Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 281

Search results for: Average Delay

281 Optimal Parameters of Double Moving Average Control Chart

Authors: Y. Areepong

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to present explicit analytical formulas for evaluating important characteristics of Double Moving Average control chart (DMA) for Poisson distribution. The most popular characteristics of a control chart are Average Run Length ( 0 ARL ) - the mean of observations that are taken before a system is signaled to be out-of control when it is actually still incontrol, and Average Delay time ( 1 ARL ) - mean delay of true alarm times. An important property required of 0 ARL is that it should be sufficiently large when the process is in-control to reduce a number of false alarms. On the other side, if the process is actually out-ofcontrol then 1 ARL should be as small as possible. In particular, the explicit analytical formulas for evaluating 0 ARL and 1 ARL be able to get a set of optimal parameters which depend on a width of the moving average ( w ) and width of control limit ( H ) for designing DMA chart with minimum of 1 ARL

Keywords: Optimal parameters, Average Run Length, Average Delay time, Double Moving Average chart.

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280 Contention Window Adjustment in IEEE 802.11-Based Industrial Wireless Networks

Authors: Mohsen Maadani, Seyed Ahmad Motamedi

Abstract:

The use of wireless technology in industrial networks has gained vast attraction in recent years. In this paper, we have thoroughly analyzed the effect of contention window (CW) size on the performance of IEEE 802.11-based industrial wireless networks (IWN), from delay and reliability perspective. Results show that the default values of CWmin, CWmax, and retry limit (RL) are far from the optimum performance due to the industrial application characteristics, including short packet and noisy environment. In this paper, an adaptive CW algorithm (payload-dependent) has been proposed to minimize the average delay. Finally a simple, but effective CW and RL setting has been proposed for industrial applications which outperforms the minimum-average-delay solution from maximum delay and jitter perspective, at the cost of a little higher average delay. Simulation results show an improvement of up to 20%, 25%, and 30% in average delay, maximum delay and jitter respectively.

Keywords: Average Delay, Contention Window, Distributed Coordination Function (DCF), Jitter, Industrial Wireless Network (IWN), Maximum Delay, Reliability, Retry Limit.

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279 An Evaluation of Average Run Length of MaxEWMA and MaxGWMA Control Charts

Authors: S. Phanyaem

Abstract:

Exponentially weighted moving average control chart (EWMA) is a popular chart used for detecting shift in the mean of parameter of distributions in quality control. The objective of this paper is to compare the efficiency of control chart to detect an increases in the mean of a process. In particular, we compared the Maximum Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (MaxEWMA) and Maximum Generally Weighted Moving Average (MaxGWMA) control charts when the observations are Exponential distribution. The criteria for evaluate the performance of control chart is called, the Average Run Length (ARL). The result of comparison show that in the case of process is small sample size, the MaxEWMA control chart is more efficiency to detect shift in the process mean than MaxGWMA control chart. For the case of large sample size, the MaxEWMA control chart is more sensitive to detect small shift in the process mean than MaxGWMA control chart, and when the process is a large shift in mean, the MaxGWMA control chart is more sensitive to detect mean shift than MaxEWMA control chart.

Keywords: Maximum Exponentially Weighted Moving Average, Maximum General Weighted Moving Average, Average Run Length.

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278 VFAST TCP: A delay-based enhanced version of FAST TCP

Authors: Salem Belhaj, Moncef Tagina

Abstract:

This paper is aimed at describing a delay-based endto- end (e2e) congestion control algorithm, called Very FAST TCP (VFAST), which is an enhanced version of FAST TCP. The main idea behind this enhancement is to smoothly estimate the Round-Trip Time (RTT) based on a nonlinear filter, which eliminates throughput and queue oscillation when RTT fluctuates. In this context, an evaluation of the suggested scheme through simulation is introduced, by comparing our VFAST prototype with FAST in terms of throughput, queue behavior, fairness, stability, RTT and adaptivity to changes in network. The achieved simulation results indicate that the suggested protocol offer better performance than FAST TCP in terms of RTT estimation and throughput.

Keywords: Fast tcp, RTT, delay estimation, delay-based congestion control, high speed TCP, large bandwidth delay product.

