Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 238

Search results for: Architectural typology

238 Toward Discovering an Architectural Typology Based on the Theory of Affordance

Authors: Falntina Ahmad Alata, Natheer Abu Obeid

Abstract:

This paper revolves around the concept of affordance. It aims to discover and develop an architectural typology based on the ecological concept of affordance. In order to achieve this aim, an analytical study is conducted and two sources were taken into account: 1- Gibson's definition of the concept of affordance and 2- The researches that are concerned on the affordance categorisation. As a result, this paper concluded 16 typologies of affordances, including the possibilities of mixing them based on both sources. To clarify these typologies and provide further understanding, a wide range of architectural examples are presented and proposed in the paper. To prove this vocabulary’s capability to diagnose and evaluate the affordance of different environments, an experimental study with two processes have been adapted: 1. Diagnostic process: the interpretation of the environments with regards to its affordance by using the new vocabulary (the developed typologies). 2. Evaluating process: the evaluation of the environments that have been interpreted and classified with regards to their affordances. By using the measures of emotional experience (the positive affect ‘PA’ and the negative affect ‘NA’) and the architectural evaluation criteria (beauty, economy and function). The experimental study proves that the typologies are capable of reading the affordance within different environments. Additionally, it explains how these different typologies reflect different interactions based on the previous processes. The data which are concluded from the evaluation of measures explain how different typologies of affordance that have already reflected different environments had different evaluations. In fact, some of them are recommended while the others are not. In other words, the paper draws a roadmap for designers to diagnose, evaluate and analyse the affordance into different architectural environments. After that, it guides them through adapting the best interaction (affordance category), which they intend to adapt into their proposed designs.

Keywords: Affordance theory, affordance categories, architectural environments, architectural evaluation criteria, emotional experience.

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237 Sustainable Architecture Analyses of Walls in Miyaneh Village Houses, Iran

Authors: Zohreh Salavatizadeh, Feridoun NahidiAzar, Sara Salavatizadeh, Seyyed Hossein Salehi, Ahadollah Azami

Abstract:

Even though so many efforts have been taken to renovate and renew the architecture of Miyaneh villages in cold and dry regions of Iran-s northwest, these efforts failed due to lack of significant study and ignoring the past and sustainable history of those villages. Considering the overpopulation of Iran-s villages as well as the importance in preventing their immigration to cities, recognizing village architecture and its construction technology is of great significance to attain sustainable residence in villages. As the only vertical surface in the space, wall possesses its unique special characteristics, and it is also a very important architectural element able to provide the immunity and comfort space for the residents. This article analyzes the characteristics of this vertical element, main types of adobe and stone walls, locally constructed technologies, implementation, the elements forming the walls in the frame of village house typology of Miyaneh, which has the most villages in East Azerbaijan, based on sustainable architectural construction materials of walls.

Keywords: Typology, Sustainable Construction, Wall Architecture

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236 Market and Innovation Orientation: A Typology of Public Housing Companies in Sweden

Authors: Agneta Sundström, Zahra Ahmadi, Akmal Hyder

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to develop a typology based on market orientation (MO) and innovation orientation (IO), and to illustrate to what extent housing companies in Sweden fit within this framework. A qualitative study on 11 public housing companies in the central part of Sweden has been conducted by the help of open and semi-structured questions for data collection. Four public housing company types- i.e. reactive prospector, proactive prospector, reactive defender and proactive defender have been identified by the combination of MO-IO dimensions. Future research can include other dimensions like entrepreneurship and network to observe how it particularly affects MO. An empirical study can compare public and private housing companies on the basis of MO and IO dimensions. One major contribution of the paper is the proposition of typology which can be used to describe public housing companies and deciding their future course of actions.

Keywords: Customer-led, economy, innovativeness, market orientation.

