Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 289

Search results for: QoS routing

289 A Theory in Optimization of Ad-hoc Routing Algorithms

Authors: M. Kargar, F.Fartash, T. Saderi, M. Ebrahimi Dishabi

Abstract:

In this paper optimization of routing in ad-hoc networks is surveyed and a new method for reducing the complexity of routing algorithms is suggested. Using binary matrices for each node in the network and updating it once the routing is done, helps nodes to stop repeating the routing protocols in each data transfer. The algorithm suggested can reduce the complexity of routing to the least amount possible.

Keywords: Ad-hoc Networks, Algorithm, Protocol, RoutingTrain.

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288 A Comparative Study of Novel Opportunistic Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: R. Poonkuzhali, M. Y. Sanavullah, M. R. Gurupriya

Abstract:

Opportunistic routing is used, where the network has the features like dynamic topology changes and intermittent network connectivity. In Delay tolerant network or Disruption tolerant network opportunistic forwarding technique is widely used. The key idea of opportunistic routing is selecting forwarding nodes to forward data packets and coordination among these nodes to avoid duplicate transmissions. This paper gives the analysis of pros and cons of various opportunistic routing techniques used in MANET.

Keywords: Expected Transmission Count (ETX), Opportunistic routing, Proactive Source Routing (PSR), throughput.

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287 Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols For High Density Ad Hoc Networks based on Qos by GlomoSim Simulator

Authors: E. Ahvar, M. Fathy

Abstract:

Ad hoc networks are characterized by multihop wireless connectivity, frequently changing network topology and the need for efficient dynamic routing protocols. We compare the performance of three routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks: Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) , Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), location-aided routing(LAR1).The performance differentials are analyzed using varying network load, mobility, and network size. We simulate protocols with GLOMOSIM simulator. Based on the observations, we make recommendations about when the performance of either protocol can be best.

Keywords: Ad hoc Network , Glomosim , routing protocols.

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286 A Preemptive Link State Spanning Tree Source Routing Scheme for Opportunistic Data Forwarding in MANET

Authors: R. Poonkuzhali, M. Y. Sanavullah, A. Sabari

Abstract:

Opportunistic Data Forwarding (ODF) has drawn much attention in mobile adhoc networking research in recent years. The effectiveness of ODF in MANET depends on a suitable routing protocol which provides a powerful source routing services. PLSR is featured by source routing, loop free and small routing overhead. The update messages in PLSR are integrated into a tree structure and no need to time stamp routing updates which reduces the routing overhead.

Keywords: Mobile ad hoc network (MANET), Opportunistic data forwarding (ODF), Preemptive link state spanning tree routing (PLSR), Depth First Search (DFS).

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285 Evaluating Performance of Quality-of-Service Routing in Large Networks

Authors: V. Narasimha Raghavan, M. Venkatesh, T. Peer Meera Labbai, Praveen Dwarakanath Prabhu

Abstract:

The performance and complexity of QoS routing depends on the complex interaction between a large set of parameters. This paper investigated the scaling properties of source-directed link-state routing in large core networks. The simulation results show that the routing algorithm, network topology, and link cost function each have a significant impact on the probability of successfully routing new connections. The experiments confirm and extend the findings of other studies, and also lend new insight designing efficient quality-of-service routing policies in large networks.

Keywords: QoS, Link-State Routing, Dijkstra, Path Selection, Path Computation.

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284 Simulations of Routing Protocols of Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Kristoffer Clyde Magsino, H. Srikanth Kamath

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Network is widely used in electronics. Wireless sensor networks are now used in many applications including military, environmental, healthcare applications, home automation and traffic control. We will study one area of wireless sensor networks, which is the routing protocol. Routing protocols are needed to send data between sensor nodes and the base station. In this paper, we will discuss two routing protocols, such as datacentric and hierarchical routing protocol. We will show the output of the protocols using the NS-2 simulator. This paper will compare the simulation output of the two routing protocol using Nam. We will simulate using Xgraph to find the throughput and delay of the protocol.

