Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1113

Search results for: Educational practices

1113 Virtual or Virtually U: Educational Institutions in Second Life

Authors: Nancy Jennings, Chris Collins

Abstract:

Educational institutions are increasingly exploring the affordances of 3D virtual worlds for instruction and research, but few studies have been done to document current practices and uses of this emerging technology. This observational survey examines the virtual presences of 170 accredited educational institutions found in one such 3D virtual world called Second Life®, created by San- Francisco based Linden Lab®. The study focuses on what educational institutions look like in this virtual environment, the types of spaces educational institutions are creating or simulating, and what types of activities are being conducted.

Keywords: educational technology, emerging technology, metaverse, Second Life, virtual worlds

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1112 Practices of Self-Directed Professional Development of Teachers in South African Public Schools

Authors: Rosaline Govender

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This research study is an exploration of the selfdirected professional development of teachers who teach in public schools in an era of democracy and educational change in South Africa. Amidst an ever-changing educational system, the teachers in this study position themselves as self-directed teacher-learners where they adopt particular learning practices which enable change within the broader discourses of public schooling. Life-story interviews were used to enter into the private and public spaces of five teachers which offer glimpses of how particular systems shaped their identities, and how the meanings of self-directed teacher-learner shaped their learning practices. Through the Multidimensional Framework of Analysis and Interpretation the teachers’ stories were analysed through three lenses: restorying the field texts - the self through story; the teacher-learner in relation to social contexts, and practices of self-directed learning. This study shows that as teacherlearners learn for change through self-directed learning practices, they develop their agency as transformative intellectuals, which is necessary for the reworking of South African public schools.

Keywords: Professional development, professionality, professionalism, self-directed learning.

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1111 Educational Path for Pedagogical Skills: A Football School Experience

Authors: A. Giani

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The current pedagogical culture recognizes an educational scope within the sports practices. It is widely accepted, in the pedagogical culture, that thanks to the acquisition and development of motor skills, it is also possible to exercise abilities that concern the way of facing and managing the difficulties of everyday life. Sport is a peculiar educational environment: the children have the opportunity to discover the possibilities of their body, to correlate with their peers, and to learn how to manage the rules and the relationship with authorities, such as coaches. Educational aspects of the sport concern both non-formal and formal educational environments. Coaches play a critical role in an agonistic sphere: exactly like the competencies developed by the children, coaches have to work on their skills to properly set up the educational scene. Facing these new educational tasks - which are not new per se, but new because they are brought back to awareness - a few questions arise: does the coach have adequate preparation? Is the training of the coach in this specific area appropriate? This contribution aims to explore the issue in depth by focusing on the reality of the Football School. Starting from a possible sense of pedagogical inadequacy detected during a series of meetings with several football clubs in Piedmont (Italy), there have been highlighted some important educational needs within the professional training of sports coaches. It is indeed necessary for the coach to know the processes underlying the educational relationship in order to better understand the centrality of the assessment during the educational intervention and to be able to manage the asymmetry in the coach-athlete relationship. In order to provide a response to these pedagogical needs, a formative plan has been designed to allow both an in-depth study of educational issues and a correct self-evaluation of certain pedagogical skills’ control levels, led by the coach. This plan has been based on particular practices, the Educational Practices of Pre-test (EPP), a specific version of community practices designed for the extracurricular activities. The above-mentioned practices realized through the use of texts meant as pre-tests, promoted a reflection within the group of coaches: they set up real and plausible sports experiences - in particular football, triggering a reflection about the relationship’s object, spaces, and methods. The characteristic aspect of pre-tests is that it is impossible to anticipate the reflection as it is necessarily connected to the personal experience and sensitivity, requiring a strong interest and involvement by participants: situations must be considered by the coaches as possible settings in which they could be found on the field.

Keywords: Relational needs, responsibility, self-evaluation, values.