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277 Delay Specific Investigations on QoS Scheduling Schemes for Real-Time Traffic in Packet Switched Networks

Authors: P.S.Prakash, S.Selvan

Abstract:

Packet switched data network like Internet, which has traditionally supported throughput sensitive applications such as email and file transfer, is increasingly supporting delay-sensitive multimedia applications such as interactive video. These delaysensitive applications would often rather sacrifice some throughput for better delay. Unfortunately, the current packet switched network does not offer choices, but instead provides monolithic best-effort service to all applications. This paper evaluates Class Based Queuing (CBQ), Coordinated Earliest Deadline First (CEDF), Weighted Switch Deficit Round Robin (WSDRR) and RED-Boston scheduling schemes that is sensitive to delay bound expectations for variety of real time applications and an enhancement of WSDRR is proposed.

Keywords: QoS, Delay-sensitive, Queuing delay, Scheduling

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276 The Comparisons of Average Outgoing Quality Limit between the MCSP-2-C and MCSP-C

Authors: P. Guayjarernpanishkand, T. Mayureesawan

Abstract:

This paper presents a comparison of average outgoing quality limit of the MCSP-2-C plan with MCSP-C when MCSP-2-C has been developed from MCSP-C. The parameters used in MCSP-2- C are: i (the clearance number), c (the acceptance number), m (the number of conforming units to be found before allowing c nonconforming units in the sampling inspection), f1 and f2 (the sampling frequency at level 1 and 2, respectively). The average outgoing quality limit (AOQL) values from two plans were compared and we found that for all sets of i, r, and c values, MCSP-2-C gives higher values than MCSP-C. For all sets of i, r, and c values, the average outgoing quality values of MCSP-C and MCSP-2-C are similar when p is low or high but is difference when p is moderate.

Keywords: average outgoing quality, average outgoing quality limit, continuous sampling plan.

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275 Numerical Approximation to the Performance of CUSUM Charts for EMA (1) Process

Authors: K. Petcharat, Y. Areepong, S. Sukparungsri, G. Mititelu

Abstract:

These paper, we approximate the average run length (ARL) for CUSUM chart when observation are an exponential first order moving average sequence (EMA1). We used Gauss-Legendre numerical scheme for integral equations (IE) method for approximate ARL0 and ARL1, where ARL in control and out of control, respectively. We compared the results from IE method and exact solution such that the two methods perform good agreement.

Keywords: Cumulative Sum Chart, Moving Average Observation, Average Run Length, Numerical Approximations.

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274 An EWMA p Chart Based On Improved Square Root Transformation

Authors: S. Sukparungsee

Abstract:

Generally, the traditional Shewhart p chart has been developed by for charting the binomial data. This chart has been developed using the normal approximation with condition as low defect level and the small to moderate sample size. In real applications, however, are away from these assumptions due to skewness in the exact distribution. In this paper, a modified Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) control chat for detecting a change in binomial data by improving square root transformations, namely ISRT p EWMA control chart. The numerical results show that ISRT p EWMA chart is superior to ISRT p chart for small to moderate shifts, otherwise, the latter is better for large shifts.

Keywords: Number of defects, Exponentially Weighted Moving Average, Average Run Length, Square root transformations.

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273 Detection and Analysis of Deficiencies in Groundnut Plant using Geometric Moments

Authors: Sumeet S. Nisale, Chandan J. Bharambe, Vidya N.More

Abstract:

We propose our genuine research of geometric moments which detects the mineral inadequacy in the frail groundnut plant. This plant is prone to many deficiencies as a result of the variance in the soil nutrients. By analyzing the leaves of the plant, we detect the visual symptoms that are not recognizable to the naked eyes. We have collected about 160 samples of leaves from the nearby fields. The images have been taken by keeping every leaf into a black box to avoid the external interference. For the first time, it has been possible to provide the farmer with the stages of deficiencies. This paper has applied the algorithms successfully to many other plants like Lady-s finger, Green Bean, Lablab Bean, Chilli and Tomato. But we submit the results of the groundnut predominantly. The accuracy of our algorithm and method is almost 93%. This will again pioneer a kind of green revolution in the field of agriculture and will be a boon to that field.

Keywords: Component image, geometric moments, average intensity, average affected area, black box

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272 Delay-Dependent Stability Criteria for Linear Time-Delay System of Neutral Type

Authors: Myeongjin Park, Ohmin Kwon, Juhyun Park, Sangmoon Lee

Abstract:

This paper proposes improved delay-dependent stability conditions of the linear time-delay systems of neutral type. The proposed methods employ a suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii’s functional and a new form of the augmented system. New delay-dependent stability criteria for the systems are established in terms of Linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) which can be easily solved by various effective optimization algorithms. Numerical examples showed that the proposed method is effective and can provide less conservative results.

Keywords: Neutral systems, Time-delay, Stability, Lyapunovmethod, LMI.