Keywords: data-centric routing protocol, hierarchical routingprotocol, Nam, NS-2, Routing Protocol, sensor nodes, SPIN, throughput, Xgraph

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283 Completion Latin Square for Wavelength Routing

Authors: Ali Habiboghli, Rouhollah Mostafaei, Vasif Nabiyev

Abstract:

Optical network uses a tool for routing called Latin router. These routers use particular algorithms for routing. For example, we can refer to LDF algorithm that uses backtracking (one of CSP methods) for problem solving. In this paper, we proposed new approached for completion routing table (DRA&CRA algorithm) and compare with pervious proposed ways and showed numbers of backtracking, blocking and run time for DRA algorithm less than LDF and CRA algorithm.

Keywords: Latin Router, Constraint Satisfaction Problem, Wavelength Routing.

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282 Exploiting Query Feedback for Efficient Query Routing in Unstructured Peer-to-peer Networks

Authors: Iskandar Ishak, Naomie Salim

Abstract:

Unstructured peer-to-peer networks are popular due to its robustness and scalability. Query schemes that are being used in unstructured peer-to-peer such as the flooding and interest-based shortcuts suffer various problems such as using large communication overhead long delay response. The use of routing indices has been a popular approach for peer-to-peer query routing. It helps the query routing processes to learn the routing based on the feedbacks collected. In an unstructured network where there is no global information available, efficient and low cost routing approach is needed for routing efficiency. In this paper, we propose a novel mechanism for query-feedback oriented routing indices to achieve routing efficiency in unstructured network at a minimal cost. The approach also applied information retrieval technique to make sure the content of the query is understandable and will make the routing process not just based to the query hits but also related to the query content. Experiments have shown that the proposed mechanism performs more efficient than flood-based routing.

Keywords: Unstructured peer-to-peer, Searching, Retrieval, Internet.

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281 Routing Load Analysis over 802.11 DCF of Reactive Routing Protocols DSR and DYMO

Authors: Parma Nand, S.C. Sharma

Abstract:

The Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of self-configuring and rapidly deployed mobile nodes (routers) without any central infrastructure. Routing is one of the potential issues. Many routing protocols are reported but it is difficult to decide which one is best in all scenarios. In this paper on demand routing protocols DSR and DYMO based on IEEE 802.11 DCF MAC protocol are examined and characteristic summary of these routing protocols is presented. Their performance is analyzed and compared on performance measuring metrics throughput, dropped packets due to non availability of routes, duplicate RREQ generated for route discovery and normalized routing load by varying CBR data traffic load using QualNet 5.0.2 network simulator.

Keywords: Adhoc networks, wireless networks, CBR, routingprotocols, route discovery, simulation, performance evaluation, MAC, IEEE 802.11.

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280 Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols for High Density Ad Hoc Networks Based on Energy Consumption by GlomoSim Simulator

Authors: E. Ahvar, M. Fathy

Abstract:

Ad hoc networks are characterized by multihop wireless connectivity, frequently changing network topology and the need for efficient dynamic routing protocols. We compare the performance of three routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks: Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), location-aided routing (LAR1).Our evaluation is based on energy consumption in mobile ad hoc networks. The performance differentials are analyzed using varying network load, mobility, and network size. We simulate protocols with GLOMOSIM simulator. Based on the observations, we make recommendations about when the performance of either protocol can be best.

Keywords: Ad hoc Network, energy consumption, Glomosim, routing protocols.

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279 QoS Routing in Wired Sensor Networks with Partial Updates

Authors: Arijit Ghos, Tony Gigargis

Abstract:

QoS routing is an important component of Traffic Engineering in networks that provide QoS guarantees. QoS routing is dependent on the link state information which is typically flooded across the network. This affects both the quality of the routing and the utilization of the network resources. In this paper, we examine establishing QoS routes with partial state updates in wired sensor networks.

