Response Delay Model: Bridging the Gap in Urban Fire Disaster Response System
Authors: Sulaiman Yunus
The need for modeling response to urban fire disaster cannot be over emphasized, as recurrent fire outbreaks have gutted most cities of the world. This necessitated the need for a prompt and efficient response system in order to mitigate the impact of the disaster. Promptness, as a function of time, is seen to be the fundamental determinant for efficiency of a response system and magnitude of a fire disaster. Delay, as a result of several factors, is one of the major determinants of promptgness of a response system and also the magnitude of a fire disaster. Response Delay Model (RDM) intends to bridge the gap in urban fire disaster response system through incorporating and synchronizing the delay moments in measuring the overall efficiency of a response system and determining the magnitude of a fire disaster. The model identified two delay moments (pre-notification and Intra-reflex sequence delay) that can be elastic and collectively plays a significant role in influencing the efficiency of a response system. Due to variation in the elasticity of the delay moments, the model provides for measuring the length of delays in order to arrive at a standard average delay moment for different parts of the world, putting into consideration geographic location, level of preparedness and awareness, technological advancement, socio-economic and environmental factors. It is recommended that participatory researches should be embarked on locally and globally to determine standard average delay moments within each phase of the system so as to enable determining the efficiency of response systems and predicting fire disaster magnitudes.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3593220Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 407
 S. Yunus, “Assessment of urban fire disaster preparedness for response delay modelling in Dutse town, Jigawa State, Nigeria (submitted for publication)”, African Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences., submitted for publication.
 E. Dube, “Using models to deal with Hazards and Disasters: A trajectory towards effective disaster management in Zimbabwe”. People: International Journal of Social Sciences, 4(1), 2018, 111-132.
 Z. Hussain, “Disaster and vulnerability from people’s perspective”. NIRAPAD Secretariat, 19/13 Babar Road, Mohammadpur: Dhaka, 2013.
 C. Kelly, “Simplifying disasters: Developing a model for complex non-linear events. Proceedings of International Conference on Disaster Management: Crisis and Opportunity: Hazard Management and Disaster Preparedness in Australasia and the Pacific Region, Cairns”, Queensland, Australia, pp. 25-28, 1-4 November, 1998.
 S. Asghar, D. Alahakoon, and L. Churilov, “A comprehensive conceptual model for disaster management”, Journal of Humanitarian Assistance, 1360(222), 2006, 1-15.
 E. Caymaz, V.F. Akyon, and F. Erenel, “A model proposal for efficient disaster management: the Turkish sample”, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 99: 609 – 618, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.531.
 S.L. Cutter, L. Barnes, M. Berry, C. Burton and E. Evans, “A place-based model for understanding community resilience to natural disasters”. University of South Carolina: SC, 2008.
 V.M. Hai, and I. Smyth, “The disaster crunch model: guidelines for a gendered approach”. Oxfam GB: Oxford, 2012.
 J. Paul, and R. Batta, “Improving hurricane disaster preparedness: Models for optimal reallocation of hospital capacity”. International journal of Operations Research, 10(2), 2011: 194-213.
 S. Platt, “A decision-making model of disaster resilience and recovery”. SECED 2015 Conference: Earthquake Risk and Engineering towards a Resilient World, 9-10 July 2015, Cambridge. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJOR.2011.038584.
 M.J. Karter and J.G.P. Stein J.G.P, “U.S. Fire Department Profile through 2007, Fire Analysis and Research Division National Fire Protection Association”, 2008.
 National Fire Protection Association, (NFPA), “Standard for the organization and deployment of fire suppression operations, emergency medical operations and special operations to the public by volunteer fire departments”, 2010.
 Jr. M. J. Karter, (2014), “Fire loss in the United States During 2013”. http://tkolb.net/FireReports/2014/FireCausesByMonthGraph.pdf (Accessed on 22 Mar, 2016).