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271 New Delay-Dependent Stability Criteria for Neural Networks With Two Additive Time-varying Delay Components

Authors: Xingyuan Qu, Shouming Zhong

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem of stability criteria of neural networks (NNs) with two-additive time-varying delay compenents is investigated. The relationship between the time-varying delay and its lower and upper bounds is taken into account when estimating the upper bound of the derivative of Lyapunov functional. As a result, some improved delay stability criteria for NNs with two-additive time-varying delay components are proposed. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Delay-dependent stability, time-varying delays, Lyapunov functional, linear matrix inequality (LMI).

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270 Stability Analysis of Mutualism Population Model with Time Delay

Authors: Rusliza Ahmad, Harun Budin

Abstract:

This paper studies the effect of time delay on stability of mutualism population model with limited resources for both species. First, the stability of the model without time delay is analyzed. The model is then improved by considering a time delay in the mechanism of the growth rate of the population. We analyze the effect of time delay on the stability of the stable equilibrium point. Result showed that the time delay can induce instability of the stable equilibrium point, bifurcation and stability switches.

Keywords: Bifurcation, Delay margin, Mutualism population model, Time delay

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269 Nonconforming Control Charts for Zero-Inflated Poisson Distribution

Authors: N. Katemee, T. Mayureesawan

Abstract:

This paper developed the c-Chart based on a Zero- Inflated Poisson (ZIP) processes that approximated by a geometric distribution with parameter p. The p estimated that fit for ZIP distribution used in calculated the mean, median, and variance of geometric distribution for constructed the c-Chart by three difference methods. For cg-Chart, developed c-Chart by used the mean and variance of the geometric distribution constructed control limits. For cmg-Chart, the mean used for constructed the control limits. The cme- Chart, developed control limits of c-Chart from median and variance values of geometric distribution. The performance of charts considered from the Average Run Length and Average Coverage Probability. We found that for an in-control process, the cg-Chart is superior for low level of mean at all level of proportion zero. For an out-of-control process, the cmg-Chart and cme-Chart are the best for mean = 2, 3 and 4 at all level of parameter.

Keywords: average coverage probability, average run length, geometric distribution, zero-inflated poisson distribution

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268 A Study on the Average Information Ratio of Perfect Secret-Sharing Schemes for Access Structures Based On Bipartite Graphs

Authors: Hui-Chuan Lu

Abstract:

A perfect secret-sharing scheme is a method to distribute a secret among a set of participants in such a way that only qualified subsets of participants can recover the secret and the joint share of participants in any unqualified subset is statistically independent of the secret. The collection of all qualified subsets is called the access structure of the perfect secret-sharing scheme. In a graph-based access structure, each vertex of a graph G represents a participant and each edge of G represents a minimal qualified subset. The average information ratio of a perfect secret-sharing scheme  realizing the access structure based on G is defined as AR = (Pv2V (G) H(v))/(|V (G)|H(s)), where s is the secret and v is the share of v, both are random variables from  and H is the Shannon entropy. The infimum of the average information ratio of all possible perfect secret-sharing schemes realizing a given access structure is called the optimal average information ratio of that access structure. Most known results about the optimal average information ratio give upper bounds or lower bounds on it. In this present structures based on bipartite graphs and determine the exact values of the optimal average information ratio of some infinite classes of them.

Keywords: secret-sharing scheme, average information ratio, star covering, core sequence.

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267 Optimal Design for SARMA(P,Q)L Process of EWMA Control Chart

Authors: Y. Areepong

Abstract:

The main goal of this paper is to study Statistical Process Control (SPC) with Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) control chart when observations are serially-correlated. The characteristic of control chart is Average Run Length (ARL) which is the average number of samples taken before an action signal is given. Ideally, an acceptable ARL of in-control process should be enough large, so-called (ARL0). Otherwise it should be small when the process is out-of-control, so-called Average of Delay Time (ARL1) or a mean of true alarm. We find explicit formulas of ARL for EWMA control chart for Seasonal Autoregressive and Moving Average processes (SARMA) with Exponential white noise. The results of ARL obtained from explicit formula and Integral equation are in good agreement. In particular, this formulas for evaluating (ARL0) and (ARL1) be able to get a set of optimal parameters which depend on smoothing parameter (λ) and width of control limit (H) for designing EWMA chart with minimum of (ARL1).

Keywords: Average Run Length1, Optimal parameters, Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) control chart.