Keywords:

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278 Faster FPGA Routing Solution using DNA Computing

Authors: Manpreet Singh, Parvinder Singh Sandhu, Manjinder Singh Kahlon

Abstract:

There are many classical algorithms for finding routing in FPGA. But Using DNA computing we can solve the routes efficiently and fast. The run time complexity of DNA algorithms is much less than other classical algorithms which are used for solving routing in FPGA. The research in DNA computing is in a primary level. High information density of DNA molecules and massive parallelism involved in the DNA reactions make DNA computing a powerful tool. It has been proved by many research accomplishments that any procedure that can be programmed in a silicon computer can be realized as a DNA computing procedure. In this paper we have proposed two tier approaches for the FPGA routing solution. First, geometric FPGA detailed routing task is solved by transforming it into a Boolean satisfiability equation with the property that any assignment of input variables that satisfies the equation specifies a valid routing. Satisfying assignment for particular route will result in a valid routing and absence of a satisfying assignment implies that the layout is un-routable. In second step, DNA search algorithm is applied on this Boolean equation for solving routing alternatives utilizing the properties of DNA computation. The simulated results are satisfactory and give the indication of applicability of DNA computing for solving the FPGA Routing problem.

Keywords: FPGA, Routing, DNA Computing.

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277 Impact of MAC Layer on the Performance of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

Authors: T.G. Basavaraju, Subir Kumar Sarkar, C Puttamadappa

Abstract:

Mobile Ad hoc Networks is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by multi-hop wireless links without centralized infrastructure support. As mobile communication gains popularity, the need for suitable ad hoc routing protocols will continue to grow. Efficient dynamic routing is an important research challenge in such a network. Bandwidth constrained mobile devices use on-demand approach in their routing protocols because of its effectiveness and efficiency. Many researchers have conducted numerous simulations for comparing the performance of these protocols under varying conditions and constraints. Most of them are not aware of MAC Protocols, which will impact the relative performance of routing protocols considered in different network scenarios. In this paper we investigate the choice of MAC protocols affects the relative performance of ad hoc routing protocols under different scenarios. We have evaluated the performance of these protocols using NS2 simulations. Our results show that the performance of routing protocols of ad hoc networks will suffer when run over different MAC Layer protocols.

Keywords: AODV, DSR, DSDV, MAC, MANETs, relativeperformance

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276 A Hypercube Social Feature Extraction and Multipath Routing in Delay Tolerant Networks

Authors: S. Balaji, M. Rajaram, Y. Harold Robinson, E. Golden Julie

Abstract:

Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN) which have sufficient state information include trajectory and contact information, to protect routing efficiency. However, state information is dynamic and hard to obtain without a global and/or long-term collection process. To deal with these problems, the internal social features of each node are introduced in the network to perform the routing process. This type of application is motivated from several human contact networks where people contact each other more frequently if they have more social features in common. Two unique processes were developed for this process; social feature extraction and multipath routing. The routing method then becomes a hypercube–based feature matching process. Furthermore, the effectiveness of multipath routing is evaluated and compared to that of single-path routing.

Keywords: Delay tolerant networks, entropy, human contact networks, hyper cubes, multipath Routing, social features.

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275 Comparative Study of Ad Hoc Routing Protocols in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks for Smart City

Authors: Khadija Raissi, Bechir Ben Gouissem

Abstract:

In this paper, we perform the investigation of some routing protocols in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) context. Indeed, we study the efficiency of protocols like Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Optimized Link State Routing convention (OLSR) and Vehicular Multi-hop algorithm for Stable Clustering (VMASC) in terms of packet delivery ratio (PDR) and throughput. The performance evaluation and comparison between the studied protocols shows that the VMASC is the best protocols regarding fast data transmission and link stability in VANETs. The validation of all results is done by the NS3 simulator.

Keywords: VANET, smart city, AODV, OLSR, DSR, OLSR, VMASC, routing protocols, NS3.

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274 A Review of Coverage and Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Hamid Barati, Ali Movaghar, Ali Barati, Arash Azizi Mazreah

Abstract:

The special constraints of sensor networks impose a number of technical challenges for employing them. In this review, we study the issues and existing protocols in three areas: coverage and routing. We present two types of coverage problems: to determine the minimum number of sensor nodes that need to perform active sensing in order to monitor a certain area; and to decide the quality of service that can be provided by a given sensor network. While most routing protocols in sensor networks are data-centric, there are other types of routing protocols as well, such as hierarchical, location-based, and QoS-aware. We describe and compare several protocols in each group. We present several multipath routing protocols and single-path with local repair routing protocols, which are proposed for recovering from sensor node crashes. We also discuss some transport layer schemes for reliable data transmission in lossy wireless channels.

Keywords: Sensor networks, Coverage, Routing, Robustness.