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1110 Capacities of Early Childhood Education Professionals for the Prevention of Social Exclusion of Children

Authors: Dejana Bouillet, Vlatka Domović

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Both policymakers and researchers recognize that participating in early childhood education and care (ECEC) is useful for all children, especially for those who are exposed to the high risk of social exclusion. Social exclusion of children is understood as a multidimensional construct including economic, social, cultural, health, and other aspects of disadvantage and deprivation, which individually or combined can have an unfavorable effect on the current life and development of a child, as well as on the child’s development and on disadvantaged life chances in adult life. ECEC institutions should be able to promote educational approaches that portray developmental, cultural, language, and other diversity amongst children. However, little is known about the ways in which Croatian ECEC institutions recognize and respect the diversity of children and their families and how they respond to their educational needs. That is why this paper is dedicated to the analysis of the capacities of ECEC professionals to respond to the demands of educational needs of this very diverse group of children and their families. The results obtained in the frame of the project “Models of response to educational needs of children at risk of social exclusion in ECEC institutions,” funded by the Croatian Science Foundation, will be presented. The research methodology arises from explanations of educational processes and risks of social exclusion as a complex and heterogeneous phenomenon. The preliminary results of the qualitative data analysis of educational practices regarding capacities to identify and appropriately respond to the requirements of children at risk of social exclusion will be presented. The data have been collected by interviewing educational staff in 10 Croatian ECEC institutions (n = 10). The questions in the interviews were related to various aspects of inclusive institutional policy, culture, and practices. According to the analysis, it is possible to conclude that Croatian ECEC professionals are still faced with great challenges in the process of implementation of inclusive policies, culture, and practices. There are several baselines of this conclusion. The interviewed educational professionals are not familiar enough with the whole complexity and diversity of needs of children at risk of social exclusion, and the ECEC institutions do not have enough resources to provide all interventions that these children and their families need.

Keywords: children at risk of social exclusion, ECEC professionals, inclusive policies, culture and practices, interpretative phenomenological analysis

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1109 Asset Management for Educational Buildings in Egypt

Authors: M. Abdelhamid, I. Beshara, M. Ghoneim

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In Egypt, the concept of Asset Management (AM) is new; however, the need for applying it has become crucial because deteriorating or losing an asset is unaffordable in a developing country like Egypt. Therefore the current study focuses on educational buildings as one of the most important assets regarding planning, building, operating and maintenance expenditures. The main objective of this study is to develop a SAMF for educational buildings in Egypt. The General Authority for Educational Buildings (GAEB) was chosen as a case study of the current research as it represents the biggest governmental organization responsible for planning, operating and maintaining schools in Egypt. To achieve the research objective, structured interviews were conducted with senior managers of GAEB using a pre designed questionnaire to explore the current practice of AM. Gab analysis technique was applied against best practices compounded from a vast literature review to identify gaps between current practices and the desired one. The previous steps mainly revealed; limited knowledge about strategic asset management, no clear goals, no training, no real risk plan and lack of data, technical and financial resources. Based on the findings, a SAMF for GAEB was introduced and Framework implementation steps and assessment techniques were explained in detail.

Keywords: Strategic Asset Management, Educational Building, Framework, Gab Analysis, Developing Country.

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1108 Physical Education in the Brazilian Educational Law and National Curriculum Guidelines

Authors: Aline Dessupoio Chaves, Carla N. Luguetti, Michele Viviene Carbinatto

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The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between the principles of Educational Sport and the objectives of Physical Education in two brasilian laws: National Curriculum Guidelines (PCNs) for the Elementary and Middle School Levels and the Guidelines and Basis Legislation (LDB). The method used was the survey analysis in order to determine the practices present in, or the opinions of, a specific population. The instrument used in this research was a questionnaire. After a broad review of the bibliography and according to the methodological procedures, the aim was to set the relationships between the Principles of Educational Sport and the objectives of Physical Education, according to the Brazilian Law (LDB) and National Curriculum Guidelines (PCNs) in a table made under the analysis of a group of specialists. As the relation between the principles of Educational Sport and the objectives of School Physical Education have shown, we can state that School Physical Education has gained pedagogical security for the potential use of Educational Sport as part of its contents.

Keywords: Educational sport, physical education, education.