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266 The Use of Dynamically Optimised High Frequency Moving Average Strategies for Intraday Trading

Authors: Abdalla Kablan, Joseph Falzon

Abstract:

This paper is motivated by the aspect of uncertainty in financial decision making, and how artificial intelligence and soft computing, with its uncertainty reducing aspects can be used for algorithmic trading applications that trade in high frequency. This paper presents an optimized high frequency trading system that has been combined with various moving averages to produce a hybrid system that outperforms trading systems that rely solely on moving averages. The paper optimizes an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system that takes both the price and its moving average as input, learns to predict price movements from training data consisting of intraday data, dynamically switches between the best performing moving averages, and performs decision making of when to buy or sell a certain currency in high frequency.

Keywords: Financial decision making, High frequency trading, Adaprive neuro-fuzzy systems, moving average strategy.

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265 A New Bound on the Average Information Ratio of Perfect Secret-Sharing Schemes for Access Structures Based On Bipartite Graphs of Larger Girth

Authors: Hui-Chuan Lu

Abstract:

In a perfect secret-sharing scheme, a dealer distributes a secret among a set of participants in such a way that only qualified subsets of participants can recover the secret and the joint share of the participants in any unqualified subset is statistically independent of the secret. The access structure of the scheme refers to the collection of all qualified subsets. In a graph-based access structures, each vertex of a graph G represents a participant and each edge of G represents a minimal qualified subset. The average information ratio of a perfect secret-sharing scheme realizing a given access structure is the ratio of the average length of the shares given to the participants to the length of the secret. The infimum of the average information ratio of all possible perfect secret-sharing schemes realizing an access structure is called the optimal average information ratio of that access structure. We study the optimal average information ratio of the access structures based on bipartite graphs. Based on some previous results, we give a bound on the optimal average information ratio for all bipartite graphs of girth at least six. This bound is the best possible for some classes of bipartite graphs using our approach.

Keywords: Secret-sharing scheme, average information ratio, star covering, deduction, core cluster.

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264 Average Switching Thresholds and Average Throughput for Adaptive Modulation using Markov Model

Authors: Essam S. Altubaishi

Abstract:

The motivation for adaptive modulation and coding is to adjust the method of transmission to ensure that the maximum efficiency is achieved over the link at all times. The receiver estimates the channel quality and reports it back to the transmitter. The transmitter then maps the reported quality into a link mode. This mapping however, is not a one-to-one mapping. In this paper we investigate a method for selecting the proper modulation scheme. This method can dynamically adapt the mapping of the Signal-to- Noise Ratio (SNR) into a link mode. It enables the use of the right modulation scheme irrespective of changes in the channel conditions by incorporating errors in the received data. We propose a Markov model for this method, and use it to derive the average switching thresholds and the average throughput. We show that the average throughput of this method outperforms the conventional threshold method.

Keywords: Adaptive modulation and coding, CDMA, Markov model.

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263 Approximation for Average Error Probability of BPSK in the Presence of Phase Error

Authors: Yeonsoo Jang, Dongweon Yoon, Ki Ho Kwon, Jaeyoon Lee, Wooju Lee

Abstract:

Phase error in communications systems degrades error performance. In this paper, we present a simple approximation for the average error probability of the binary phase shift keying (BPSK) in the presence of phase error having a uniform distribution on arbitrary intervals. For the simple approximation, we use symmetry and periodicity of a sinusoidal function. Approximate result for the average error probability is derived, and the performance is verified through comparison with simulation result.

Keywords: Average error probability, Phase shift keying, Phase error

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262 Optimal Model Order Selection for Transient Error Autoregressive Moving Average (TERA) MRI Reconstruction Method

Authors: Abiodun M. Aibinu, Athaur Rahman Najeeb, Momoh J. E. Salami, Amir A. Shafie

Abstract:

An alternative approach to the use of Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) reconstruction is the use of parametric modeling technique. This method is suitable for problems in which the image can be modeled by explicit known source functions with a few adjustable parameters. Despite the success reported in the use of modeling technique as an alternative MRI reconstruction technique, two important problems constitutes challenges to the applicability of this method, these are estimation of Model order and model coefficient determination. In this paper, five of the suggested method of evaluating the model order have been evaluated, these are: The Final Prediction Error (FPE), Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), Residual Variance (RV), Minimum Description Length (MDL) and Hannan and Quinn (HNQ) criterion. These criteria were evaluated on MRI data sets based on the method of Transient Error Reconstruction Algorithm (TERA). The result for each criterion is compared to result obtained by the use of a fixed order technique and three measures of similarity were evaluated. Result obtained shows that the use of MDL gives the highest measure of similarity to that use by a fixed order technique.