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273 Upgrading Performance of DSR Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Mehdi Alilou, Mehdi Dehghan

Abstract:

Routing in mobile ad hoc networks is a challenging task because nodes are free to move randomly. In DSR like all On- Demand routing algorithms, route discovery mechanism is associated with great delay. More Clearly in DSR routing protocol to send route reply packet, when current route breaks, destination seeks a new route. In this paper we try to change route selection mechanism proactively. We also define a link stability parameter in which a stability value is assigned to each link. Given this feature, destination node can estimate stability of routes and can select the best and more stable route. Therefore we can reduce the delay and jitter of sending data packets.

Keywords: DSR, MANET, proactive, routing.

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272 Low Latency Routing Algorithm for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Ad-Hoc Networks

Authors: Abdel Ilah Alshabtat, Liang Dong

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a new routing protocol for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) that equipped with directional antenna. We named this protocol Directional Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (DOLSR). This protocol is based on the well known protocol that is called Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR). We focused in our protocol on the multipoint relay (MPR) concept which is the most important feature of this protocol. We developed a heuristic that allows DOLSR protocol to minimize the number of the multipoint relays. With this new protocol the number of overhead packets will be reduced and the End-to-End delay of the network will also be minimized. We showed through simulation that our protocol outperformed Optimized Link State Routing Protocol, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol and Ad- Hoc On demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol in reducing the End-to-End delay and enhancing the overall throughput. Our evaluation of the previous protocols was based on the OPNET network simulation tool.

Keywords: Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks, Ad-Hoc RoutingProtocols, Optimized link State Routing Protocol, Unmanned AerialVehicles, Directional Antenna.

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271 TBOR: Tree Based Opportunistic Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Y. Harold Robinson, M. Rajaram, E. Golden Julie, S. Balaji

Abstract:

A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a wireless communication network where nodes that are not within direct transmission range establish their communication via the help of other nodes to forward data. Routing protocols in MANETs are usually categorized as proactive. Tree Based Opportunistic Routing (TBOR) finds a multipath link based on maximum probability of the throughput. The simulation results show that the presented method is performed very well compared to the existing methods in terms of throughput, delay and routing overhead.

Keywords: Mobile ad hoc networks, opportunistic data forwarding, proactive Source routing, BFS.

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270 Estimation of the Parameters of Muskingum Methods for the Prediction of the Flood Depth in the Moudjar River Catchment

Authors: Fares Laouacheria, Said Kechida, Moncef Chabi

Abstract:

The objective of the study was based on the hydrological routing modelling for the continuous monitoring of the hydrological situation in the Moudjar river catchment, especially during floods with Hydrologic Engineering Center–Hydrologic Modelling Systems (HEC-HMS). The HEC-GeoHMS was used to transform data from geographic information system (GIS) to HEC-HMS for delineating and modelling the catchment river in order to estimate the runoff volume, which is used as inputs to the hydrological routing model. Two hydrological routing models were used, namely Muskingum and Muskingum routing models, for conducting this study. In this study, a comparison between the parameters of the Muskingum and Muskingum-Cunge routing models in HEC-HMS was used for modelling flood routing in the Moudjar river catchment and determining the relationship between these parameters and the physical characteristics of the river. The results indicate that the effects of input parameters such as the weighting factor "X" and travel time "K" on the output results are more significant, where the Muskingum routing model was more sensitive to input parameters than the Muskingum-Cunge routing model. This study can contribute to understand and improve the knowledge of the mechanisms of river floods, especially in ungauged river catchments.

Keywords: HEC-HMS, hydrological modelling, Muskingum routing model, Muskingum-Cunge routing model.

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269 Routing in Mobile Wireless Networks for Realtime Multimedia Applications- Reuse of Virtual Circuits

Authors: A.Khaja Kamaluddin, B.Muhammed Yousoof

Abstract:

Routing places an important role in determining the quality of service in wireless networks. The routing methods adopted in wireless networks have many drawbacks. This paper aims to review the current routing methods used in wireless networks. This paper proposes an innovative solution to overcome the problems in routing. This solution is aimed at improving the Quality of Service. This solution is different from others as it involves the resuage of the part of the virtual circuits. This improvement in quality of service is important especially in propagation of multimedia applications like video, animations etc. So it is the dire need to propose a new solution to improve the quality of service in ATM wireless networks for multimedia applications especially during this era of multimedia based applications.