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1107 A Blueprint for an Educational Trajectory: The Power of Discourse in Constructing “Naughty” and “Adorable” Kindergarten Students

Authors: Fernanda T. Orsati, Julie Causton

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Discursive practices enacted by educators in kindergarten create a blueprint for how the educational trajectories of students with disabilities are constructed. This two-year ethnographic case study critically examines educators’ relationships with students considered to present challenging behaviors in one kindergarten classroom located in a predominantly White middle class school district in the Northeast of the United States. Focusing on the language and practices used by one special education teacher and three teaching assistants, this paper analyzes how teacher responses to students’ behaviors constructs and positions students over one year of kindergarten education. Using a critical discourse analysis it shows that educators understand students’ behaviors as deficit and needing consequences. This study highlights how educators’ responses reflect students' individual characteristics including family background, socioeconomics and ability status. This paper offers in depth analysis of two students’ stories, which evidenced that the language used by educators amplifies the social positioning of students within the classroom and creates a foundation for who they are constructed to be. Through exploring routine language and practices, this paper demonstrates that educators outlined a blueprint of kindergartners, which positioned students as learners in ways that became the ground for either a limited or a promising educational pathway for them.

Keywords: Behavior, early education, special education, critical discourse analysis.

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1106 Human Resources Management Practices in Hospitality Companies

Authors: Dora Martins, Susana Silva, Cândida Silva

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Human Resources Management (HRM) has been recognized by academics and practitioners as an important element in organizations. Therefore, this paper explores the best practices of HRM and seeks to understand the level of participation in the development of these practices by human resources managers in the hospitality industry and compare it with other industries. Thus, the study compared the HRM practices of companies in the hospitality sector with HRM practices of companies in other sectors, and identifies the main differences between their HRM practices. The results show that the most frequent HRM practices in all companies, independently of its sector of activity, are hiring and training. When comparing hospitality sector with other sectors of activity, some differences were noticed, namely in the adoption of the practices of communication and information sharing, and of recruitment and selection. According to these results, the paper discusses the major theoretical and practical implications. Suggestions for future research are also presented.

Keywords: Human resources management practices, human resources manager, hospitality companies, Portuguese companies, exploratory study.

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1105 Knowledge Management (KM) Practices - A Study of KM Adoption among Doctors in Kuwait

Authors: B. Alajmi, L. Marouf, A. S. Chaudhry

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Knowledge management is considered as an important factor in improving health care services. KM facilitates the transfer of existing knowledge and the development of new knowledge in hospitals. This paper reviews practices adopted by doctors in Kuwait for capturing, sharing, and generating knowledge. It also discusses the perceived impact of KM practices on performance of hospitals. Based on a survey of 277 doctors, the study found that KM practices among doctors in the sampled hospitals were not very effective. Little attention was paid to the main activities that support the transfer of expertise among doctors in hospitals. However, as predicted by previous studies, good km practices were perceived by doctors to have a positive impact on performance of hospitals. It was concluded that through effective KM practices hospitals could improve the services they provide. Documentation of best practices and capturing of lessons learnt for re-use of knowledge could help transform the hospitals into learning organizations.

Keywords: Health Sector, Hospitals, Knowledge Management, Kuwait, Tools and Practices.

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1104 Perceptions of Greenhouse Vegetable Growers Regarding Use of Biological Control Practices: A Case Study in Jiroft County, Iran

Authors: Hossein Shabanali Fami, Omid Sharifi, Javad Ghasemi, Mahtab Pouratashi, Mona Sadat Moghadasian

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The main purpose of this study was to investigate perception of greenhouse vegetable growers regarding use of biological control practices during the growing season. The statistical population of the study included greenhouse vegetable growers in Jiroft county (N=1862). A sample of 137 vegetable growers was selected, using random sampling method. Data were collected via a questionnaire. The validity of the instrument was obtained by the faculty members of the Department of Agricultural Development and Management in the University of Tehran. Cronbach’s alpha was applied to estimate the reliability which showed a high reliability for the instrument. Data was analyzed using SPSS/Windows 13.5. The results revealed that greenhouse vegetable growers had moderate level of perception regarding biological control practices. Levels of vegetable growers’ perceptions regarding biological control practices were different on the basis of their academic qualifications as well as educational level and job. In addition, the results indicated that about 54.1% of variations in vegetable growers’ perceptions could be explained by variables such as awareness of biological control practices, knowledge on pests, annual production and age.