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235 Renewed Urban Waterfront: Spatial Conditions of a Contemporary Urban Space Typology

Authors: Beate Niemann, Fabian Pramel

Abstract:

The formerly industrially or militarily used Urban Waterfront is a potential area for urban development. Extensive interventions in the urban space come along with the development of these previously inaccessible areas in the city. The development of the Urban Waterfront in the European City is not subject to any recognizable urban paradigm. In this study, the development of the Urban Waterfront as a new urban space typology is analyzed by case studies of Urban Waterfront developments in European Cities. For humans, perceptible spatial conditions are categorized and it is identified whether the themed Urban Waterfront Developments are congruent or incongruent urban design interventions and which deviations the Urban Waterfront itself induce. As congruent urban design, a design is understood, which fits in the urban fabric regarding its similar spatial conditions to the surrounding. Incongruent urban design, however, shows significantly different conditions in its shape. Finally, the spatial relationship of the themed Urban Waterfront developments and their associated environment are compared in order to identify contrasts between new and old urban space. In this way, conclusions about urban design paradigms of the new urban space typology are tried to be drawn.

Keywords: Composition, congruence, identity, paradigm, spatial condition, urban design, urban development, urban waterfront.

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234 An Exploration on On-line Mass Collaboration: Focusing on its Motivation Structure

Authors: Jae Kyung Ha, Yong-Hak Kim

Abstract:

The Internet has become an indispensable part of our lives. Witnessing recent web-based mass collaboration, e.g. Wikipedia, people are questioning whether the Internet has made fundamental changes to the society or whether it is merely a hyperbolic fad. It has long been assumed that collective action for a certain goal yields the problem of free-riding, due to its non-exclusive and non-rival characteristics. Then, thanks to recent technological advances, the on-line space experienced the following changes that enabled it to produce public goods: 1) decrease in the cost of production or coordination 2) externality from networked structure 3) production function which integrates both self-interest and altruism. However, this research doubts the homogeneity of on-line mass collaboration and argues that a more sophisticated and systematical approach is required. The alternative that we suggest is to connect the characteristics of the goal to the motivation. Despite various approaches, previous literature fails to recognize that motivation can be structurally restricted by the characteristic of the goal. First we draw a typology of on-line mass collaboration with 'the extent of expected beneficiary' and 'the existence of externality', and then we examine each combination of motivation using Benkler-s framework. Finally, we explore and connect such typology with its possible dominant participating motivation.

Keywords: On-line cooperation, typology, mass collaboration, motivation, wikinomics.

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233 Critical Approach to Define the Architectural Structure of a Health Prototype in a Rural Area of Brazil

Authors: Domenico Chizzoniti, Monica Moscatelli, Letizia Cattani, Luca Preis

Abstract:

A primary healthcare facility in developing countries should be a multifunctional space able to respond to different requirements: Flexibility, modularity, aggregation and reversibility. These basic features could be better satisfied if applied to an architectural artifact that complies with the typological, figurative and constructive aspects of the context in which it is located. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to identify a procedure that can define the figurative aspects of the architectural structure of the health prototype for the marginal areas of developing countries through a critical approach. The application context is the rural areas of the Northeast of Bahia in Brazil. The prototype should be located in the rural district of Quingoma, in the municipality of Lauro de Freitas, a particular place where there is still a cultural fusion of black and indigenous populations. Based on the historical analysis of settlement strategies and architectural structures in spaces of public interest or collective use, this paper aims to provide a procedure able to identify the categories and rules underlying typological and figurative aspects, in order to detect significant and generalizable elements, as well as materials and constructive techniques typically adopted in the rural areas of Brazil. The object of this work is therefore not only the recovery of certain constructive approaches but also the development of a procedure that integrates the requirements of the primary healthcare prototype with its surrounding economic, social, cultural, settlement and figurative conditions.

Keywords: Architectural typology, Developing countries, Local construction techniques, Primary health care.

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232 The Influence of Architectural-Planning Structure of Cities on Their Sustainable Development

Authors: M. Kashiripoor

Abstract:

Existing indicators for sustainable urban development do not identify the features of cities’ planning structures and their architecture. Iranian city has special relevance problem of assessing the conformity of their planning and development of the concept of sustainable development. Based on theoretical sources, the author concludes that, despite the existence of common indicators for sustainable development of settlements, specialized evaluation criteria city structure planning has not been developed. He is trying to fill this gap and put forward a system of indicators characterizing the level of development of the architectural-planning structure of the city. The proposed system of indicators is designed based on technical and economic urban standard indicators from different countries. Alternative designing systems and requirements of modern rating systems like LEED-ND comprise a criterion for evaluation of urban structures in accordance with principles of "Green" building and New Urbanism. Urban development trends are close in spirit of sustainable development and developed under its influence. The study allowed concluding that a system of indicators to identify the relevant architectural-planning structure of the city, requirements of sustainable development, should be adapted to the conditions of each country, particularly in Iran. The article attempts typology proposed indicators, which are presented in tabular form and are divided into two types: planning and spatial. This article discusses the known indicators of sustainable development and proposed specific system of indicators characterizing the level of development of architectural-planning structure of the city. This article examines indicators for evaluating level of city' planning structure development. The proposed system of indicators is derived from the urban planning standards and rating systems such as LEED-ND, BREEAM Community and CASBEE-UD.

Keywords: Architectural-planning structure of cities, urban planning indicators, urban space indicators.

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231 Analysis on Iranian Wind Catcher and Its Effect on Natural Ventilation as a Solution towards Sustainable Architecture(Case Study: Yazd)

Authors: Mahnaz Mahmoudi Zarandi (Qazvin Islamic Azad University)

Abstract:

wind catchers have been served as a cooling system, used to provide acceptable ventilation by means of renewable energy of wind. In the present study, the city of Yazd in arid climate is selected as case study. From the architecture point of view, learning about wind catchers in this study is done by means of field surveys. Research method for selection of the case is based on random form, and analytical method. Wind catcher typology and knowledge of relationship governing the wind catcher's architecture were those measures that are taken for the first time. 53 wind catchers were analyzed. The typology of the wind-catchers is done by the physical analyzing, patterns and common concepts as incorporated in them. How the architecture of wind catcher can influence their operations by analyzing thermal behavior are the archetypes of selected wind catchers. Calculating fluids dynamics science, fluent software and numerical analysis are used in this study as the most accurate analytical approach. The results obtained from these analyses show the formal specifications of wind catchers with optimum operation in Yazd. The knowledge obtained from the optimum model could be used for design and construction of wind catchers with more improved operation

Keywords: Fluent Software, Iranian architecture, wind catcher

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230 The Architectural and Imaginary Spaces of the Anime Models

Authors: Kussain Marden

Abstract:

Architecture as a form of art, whilst actively developing, finds new methods and conceptions. Currently, architectural animation is actively developing as a step, successive to architectural visualization. Interesting vistas of architectural ideas were discovered by artists of Japanese animation, in which there are traditional spirits, kami, and imaginary spaces relating to them. Anime art should be considered abstract painting, another kind of an architectural workshop, where new architectural ideas are generated.

Keywords: Anime, architecture, imaginary spaces.

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229 Social Interaction Dynamics Exploration: The Case Study of El Sherouk City

Authors: Nardine El Bardisy, Wolf Reuter, Ayat Ismail

Abstract:

In Egypt, there is continuous housing demand as a result of rapid population growth. In 1979, this forced the government to establish new urban communities in order to decrease stress around delta. New Urban Communities Authority (NUCA) was formulated to take the responsibly of this new policy. These communities suffer from social life deficiency due to their typology, which is separated island with barriers. New urban communities’ typology results from the influence of neoliberalism movement and modern city planning forms. The lack of social interaction in these communities at present should be enhanced in the future. On a global perspective, sustainable development calls for creating more sustainable communities which include social, economic and environmental aspects. From 1960, planners were highly focusing on the promotion of the social dimension in urban development plans. The research hypothesis states: “It is possible to promote social interaction in new urban communities through a set of socio-spatial recommended strategies that are tailored for Greater Cairo Region context”. In order to test this hypothesis, the case of El-Sherouk city is selected, which represents the typical NUCA development plans. Social interaction indicators were derived from literature and used to explore different social dynamics in the selected case. The tools used for exploring case study are online questionnaires, face to face questionnaires, interviews, and observations. These investigations were analyzed, conclusions and recommendations were set to improve social interaction.

Keywords: New urban communities, modern planning, social Interaction, Social life.