Keywords: Packet buffering, Routing Table, Virtual Circuits (VC)

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268 Adaptive Fuzzy Routing in Opportunistic Network (AFRON)

Authors: Payam Nabhani, Sima Radmanesh

Abstract:

Opportunistic network is a kind of Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN) where the nodes in this network come into contact with each other opportunistically and communicate wirelessly and, an end-to-end path between source and destination may have never existed, and disconnection and reconnection is common in the network. In such a network, because of the nature of opportunistic network, perhaps there is no a complete path from source to destination for most of the time and even if there is a path; the path can be very unstable and may change or break quickly. Therefore, routing is one of the main challenges in this environment and, in order to make communication possible in an opportunistic network, the intermediate nodes have to play important role in the opportunistic routing protocols. In this paper we proposed an Adaptive Fuzzy Routing in opportunistic network (AFRON). This protocol is using the simple parameters as input parameters to find the path to the destination node. Using Message Transmission Count, Message Size and Time To Live parameters as input fuzzy to increase delivery ratio and decrease the buffer consumption in the all nodes of network.

Keywords: Opportunistic Routing, Fuzzy Routing, Opportunistic Network, Message Routing.

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267 A Characterized and Optimized Approach for End-to-End Delay Constrained QoS Routing

Authors: P.S.Prakash, S.Selvan

Abstract:

QoS Routing aims to find paths between senders and receivers satisfying the QoS requirements of the application which efficiently using the network resources and underlying routing algorithm to be able to find low-cost paths that satisfy given QoS constraints. The problem of finding least-cost routing is known to be NP hard or complete and some algorithms have been proposed to find a near optimal solution. But these heuristics or algorithms either impose relationships among the link metrics to reduce the complexity of the problem which may limit the general applicability of the heuristic, or are too costly in terms of execution time to be applicable to large networks. In this paper, we analyzed two algorithms namely Characterized Delay Constrained Routing (CDCR) and Optimized Delay Constrained Routing (ODCR). The CDCR algorithm dealt an approach for delay constrained routing that captures the trade-off between cost minimization and risk level regarding the delay constraint. The ODCR which uses an adaptive path weight function together with an additional constraint imposed on the path cost, to restrict search space and hence ODCR finds near optimal solution in much quicker time.

Keywords: QoS, Delay, Routing, Optimization

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266 An Enhanced AODV Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks

Authors: Apidet Booranawong, Wiklom Teerapabkajorndet

Abstract:

An enhanced ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing (E-AODV) protocol for control system applications in wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs) is proposed. Our routing algorithm is designed by considering both wireless network communication and the control system aspects. Control system error and network delay are the main selection criteria in our routing protocol. The control and communication performance is evaluated on multi-hop IEEE 802.15.4 networks for building-temperature control systems. The Gilbert-Elliott error model is employed to simulate packet loss in wireless networks. The simulation results demonstrate that the E-AODV routing approach can significantly improve the communication performance better than an original AODV routing under various packet loss rates. However, the control performance result by our approach is not much improved compared with the AODV routing solution.

Keywords: WSANs, building temperature control, AODV routing protocol, control system error, settling time, delay, delivery ratio.

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265 The Effects of Speed on the Performance of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

Authors: Narendra Singh Yadav, R.P.Yadav

Abstract:

Mobile ad hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes communicating through wireless channels without any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. Because of the limited transmission range of wireless network interfaces, multiple "hops" may be needed to exchange data across the network. Consequently, many routing algorithms have come into existence to satisfy the needs of communications in such networks. Researchers have conducted many simulations comparing the performance of these routing protocols under various conditions and constraints. One question that arises is whether speed of nodes affects the relative performance of routing protocols being studied. This paper addresses the question by simulating two routing protocols AODV and DSDV. Protocols were simulated using the ns-2 and were compared in terms of packet delivery fraction, normalized routing load and average delay, while varying number of nodes, and speed.