Keywords: Greenhouse, biological control, biological agents, perception, vegetable grower.

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1103 Investigating Transformative Practices in the Bangladeshi Classroom

Authors: Rubaiyat Jahan, Nasreen Sultana Mitu

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This paper examines the theoretical construct of transformative practices, and reports some evidence of transformative practices from a couple of Bangladeshi English teachers. The idea of transformative practices calls for teachers’ capabilities to invest their intellectual labor in teaching with an assumption that along with the academic advancement of the learners, it aims for the personal transformation for both the learners as well for themselves. Following an ethnographic research approach, data for this study were collected through in-depth interviews, informal talks and classroom observations for a period of one year. In relevance to the English classroom of the Bangladeshi context, from this study, references of transformative practices have been underlined from the participant teachers’ views on English language teaching as well as from their actual practices. According to data of this research, some evidence of transformative practices in the form of critical language awareness and personal theories of practices emerge from the participants’ articulation of the beliefs on teaching; and from the participant teachers’ classroom practices evidence of self-directed acts of teaching, self-directed acts of professional development, and liberatory autonomy have been highlighted as the reflections of transformative practices. The implication of this paper refers to the significance of practicing teachers’ articulation of beliefs and views on teaching along with their orientation to critical pedagogical relations.

Keywords: Critical language awareness, personal theories of practices, teacher autonomy, transformative practices.

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1102 Adoption of iPads Paving the Way to Changes in the Knowledge Practices within a School of Vocational Teacher Education

Authors: Päivi Aarreniemi-Jokipelto, Merja Alanko-Turunen

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The possibilities of mobile technology generate new demands for vocational teacher trainers to transform their approach to work and to incorporate its usage into their ordinary educational practice. This paper presents findings of a focus discussion group (FDG) session on the usage of iPads within a school of vocational teacher education (SoVTE). It aims to clarify how the teacher trainers are using iPads and what has changed in their work during the usage of iPads. The analytical framework bases on content analysis and expansive learning cycle. It was not only found what kind of a role iPads played in their daily practices but it brought also into attention how a cultural change regarding the usage of social media and mobile technology was desperately needed in the whole work community. Thus, the FGD was abducted for developing the knowledge practices of the community of the SoVTE.

Keywords: iPad, mobile learning, vocational teacher education.

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1101 The Impact of Strategic HRM Practices on Employee’s Job Satisfaction: The Moderating Effect of Transformational Leadership

Authors: Zeeshan Hamid, Sarwar Mehmood Azhar

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The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the positive impact of SHRM practices and transformational leadership style on employees job satisfaction and to develop a conceptual understanding of the moderating role of transformational leadership between the relationship of SHRM practices and employees job satisfaction. This study focuses on four SHRM practices that have positive relationship with employee’s job satisfaction.

Keywords: Employee’s job satisfaction, moderating effect of transformational leadership, SHRM practices, transformational leadership, theoretical framework.

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1100 The Relationship between Human Resource Practices and Firm Performance Case Study: The Philippine Firms Empirical Assessment

Authors: Bella Llego

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This study on “The relationship between human resource practices and Firm Performance is a speculative investigation research. The purpose of this research are (1) to provide and to understand of HRM history and current HR practices in the Philippines (2) to examine the extent of HRM practice among its Philippine firms effectively; (3) to investigate the relationship between HRM practice and firm performance in the Philippines. The survey was done to 233 companies in the Philippines. The questionnaire is divided into three parts a) to gathers information on the profile of respondent, b) to measures the extent to which human resource practices are being practiced in their organization c) to measure the organizations performance as perceived by human resource managers and top executives as compared with their competitors in the same industry. As a result an interesting finding was that almost 50 percent of firm performance is affected by the extent of implementation of HR practices in the firm. These results show that HR practices that are in line with the organization’s strategic goals are important for future performance.

Keywords: Economic Growth, Firm performance, Human Resource Practices, Management.

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1099 Utilizing Virtual Worlds in Education: The Implications for Practice

Authors: Teresa Coffman, Mary Beth Klinger

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Multi User Virtual Worlds are becoming a valuable educational tool. Learning experiences within these worlds focus on discovery and active experiences that both engage students and motivate them to explore new concepts. As educators, we need to explore these environments to determine how they can most effectively be used in our instructional practices. This paper explores the current application of virtual worlds to identify meaningful educational strategies that are being used to engage students and enhance teaching and learning.