 B. Evarts, “Fire Loss in the United States during 2017” October 2018, (October).
 Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG), “Fire Statistics: Great Britain April 2013 to March 2014”, 2015.
 S. Strydom, and M.J, “A spatio-temporal analysis of fires in South Africa”, South African Journal of Science, 112(11–12), 2016: 1–8.
 National Bureau of Statistics Report, (NBS). “Social Statistics Report” 2016, (December).
 U.F. Isa, M.A. Liman, M.U. Mohammed, O.S. Mathew, and Y.R. Yayo, “Spatial Analysis of Fire Service Station in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria”. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 21(9), 2016, 42–52. https://doi.org/10.9790/0837-2109014252
 Kano State Fire Service. Report, (2013).
 R. Nisanci, “GIS based fire analysis and production of fire-risk maps: The Trabzon experience”, Scientific Research and Essays Vol. 5(9), 2010, pp. 970-977.
 R. Nisanci, V. Yildirim, and Y. Erbas, “Fire Analysis and Production of Fire Risk Maps: The Trabzon Experience”. Cdn. Intechopen. Com, 2005 (Table 1). Retrieved from http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/36105/InTech, 2009.
 A. Asgary, A. Ghaffari, and J. Levy, “Spatial and temporal analyses of structural fire incidents and their causes: A case of Toronto, Canada”, Fire Safety Journal, 45(1), 2010: 44–57.
 M.M. Yagoub and A.M. Jalil, “Urban Fire Risk Assessment Using GIS : Case Study on Sharjah , UAE”, 5(3), 2014.
 E. Ceyhan, K. Ertuǧay, and S. Düzgün. “Exploratory and inferential methods for spatio-temporal analysis of residential fire clustering in urban areas”. Fire Safety Journal, 58, 2013: 226–239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2013.01.024
 C.R. Jennings, C. R, “Social and economic characteristics as determinants of residential fire risk in urban neighborhoods: A review of the literature”, Fire Safety Journal, 62(PART A), 2013: 13–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2013.07.002.
 H. Çiğdem, (2010), “Spatial Requirements of Fire stations in urban areas: A case study of ankara, a thesis submitted to the graduate school of natural and applied sciences of middle east technical university”, 2010.
 A.R. Mahmud, and V. Indriasari, “Facility Location Models Development to Maximize Total Service Area”. Urban Issues in Asia, SN 1S/April,2009 pp.87-100.
 H.K. Ayuba, O. Aguocha, and N.I. Medugu, “Fire Vulnerability Assessment of the Federal Capital City”, 3(5), 2016: 39–46.
 K. Habibi, S. Lotfi, M.J. Koohsari, “Spatial Analysis of Urban Fire Station Location by Integrating AHP Model and IO Logic Using GIS (A Case Study of Zone 6 of Tehran)”, J. Appl. Sci. 8(19), 2008: 3302-3315.
 A. Adekunle, A. Asuquo, N. Essang, I.I. Umanah, K.E. Ibe and A.B. Alo, “Statistical Analysis of Electrical Fire Outbreaks in Buildings: Case Study of Lagos State, Nigeria”. Journal of Sustainable Development Studies, 9(1), 2016: 76–92.
 J. Corcoran, G. Higgs, and A. Higginson, “Fire incidence in metropolitan areas: A comparative study of Brisbane (Australia) and Cardiff (United Kingdom)”. Applied Geography, 31(1), 2011: 65–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2010.02.003.
 J. Corcoran, G. Higgs, C. Brunsdon, and A. Ware. “The use of comaps to explore the spatial and temporal dynamics of fire incidents: A case study in South Wales, United Kingdom. Professional Geographer, 59(4), 2007: 521–536. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9272.2007.00639.x
 J. Corcoran, G. Higgs, C. Brunsdon, A. Ware, & P. Norman, “The use of spatial analytical techniques to explore patterns of fire incidence: A South Wales case study. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 31(6), 2007: 623–647.