Keywords: Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA), MagneticResonance Imaging (MRI), Parametric modeling, Transient Error.

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261 Comparing Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) Coefficients Determination using Artificial Neural Networks with Other Techniques

Authors: Abiodun M. Aibinu, Momoh J. E. Salami, Amir A. Shafie, Athaur Rahman Najeeb

Abstract:

Autoregressive Moving average (ARMA) is a parametric based method of signal representation. It is suitable for problems in which the signal can be modeled by explicit known source functions with a few adjustable parameters. Various methods have been suggested for the coefficients determination among which are Prony, Pade, Autocorrelation, Covariance and most recently, the use of Artificial Neural Network technique. In this paper, the method of using Artificial Neural network (ANN) technique is compared with some known and widely acceptable techniques. The comparisons is entirely based on the value of the coefficients obtained. Result obtained shows that the use of ANN also gives accurate in computing the coefficients of an ARMA system.

Keywords: Autoregressive moving average, coefficients, back propagation, model parameters, neural network, weight.

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260 Delay and Energy Consumption Analysis of Conventional SRAM

Authors: Arash Azizi-Mazreah, Mohammad T. Manzuri Shalmani, Hamid Barati, Ali Barati

Abstract:

The energy consumption and delay in read/write operation of conventional SRAM is investigated analytically as well as by simulation. Explicit analytical expressions for the energy consumption and delay in read and write operation as a function of device parameters and supply voltage are derived. The expressions are useful in predicting the effect of parameter changes on the energy consumption and speed as well as in optimizing the design of conventional SRAM. HSPICE simulation in standard 0.25μm CMOS technology confirms precision of analytical expressions derived from this paper.

Keywords: Read energy consumption, write energy consumption, read delay, write delay.

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259 A Characterized and Optimized Approach for End-to-End Delay Constrained QoS Routing

Authors: P.S.Prakash, S.Selvan

Abstract:

QoS Routing aims to find paths between senders and receivers satisfying the QoS requirements of the application which efficiently using the network resources and underlying routing algorithm to be able to find low-cost paths that satisfy given QoS constraints. The problem of finding least-cost routing is known to be NP hard or complete and some algorithms have been proposed to find a near optimal solution. But these heuristics or algorithms either impose relationships among the link metrics to reduce the complexity of the problem which may limit the general applicability of the heuristic, or are too costly in terms of execution time to be applicable to large networks. In this paper, we analyzed two algorithms namely Characterized Delay Constrained Routing (CDCR) and Optimized Delay Constrained Routing (ODCR). The CDCR algorithm dealt an approach for delay constrained routing that captures the trade-off between cost minimization and risk level regarding the delay constraint. The ODCR which uses an adaptive path weight function together with an additional constraint imposed on the path cost, to restrict search space and hence ODCR finds near optimal solution in much quicker time.

Keywords: QoS, Delay, Routing, Optimization

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258 Effect of Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction on the Multicarrier Communication System Performance Parameters

Authors: Sanjay Singh, M Sathish Kumar, H. S Mruthyunjaya

Abstract:

Multicarrier transmission system such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a promising technique for high bit rate transmission in wireless communication system. OFDM is a spectrally efficient modulation technique that can achieve high speed data transmission over multipath fading channels without the need for powerful equalization techniques. However the price paid for this high spectral efficiency and less intensive equalization is low power efficiency. OFDM signals are very sensitive to nonlinear effects due to the high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR), which leads to the power inefficiency in the RF section of the transmitter. This paper investigates the effect of PAPR reduction on the performance parameter of multicarrier communication system. Performance parameters considered are power consumption of Power Amplifier (PA) and Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC), power amplifier efficiency, SNR of DAC and BER performance of the system. From our analysis it is found that irrespective of PAPR reduction technique being employed, the power consumption of PA and DAC reduces and power amplifier efficiency increases due to reduction in PAPR. Moreover, it has been shown that for a given BER performance the requirement of Input-Backoff (IBO) reduces with reduction in PAPR.

Keywords: BER, Crest Factor (CF), Digital-to-Analog Converter(DAC), Input-Backoff (IBO), Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing(OFDM), Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR), PowerAmplifier efficiency, SNR

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257 A Necessary Condition for the Existence of Chaos in Fractional Order Delay Differential Equations

Authors: Sachin Bhalekar

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a necessary condition for the existence of chaos in delay differential equations of fractional order. To explain the proposed theory, we discuss fractional order Liu system and financial system involving delay.