Keywords: Virtual Environments, MUVEs, Constructivist, Distance Learning, Learner Centered.

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1098 Mobile Mediated Learning and Teachers Education in Less Resourced Region

Authors: Abdul Rashid Ahmadi, Samiullah Paracha, Hamidullah Sokout, Mohammad Hanif Gharanai

Abstract:

Conventional educational practices, do not offer all the required skills for teachers to successfully survive in today’s workplace. Due to poor professional training, a big gap exists across the curriculum plan and the teacher practices in the classroom. As such, raising the quality of teaching through ICT-enabled training and professional development of teachers should be an urgent priority. ‘Mobile Learning’, in that vein, is an increasingly growing field of educational research and practice across schools and work places. In this paper, we propose a novel Mobile learning system that allows the users to learn through an intelligent mobile learning in cooperatively every-time and every-where. The system will reduce the training cost and increase consistency, efficiency, and data reliability. To establish that our system will display neither functional nor performance failure, the evaluation strategy is based on formal observation of users interacting with system followed by questionnaires and structured interviews.

Keywords: Computer Assisted Learning, Intelligent Tutoring system, Learner Centered Design, Mobile Mediated Learning and Teacher education (MMLTE).

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1097 Concept for Knowledge out of Sri Lankan Non-State Sector: Performances of Higher Educational Institutes and Successes of Its Sector

Authors: S. Jeyarajan

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Concept of knowledge is discovered from conducted study for successive Competition in Sri Lankan Non-State Higher Educational Institutes. The Concept discovered out of collected Knowledge Management Practices from Emerald inside likewise reputed literatures and of Non-State Higher Educational sector. A test is conducted to reveal existences and its reason behind of these collected practices in Sri Lankan Non-State Higher Education Institutes. Further, unavailability of such study and uncertain on number of participants for data collection in the Sri Lankan context contributed selection of research method as qualitative method, which used attributes of Delphi Method to manage those likewise uncertainty. Data are collected under Dramaturgical Method, which contributes efficient usage of the Delphi method. Grounded theory is selected as data analysis techniques, which is conducted in intermixed discourse to manage different perspectives of data that are collected systematically through perspective and modified snowball sampling techniques. Data are then analysed using Grounded Theory Development Techniques in Intermix discourses to manage differences in Data. Consequently, Agreement in the results of Grounded theories and of finding in the Foreign Study is discovered in the analysis whereas present study conducted as Qualitative Research and The Foreign Study conducted as Quantitative Research. As such, the Present study widens the discovery in the Foreign Study. Further, having discovered reason behind of the existences, the Present result shows Concept for Knowledge from Sri Lankan Non-State sector to manage higher educational Institutes in successful manner.

Keywords: Adherence of snowball sampling into perspective sampling, Delphi method in qualitative method, grounded theory development in intermix discourses of analysis, knowledge management for success of higher educational institutes.

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1096 Caught in the Tractor Beam of Larger Influences: The Filtration of Innovation in Education Technology Design

Authors: Justin D. Olmanson, Fitsum F. Abebe, Valerie Jones, Eric Kyle, Lyrica Lucas, Katherine Robbins, Guieswende Rouamba, Xianquan Liu

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While emerging technologies continue to emerge, research into their use in learning contexts often focuses on a subset of educational practices and ways of using technologies. In this study we begin to explore the extent to which educational designs are influenced by larger societal and education-related factors not usually explicitly considered when designing or identifying technology-supported education experiences for research study. We examine patterns within and between factors via a content analysis across ten years and 19 different journals of published peer-reviewed research on technology-supported writing. Our findings have implications for how researchers, designers, and educators approach technology-supported educational design within and beyond the field of writing and literacy.

Keywords: Writing, emerging technology, learning, curriculum, pedagogy.