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228 A Study on the Impacts of Computer Aided Design on the Architectural Design Process

Authors: Halleh Nejadriahi, Kamyar Arab

Abstract:

Computer-aided design (CAD) tools have been extensively used by the architects for the several decades. It has evolved from being a simple drafting tool to being an intelligent architectural software and a powerful means of communication for architects. CAD plays an essential role in the profession of architecture and is a basic tool for any architectural firm. It is not possible for an architectural firm to compete without taking the advantage of computer software, due to the high demand and competition in the architectural industry. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impacts of CAD on the architectural design process from conceptual level to final product, particularly in architectural practice. It examines the range of benefits of integrating CAD into the industry and discusses the possible defects limiting the architects. Method of this study is qualitatively based on data collected from the professionals’ perspective. The identified benefits and limitations of CAD on the architectural design process will raise the awareness of professionals on the potentials of CAD and proper utilization of that in the industry, which would result in a higher productivity along with a better quality in the architectural offices.

Keywords: Architecture, architectural practice, computer aided design, CAD, design process.

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227 Investigating Aesthetics According to Gestalt's Theories and Principles of Architectural Design

Authors: D. Moussazadeh, A. Aytug

Abstract:

In this study, aesthetics, which is architecture-dependent, covers the interpretable, debatable, and mathematical features. The purpose of this study is to provide a different perspective on the values of formal aesthetics and to analyze architectural forms to examine the factors that are related to the form of architectural works. In this study, the formal factors of aesthetics have been objectively studied and analyzed.

Keywords: Architecture design, Gestalt, architectural principle, museum.

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226 Digitization of European SMEs in Tourism and Hospitality: The Case of Greek Hoteliers

Authors: Joanna K. Konstantinou

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to explore the need of small and medium-sized businesses in tourism and hospitality industry to adopt technology and enhance their degree of digitalization, along with the main benefits enjoyed by technology and the main challenges that hinder its adoption. Within a hermeneutic phenomenological perspective, semi-structured interviews were conducted with three hotel owners and the focus was to identify the main reasons of adoption of technology, enablers and barriers. The findings were grouped with the goal of identifying typology of business practices in using and adopting technology.

Keywords: Digitalization, hospitality, SME, Interpretative Phenomenology.

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225 The Importance of Zenithal Lighting Systems for Natural Light Gains and for Local Energy Generation in Brazil

Authors: Ana Paula Esteves, Diego S. Caetano, Louise L. B. Lomardo

Abstract:

This paper presents an approach on the advantages of using adequate coverage in the zenithal lighting typology in various areas of architectural production, while at the same time to encourage to the design concerns inherent in this choice of roofing in Brazil. Understanding that sustainability needs to cover several aspects, a roofing system such as zenithal lighting system can contribute to the provision of better quality natural light for the interior of the building, which is related to the good health and welfare; it will also be able to contribute for the sustainable aspects and environmental needs, when it allows the generation of energy in semitransparent or opacity photovoltaic solutions and economize the artificial lightning. When the energy balance in the building is positive, that is, when the building generates more energy than it consumes, it may fit into the Net Zero Energy Building concept. The zenithal lighting systems could be an important ally in Brazil, when solved the burden of heat gains, participate in the set of pro-efficiency actions in search of "zero energy buildings". The paper presents comparative three cases of buildings that have used this feature in search of better environmental performance, both in light comfort and sustainability as a whole. Two of these buildings are examples in Europe: the Notley Green School in the UK and the Isofóton factory in Spain. The third building with these principles of shed´s roof is located in Brazil: the Ipel´s factory in São Paulo.

Keywords: Natural lightning, net zero energy building, sheds, semi-transparent photovoltaics.

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224 A Computer Aided Model for Supporting Design Education

Authors: Leyla Y. Tokman, Rusen Yamaçlı

Abstract:

Educating effective architect designers is an important goal of architectural education. But what contributes to students- performance, and to critical and creative thinking in architectural design education? Besides teaching architecture students how to understand logical arguments, eliminate the inadequate solutions and focus on the correct ones, it is also crucial to teach students how to focus on exploring ideas and the alternative solutions and seeking for other right answers rather than one. This paper focuses on the enhancing architectural design education and may provide implications for enhancing teaching design.

Keywords: Architectural education, design studio, teaching method, GUI-Graphical User Interface.