Keywords: AODV, DSDV, MANET, relative performance

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264 New Multipath Node-Disjoint Routing Based on AODV Protocol

Authors: V. Zangeneh, S. Mohammadi

Abstract:

Today, node-disjoint routing becomes inessential technique in communication of packets among various nodes in networks. Meanwhile AODV (Ad Hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector) creates single-path route between a pair of source and destination nodes. Some researches has done so far to make multipath node-disjoint routing based on AODV protocol. But however their overhead and end-to-end delay are relatively high, while the detail of their code is not available too. This paper proposes a new approach of multipath node-disjoint routing based on AODV protocol. Then the algorithm of analytical model is presented. The extensive results of this algorithm will be presented in the next paper.

Keywords: AODV; MANET; Multipath Routing; Node-disjoint;transmission delay.

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263 Adaptive Routing Protocol for Dynamic Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Fayez Mostafa Alhamoui, Adnan Hadi Mahdi Al- Helali

Abstract:

The main issue in designing a wireless sensor network (WSN) is the finding of a proper routing protocol that complies with the several requirements of high reliability, short latency, scalability, low power consumption, and many others. This paper proposes a novel routing algorithm that complies with these design requirements. The new routing protocol divides the WSN into several subnetworks and each sub-network is divided into several clusters. This division is designed to reduce the number of radio transmission and hence decreases the power consumption. The network division may be changed dynamically to adapt with the network changes and allows the realization of the design requirements.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, routing protocols, ad hoc topology, cluster, sub-network, WSN design requirements.

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262 Transmitter Macrodiversity in Multihopping- SFN Based Algorithm for Improved Node Reachability and Robust Routing

Authors: Magnus Eriksson, Arif Mahmud

Abstract:

A novel idea presented in this paper is to combine multihop routing with single-frequency networks (SFNs) for a broadcasting scenario. An SFN is a set of multiple nodes that transmit the same data simultaneously, resulting in transmitter macrodiversity. Two of the most important performance factors of multihop networks, node reachability and routing robustness, are analyzed. Simulation results show that our proposed SFN-D routing algorithm improves the node reachability by 37 percentage points as compared to non-SFN multihop routing. It shows a diversity gain of 3.7 dB, meaning that 3.7 dB lower transmission powers are required for the same reachability. Even better results are possible for larger networks. If an important node becomes inactive, this algorithm can find new routes that a non-SFN scheme would not be able to find. Thus, two of the major problems in multihopping are addressed; achieving robust routing as well as improving node reachability or reducing transmission power.

Keywords: OFDM, single-frequency networks (SFN), DSFN, MANET; multihop routing, transmitter macrodiversity, broadcasting.

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261 Virtual Routing Function Allocation Method for Minimizing Total Network Power Consumption

Authors: Kenichiro Hida, Shin-Ichi Kuribayashi

Abstract:

In a conventional network, most network devices, such as routers, are dedicated devices that do not have much variation in capacity. In recent years, a new concept of network functions virtualisation (NFV) has come into use. The intention is to implement a variety of network functions with software on general-purpose servers and this allows the network operator to select their capacities and locations without any constraints. This paper focuses on the allocation of NFV-based routing functions which are one of critical network functions, and presents the virtual routing function allocation algorithm that minimizes the total power consumption. In addition, this study presents the useful allocation policy of virtual routing functions, based on an evaluation with a ladder-shaped network model. This policy takes the ratio of the power consumption of a routing function to that of a circuit and traffic distribution between areas into consideration. Furthermore, the present paper shows that there are cases where the use of NFV-based routing functions makes it possible to reduce the total power consumption dramatically, in comparison to a conventional network, in which it is not economically viable to distribute small-capacity routing functions.

Keywords: Virtual routing function, NFV, resource allocation, minimum power consumption.

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260 Cluster Based Ant Colony Routing Algorithm for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

Authors: Alaa E. Abdallah, Bajes Y. Alskarnah

Abstract:

Ant colony based routing algorithms are known to grantee the packet delivery, but they suffer from the huge overhead of control messages which are needed to discover the route. In this paper we utilize the network nodes positions to group the nodes in connected clusters. We use clusters-heads only on forwarding the route discovery control messages. Our simulations proved that the new algorithm has decreased the overhead dramatically without affecting the delivery rate.

Keywords: Ant colony-based routing, position-based routing, MANET.

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