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1095 Mobile Learning Implementation: Students- Perceptions in UTP

Authors: Ahmad Sobri bin Hashim, Wan Fatimah Bt. Wan Ahmad, Rohiza Bt. Ahmad

Abstract:

Mobile Learning (M-Learning) is a new technology which is to enhance current learning practices and activities for all people especially students and academic practitioners UTP is currently, implemented two types of learning styles which are conventional and electronic learning. In order to improve current learning approaches, it is necessary for UTP to implement m-learning in UTP. This paper presents a study on the students- perceptions on mobile utilization in the learning practices in UTP. Besides, this paper also presents a survey that was conducted among 82 students from System Analysis and Design (SAD) course in UTP. The survey includes basic information of mobile devices that have been used by the students, opinions on current learning practices and also the opinions regarding the m-learning implementation in the current learning practices especially in SAD course. Based on the results of the survey, majority of the students are using the mobile devices that can support m-learning environment. Other than that, students also agreed that current learning practices are ineffective and they believe that m-learning utilization can improve the effectiveness of current learning practices.

Keywords: m-learning, conventional learning, electronic learning, mobile devices.

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1094 Evidence Based Practice for Oral Care in Children

Authors: T. Turan, Ç. Erdoğan

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As far as is known, general nursing care practices do not include specific evidence-based practices related to oral care in children. This study aimed to evaluate the evidence based nursing practice for oral care in children. This article is planned as a review article by searching the literature in this field. According to all age groups and the oral care in various specific situations located evidence in the literature were examined. It has been determined that the methods and frequency used in oral care practices performed by nurses in clinics differ from one hospital to another. In addition, it is seen that different solutions are used in basic oral care, oral care practices to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia and evidence-based practice in mucositis management in children. As a result, a standard should be established in oral care practices for children and education for children is recommended.

Keywords: Children, evidence based practice, nursing, oral care.

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1093 Communication and Devices: Face to Face Communication versus Communication with Mobile Technologies

Authors: Nuran Öze

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With the rapid changes occurring in the last twenty five years, mobile phone technology has influenced every aspect of life. Technological developments within the Internet and mobile phone areas have not only changed communication practices; it has also changed the everyday life practices of individuals. This article has focused on understanding how people’s communication practices and everyday life practices have changed with the smartphone usage. The study was conducted by using in-depth interview method and the research was conducted on twenty Turkish Cypriots who live in Northern Cyprus. According to the research results, communicating via Internet has rapidly replaced face to face communication in recent years. However, results have changed according to generations. Younger generations can easily adapt themselves to technological changes because they are already gaining everyday life practices right now. However, the older generations practices are already present in their everyday life.

Keywords: Face to face communication, internet, mobile technologies, North Cyprus.

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1092 Effectiveness of School Strategic Planning: The Case of Fijian Schools

Authors: G. Lingam, N. Lingam, K. Raghuwaiya

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In Fiji, notable among the recent spate of educational reforms has been the Ministry of Education’s (MoEs) requirement that all schools undertake a process of school strategic planning. This preliminary study explores perceptions of a sample of Fijian teachers on the way this exercise has been conducted in their schools. The analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data indicates that school leaders’ lack of knowledge and skills in school strategic planning is a major limitation. As an unsurprising consequence, the process(es) schools adopted did not conform to what the literature suggests as best planning practices. School leaders need more training to ensure they are better prepared to carry out this strategic planning effectively, especially in widening the opportunities for all who have a stake in education to contribute to the process. Implications of the findings are likely to be pertinent to other developing contexts within and beyond the Pacific region for the training of school leaders to ensure they are better equipped to orchestrate and benefit from educational reforms thrust upon them.

Keywords: School Strategic Planning, educational reforms.

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1091 Factors Influencing Environmental Management Practices Among Hotels in Malaysia

Authors: Zaiton Samdin, Kasimu Abdu Bakori, Hamimah Hassan

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This paper attempts to investigate the factors that influence hotel managers- attitudes towards sustainable tourism practices (STP) in Kuala Lumpur and the state of Selangor in Malaysia. The study distributes 104 questionnaires to hotels ranging from one star to five-star categories including budget hotels. Out of this figure, 60 copies of the questionnaires were returned and analyzed. The finding revealed that of all the seven factors investigated, only the variables measuring incentives and knowledge have significantly influenced sustainable tourism practices in the country. Therefore, government and other green bodies within the country should continue to provide hotels with incentives for sound technologies. Moreover, the government agencies should continue to educate hoteliers on the relevance of environmental protection for the successful implementation of sustainable tourism practices.

