir Res. 2016; 17 (43): 1-12.
[11] Di Lorenzo L., PegorarI MM, Capozzi D, Margiotta M, Carpinelli G, Cassano F, et al. Mucociliary clearance and respiratory function in foundry workers. Med Lav. 1994; 85(6):481-95.
[12] Gibbs GW, Labrèche F, Busque MA, Duguay P. Mortality and cancer incidence in aluminum smelter workers. JOEM. 2014; 56(7): 739-64.
[13] IARC MONOGRAPH. Occupational exposures during aluminum production. International Agency for Research on Cancer: IARC. 2010; 92: 215-220.
[14] Zuo WL, Yang J, Gomi K,, Chao I, Crystal RG, Shaykhiev R. EGF-Amphiregulin Interplay in Airway Stem/Progenitor Cells Links the Pathogenesis of Smoking-induced Lesions in the Human Airway Epithelium. Stem Cells. 2016; 6. (Epub ahead of print).
[15] Min HY, Boo HJ, Lee HJ, Jang HJ, Yun HJ, Hwang SJ, et al. Smoking-associated lung cancer prevention by blockade of the beta-adrenergic receptor-mediated insulin-like growth factor receptor activation. Oncotarget. 2016; 29. (Epub ahead of print).
[16] Bizón A, Stasiak K, Milnerowics H. Activity of alanine aminopeptidase in blood and in urine of smoking and non-smoking smelters. Przegl Lek.2010;67(10):906-9.
[17] Sin, D.D. Pharmacological management of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. BC MEDICAL JOURNAL. 2008; 50(2): 85-89.
[18] Ladosky, W.; Andrade, R.T.; Loureiro, N.G.; Gandar, J.M.B.; Botelho, M.M. Comparing reference spirometric values obtained from Knudson and Pereira equations – Adults. J BrasPneumol. 2001;27(6):315-320.
[19] Meirelles, G.S.P; Kavakama, J.I.; Rodrigues, R.T. Classificação Internacional de Radiografia de Pneumoconioses da International Labor Office Edição Revisada de 2000. J Bras Pneumol. 2006;32(Supl 1):S113-S6.
[20] Silva, R.L.F.; Carmes, E.R.; Schwartz, A.F.; Blaszkowski, D.S.; Cirino, R.H.D.; Ducci, R.D.P. Smoking cessation among patients at a university hospital in Curitiba, Brazil. J Bras Pneumol. 2011; 37(4):480-487.
[21] Dawson B, Trapp RG. Basic & Clinical Biostatistics. 3rd. The McGraw-Hill, Companies, 2003.
[22] Donoghue AM, Frisch N, Olney D. Bauxite mining and alumina refining: process description and occupational health risks. J Occup Environ Med. 2014; 56: S12-S17.
[23] Townsend MC, Sussman NB, Enterline PE, Morgan WK, Belk HD, Dinman BD. Radiographic abnormalities in relation to total dust exposure at a bauxite refinery and alumina-based chemical products plant.Am Rev Respir Dis. 1988; 138(1): 90-5.
[24] Friesen MC, Fristschi L, Del Monaco A, Benke G, Dennekamp M, de Klerk N, et al. Relationships between alumina and bauxite dust exposure and cancer, respiratory and circulatory disease.OccupEnviron Med. 2009; 66(9): 615-8.