Keywords: Caputo derivative, delay, stability, chaos.

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256 Novel Delay-Dependent Stability Criteria for Uncertain Discrete-Time Stochastic Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays

Authors: Mengzhuo Luo, Shouming Zhong

Abstract:

This paper investigates the problem of exponential stability for a class of uncertain discrete-time stochastic neural network with time-varying delays. By constructing a suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, combining the stochastic stability theory, the free-weighting matrix method, a delay-dependent exponential stability criteria is obtained in term of LMIs. Compared with some previous results, the new conditions obtain in this paper are less conservative. Finally, two numerical examples are exploited to show the usefulness of the results derived.

Keywords: Delay-dependent stability, Neural networks, Time varying delay, Linear matrix inequality (LMI).

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255 Optimized Delay Constrained QoS Routing

Authors: P. S. Prakash, S. Selvan

Abstract:

QoS Routing aims to find paths between senders and receivers satisfying the QoS requirements of the application which efficiently using the network resources and underlying routing algorithm to be able to find low-cost paths that satisfy given QoS constraints. The problem of finding least-cost routing is known to be NP-hard or complete and some algorithms have been proposed to find a near optimal solution. But these heuristics or algorithms either impose relationships among the link metrics to reduce the complexity of the problem which may limit the general applicability of the heuristic, or are too costly in terms of execution time to be applicable to large networks. In this paper, we concentrate an algorithm that finds a near-optimal solution fast and we named this algorithm as optimized Delay Constrained Routing (ODCR), which uses an adaptive path weight function together with an additional constraint imposed on the path cost, to restrict search space and hence ODCR finds near optimal solution in much quicker time.

Keywords: QoS, Delay, Routing, Optimization.

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254 Delay-Dependent Stability Analysis for Neutral Type Neural Networks with Uncertain Parameters and Time-Varying Delay

Authors: Qingqing Wang, Shouming Zhong

Abstract:

In this paper, delay-dependent stability analysis for neutral type neural networks with uncertain paramters and time-varying delay is studied. By constructing new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and dividing the delay interval into multiple segments, a novel sufficient condition is established to guarantee the globally asymptotically stability of the considered system. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed main results.

Keywords: Neutral type neural networks, Time-varying delay, Stability, Linear matrix inequality(LMI).

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253 Performance Analysis of a WiMax/Wi-Fi System Whilst Streaming a Video Conference Application

Authors: Patrice Obinna Umenne, Marcel O. Odhiambo

Abstract:

WiMAX and Wi-Fi are considered as the promising broadband access solutions for wireless MAN’s and LANs, respectively. In the recent works WiMAX is considered suitable as a backhaul service to connect multiple dispersed Wi-Fi ‘hotspots’. Hence a new integrated WiMAX/Wi-Fi architecture has been proposed in literatures. In this paper the performance of an integrated WiMAX/Wi-Fi network has been investigated by streaming a video conference application. The difference in performance between the two protocols is compared with respect to video conferencing. The Heterogeneous network was simulated in the OPNET simulator.

Keywords: Throughput, delay, delay variance, packet loss, Quality of Service (QoS).

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252 Building Information Modelling for Construction Delay Management

Authors: Essa Alenazi, Zulfikar Adamu

Abstract:

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is not an exception in relying on the growth of its construction industry to support rapid population growth. However, its need for infrastructure development is constrained by low productivity levels and cost overruns caused by factors such as delays to project completion. Delays in delivering a construction project are a global issue and while theories such as Optimism Bias have been used to explain such delays, in KSA, client-related causes of delays are also significant. The objective of this paper is to develop a framework-based approach to explore how the country’s construction industry can manage and reduce delays in construction projects through building information modelling (BIM) in order to mitigate the cost consequences of such delays.  It comprehensively and systematically reviewed the global literature on the subject and identified gaps, critical delay factors and the specific benefits that BIM can deliver for the delay management.  A case study comprising of nine hospital projects that have experienced delay and cost overruns was also carried out. Five critical delay factors related to the clients were identified as candidates that can be mitigated through BIM’s benefits. These factors are: Ineffective planning and scheduling of the project; changes during construction by the client; delay in progress payment; slowness in decision making by the client; and poor communication between clients and other stakeholders. In addition, data from the case study projects strongly suggest that optimism bias is present in many of the hospital projects. Further validation via key stakeholder interviews and documentations are planned.

Keywords: BIM, client perspective, delay management, optimism bias, public sector projects.

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