Keywords: Attitude, incentive, knowledge, sustainable tourism practices

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1090 Closing the Achievement Gap Within Reading and Mathematics Classrooms by Fostering Hispanic Students- Educational Resilience

Authors: Hersh C. Waxman, Yolanda N. Padrón, Jee-Young Shin, Héctor H. Rivera

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While many studies have conducted the achievement gap between groups of students in school districts, few studies have utilized resilience research to investigate achievement gaps within classrooms. This paper aims to summarize and discuss some recent studies Waxman, Padr├│n, and their colleagues conducted, in which they examined learning environment differences between resilient and nonresilient students in reading and mathematics classrooms. The classes consist of predominantly Hispanic elementary school students from low-income families. These studies all incorporated learning environment questionnaires and systematic observation methods. Significant differences were found between resilient and nonresilient students on their classroom learning environments and classroom behaviors. The observation results indicate that the amount and quality of teacher and student academic interaction are two of the most influential variables that promote student outcomes. This paper concludes by suggesting the following teacher practices to promote resiliency in schools: (a) using feedback from classroom observation and learning environment measures, (b) employing explicit teaching practices; and (c) understanding students on a social and personal level.

Keywords: achievement gap, classroom learning environments, educational resilience, systematic classroom observation

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1089 Organizational Involvement and Employees’ Consumption of New Work Practices in State-owned Enterprises: The Ghanaian Case

Authors: M. Aminu Sanda, K. Ewontumah

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This paper explored the challenges faced by the management of a Ghanaian state enterprise in managing conflicts and disturbances associated with its attempt to implement new work practices to enhance its capability to operate as a commercial entity. The purpose was to understand the extent to which organizational involvement, consistency and adaptability influence employees’ consumption of new work practices in transforming the organization’s organizational activity system. Using selfadministered questionnaires, data were collected from one hundred and eighty (180) employees and analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that constraints in organizational involvement and adaptability prevented the positive consumption of new work practices by employees in the organization. It is also found that the organization’s employees failed to consume the new practices being implemented, because they perceived the process as non-involving, and as such, did not encourage the development of employee capability, empowerment, and teamwork. The study concluded that the failure of the organization’s management to create opportunities for organizational learning constrained its ability to get employees consume the new work practices, which situation could have facilitated the organization’s capabilities of operating as a commercial entity.

Keywords: Organizational transformation, new work practices, work practice consumption, organizational involvement, state-owned enterprise, Ghana.

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1088 Teacher Professional Development–Current Practices in a Secondary School in Brunei Darussalam

Authors: Shanthi Thomas

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This research paper presents the current practices of teacher professional development, perceived as beneficial by teachers themselves, in a private secondary school in Brunei Darussalam. This is part of the findings of a larger qualitative study on teacher empowerment, using ethnographic methods for data collection, i.e. participant observation, interviews and document analysis. The field work was carried out over a period of six months in 2013. An analysis of the field data revealed multiple pathways of teacher professional development existing in the school. The results indicate that school leaders, the teacher community in the school, students, and the teachers themselves were the agents in a school that facilitated teacher empowerment. Besides contributing to the knowledge base on teacher professional development, the results of this study provide directions for educational policy makers in their efforts to enhance professional development in secondary schools of similar characteristics. For school leaders and the teacher community, these findings offer guidelines for maximizing the opportunities for these professional development practices, by strengthening collegiality and by using the existing structures optimally for the benefit of all concerned.

Keywords: Colleagues and the wider teacher community, school leaders, self-driven professional development, teacher professional development.