 A.U. Salisu, “Assessment of the Spatial Distribution of Fire Incidents from 2004 to 2006: A Case Study of Kano Metropolis”. Dissertation submitted to the Department of Geography, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria, 2007.
 R.N. Umar, “Fire Incident Emergency Response For Markets In The Metropolitan Kano, Kano State , Nigeria”, Prs 312043 Regional Centre For Training In Aerospace Surveys ( Rectas ) December , 2013 Fire Incident Emergency Response For Markets In Th.
 A.I. Maigari, “Evolutionary Trend, Spatial Distribution of, and Issues Associated with Markets in Kano Metropolis”, Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol.4, No.28, 2014, ISSN (Paper) 2224-5766 ISSN (Online)2225-0484 (Online), www.iiste.org.
 A. Abdulsalam, R. Kabir, and S.M.Y. Arafat, “Assessment of fire safety preparedness in selected health institutions in Niger State”. International Journal of Perceptions in Public Health, 1(1), 2016:50-58, 2016.
 M.S. Akhter, “Firefighter’s view on improving fire emergency response: A case study of Rawalpindi”, International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, vl 4 No.7(1), 2014.
 T. Amoako, “Assessment of domestic fire management in Kumasi Metropolis”, B.A (Integrated Development Studies), Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, 2014 (Google Scholar)
 L.T Ejeta, A. Ardalan, and D. Paton,” Application of behavioural theories to disaster and emergency health preparedness: A systematic review”, PLoS Currents 7,2015n.p.http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/ currents. dis. 31a8995ced321301466db400f1357829.
 Y. Kachenje, J. Kihila, and H. Nguluma, H, “Assessing urban fire risk in the central business district of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania”, Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 3, 321–334. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v3i1.33, 2010.
 A.N. Kukali, and E.K. Kabuka, “Fire disasters in secondary boarding schools in Kenya, Journal of Disaster Management and Risk Reduction 3, 60–71, 2009.
 G.L. Makachia, E. Gatebe, and P. Makhonge, “Evaluation of fire safety measures at local universities in Kenya with reference to fire risk reduction rules ln59, 2007”, Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology 16, 172–186, 2014.
 A.N. Sankey, I.A. Joshua, and N.V. Omole, “Safety awareness of emergency among students of astate university in Northwestern Nigeria”, Science World Journal 9, 28–33, 2014.
 A. Yusuf and S. Yunus, “Spatio-temporal analysis of urban fire incidences at Abuja Phase1, Nigeria”, Nassarawa journal of tropical Geography, vl 8, ISSN:0794-9154. Pg 1864-1874, 2017.
 J.M Kihila, “Fire disaster preparedness and situational analysis in higher learning institutions of Tanzania”, Jàmbá: Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 9(1), a311. https://doi. org/10.4102/jamba. v9i1.311, 2017.
 J.O. Ejikeme, J.I Igbokwe, and N.G. Johnson, “Application of GIS for Effective Management of Fire Disaster in Onitsha”, Nigerian Institute of Surveyors Technical Proceedings of General Meeting and Conference on Surveying Disaster Management and Global Warming held at Ilorin, Kwara State, June 25 - 29, 2012: 48 – 55.
 B. Ganeshkumar, and D. Ramesh, “Emergency Response Management and Information System (ERMIS) – A GIS based software to resolve the emergency recovery challenges in Madurai city, Tamil Nadu”, International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences Volume 1, No 1, 2010.
 National Fire Protection Association Report, (NFPA), Fire Loss in the United States, 2003.
 National Fire Protection Association, (NFPA), 2014.
 Queensland Goverment, Office of Urban Management, Department of Infrastructure, (2007). South East Queensland Regional Plan 2005-2026.Social Infrastructure Planning, Implementation Guideline No.5.
 I. Gabrielle, “ICTs for Disaster Response and Recovery: Paper Presented at United Nations Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia”, 17 March 2013.
 E. Slack, and A. Côté, “Comparative urban governance (Future of cities: working paper)”. London: Foresight, Government Office for Science, 2014.