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1087 Making Food Science Education and Research Activities More Attractive for University Students and Food Enterprises by Utilizing Open Innovative Space Approach

Authors: A-M. Saarela

Abstract:

At the Savonia University of Applied Sciences (UAS), curriculum and studies have been improved by applying an Open Innovation Space approach (OIS). It is based on multidisciplinary action learning. The key elements of OIS-ideology are work-life orientation, and student-centric communal learning. In this approach, every participant can learn from each other and innovations will be created. In this social innovation educational approach, all practices are carried out in close collaboration with enterprises in real-life settings, not in classrooms. As an example, in this paper, Savonia UAS’s Future Food RDI hub (FF) shows how OIS practices are implemented by providing food product development and consumer research services for enterprises in close collaboration with academicians, students and consumers. In particular one example of OIS experimentation in the field is provided by a consumer research carried out utilizing verbal analysis protocol combined with audiovisual observation (VAP-WAVO). In this case, all co-learners were acting together in supermarket settings to collect the relevant data for a product development and the marketing department of a company. The company benefitted from the results obtained, students were more satisfied with their studies, educators and academicians were able to obtain good evidence for further collaboration as well as renewing curriculum contents based on the requirements of working life. In addition, society will benefit over time as young university adults find careers more easily through their OIS related food science studies. Also this knowledge interaction model re-news education practices and brings working-life closer to educational research institutes.

Keywords: Collaboration, education, food science, industry, knowledge transfer, RDI, student.

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1086 An Empirical Analysis of HRM in Different Pharmaceutical Departments of Different Pharmaceutical Industries in Pakistan

Authors: Faisal Ali, Mansoor Shuakat, Lirong Cui, Helena Uhde, Rabia Riasat, Janeth J. Marwa

Abstract:

HR is a department that enhances the power of employee performance in regard with their services, and to make the organization strategic objectives. The main concern of HR department is to organize people, focus on policies and their system. The empirical study shows the relationship between HRM (Human Resource Management practices) and their Job Satisfaction. The Hypothesis is testing on a sample of overall 320 employees of 5 different Pharmaceutical departments of different organizations in Pakistan. The important thing as Relationship of Job satisfaction with HR Practices, Impact on Job Satisfaction with HR Practices, Participation of Staff of Different Departments, HR Practices effects the Job satisfaction, Recruitment or Hiring and Selection effects the Job satisfaction, Training and Development, Performance and Appraisals, Compensation affects the Job satisfaction , and Industrial Relationships affects the Job satisfaction. After finishing all data analysis, the conclusion is that lots of Job related activities raise the confidence of Job satisfaction of employees with their salary and other benefits.

Keywords: HRM, HR practices, job satisfaction, TQM.

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1085 The Impact of Host Country Effects on Transferring HRM Practices from Western Headquarters to Ukrainian Subsidiaries

Authors: O. A. Novitskaya

Abstract:

The emerging markets of post-USSR countries have attracted Western multinational companies; however, weak institutions and unstable host country environments have hindered the implementation of successful management practices. The Ukrainian market, in light of recent events, is particularly interesting to study for its compatibility with Western businesses. This paper focuses on factors that can facilitate or inhibit the transfer of human resource management practices from Western headquarters to Ukrainian subsidiaries. To explain the national context’s effects better, a business systems approach has been applied to a qualitative study of 16 wholly owned Western subsidiaries, dissecting the reasons for a weak integration of Western practices in Ukraine. Results show that underdeveloped institutions have forced companies to develop additional practices that compensate for national weaknesses, as well as to adjust to a constantly changing environment. Flexibility and local responsiveness were observed as vital for success in Ukraine.

Keywords: Business system, HR practices, human resource management, multinational companies, Ukraine.

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1084 Motivating the Independent Learner at the Arab Open University, Kuwait

Authors: Hassan A. Sharafuddin, Chekra A. Allani

Abstract:

Academicians at the Arab Open University have always voiced their concern about the efficacy of the blended learning process. Based on 75% independent study and 25% face-toface tutorial, it poses the challenge of the predisposition to adjustment. Being used to the psychology of traditional educational systems, AOU students cannot be easily weaned from being spoonfed. Hence they lack the motivation to plunge into self-study. For better involvement of AOU students into the learning practices, it is imperative to diagnose the factors that impede or increase their motivation. This is conducted through an empirical study grounded upon observations and tested hypothesis and aimed at monitoring and optimizing the students’ learning outcome. Recommendations of the research will follow the findings.

Keywords: Academic performance, blended learning, educational psychology, independent study, pedagogy.

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