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223 Gated Communities and Sense of Community: A Review on the Social Features of Gated Communities

Authors: R. Rafiemanzelat

Abstract:

Since the mid-1970s, gated communities distributed in Latin America. They are a kind of residential development where there are privatized public spaces, and access to the area is restricted. They have specific impacts on the neighborhoods that located outside their walls such as threatening security, limiting access, and spreading social inequality. This research mainly focused on social features of gated community as; segregation, fragmentation, exclusion, specifically on sense of community and typology of gated communities. The conclusion will clarify the pros and cons of gated communities and how it could be successful or not.

Keywords: Walled community, gated community, urban development, urban sociology, sense of community.

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222 Emulation Model in Architectural Education

Authors: Ö. Şenyiğit, A. Çolak

Abstract:

It is of great importance for an architectural student to know the parameters through which he/she can conduct his/her design and makes his/her design effective in architectural education. Therefore; an empirical application study was carried out through the designing activity using the emulation model to support the design and design approaches of architectural students. During the investigation period, studies were done on the basic design elements and principles of the fall semester, and the emulation model, one of the designing methods that constitute the subject of the study, was fictionalized as three phased “recognition-interpretation-application”. As a result of the study, it was observed that when students were given a key method during the design process, their awareness increased and their aspects improved as well.

Keywords: Basic design, design education, design methods, emulation.

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221 Assessing the Function of Light and Colorin Architectural View

Authors: Gholam Hossein Naseri, Manucher Tamizi

Abstract:

Light is one of the most important qualitative and symbolic factors and has a special position in architecture and urban development in regard to practical function. The main function of light, either natural or artificial, is lighting up the environment and the constructional forms which is called lighting. However, light is used to redefine the urban spaces by architectural genius with regard to three aesthetic, conceptual and symbolic factors. In architecture and urban development, light has a function beyond lighting up the environment, and the designers consider it as one of the basic components. The present research aims at studying the function of light and color in architectural view and their effects in buildings.

Keywords: Architectural View , Color , Light

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220 Applying the Integrative Design Process in Architectural Firms: An Analytical Study on Egyptian Firms

Authors: Carole A. El Raheb, Hassan K. Abdel-Salam, Ingi Elcherif

Abstract:

An architect carrying the design process alone is the main reason for the deterioration of the quality of the architectural product as the complexity of the projects makes it a multi-disciplinary work; then, the Integrative Design Process (IDP) must be applied in the architectural firm especially from the early design phases to improve the product’s quality and to eliminate the ignorance of the principles of design causing the occurrence of low-grade buildings. The research explores the Integrative Design (ID) principles that fit in the architectural practice. Constraints facing this application are presented with strategies and solutions to overcome them. A survey questionnaire was conducted to collect data from a number of recognized Egyptian Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) firms that explores their opinions on using the IDP. This survey emphasizes the importance of the IDP in firms and presents the reasons preventing the firms from applying the IDP. The aim here is to investigate the potentials of integrating this approach into architectural firms emphasizing the importance of this application which ensures the realization of the project’s goal and eliminates the reduction in the project’s quality.

Keywords: Application, architectural firms, integrative design principles, integrative design process, the project quality.

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219 Labour Migration in Russia in the Context of Russia’s National Security Problem

Authors: A. V. Dolzhikova

Abstract:

The article deals with the problems of labour migration in the Russian Federation in the context of Russia's national security, provides the typology of migrants residing in the territory of the Russian Federation and analyzes the risk factors. The author considers the structure of migration flows and the terms of legal, economic and socio-cultural adaptation of migrants in the Russian Federation. In this connection, the status of the Russian migration legislation, the concept of the comprehensive exam in Russian as a foreign language, history of Russia and the basics of the Russian Federation legislation for foreign citizens which was introduced in Russia on January 1, 2015, are analyzed. The article discloses its role as the adaptation strategy and the factor of Russia's migration security.

Keywords: Comprehensive exam, migration policy, migration legislation, Russia's national security.

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218 Towards Better Understanding of the Concept of Tacit Knowledge – A Cognitive Approach

Authors: Ilkka J. Virtanen

Abstract:

Tacit knowledge has been one of the most discussed and contradictory concepts in the field of knowledge management since the mid 1990s. The concept is used relatively vaguely to refer to any type of information that is difficult to articulate, which has led to discussions about the original meaning of the concept (adopted from Polanyi-s philosophy) and the nature of tacit knowing. It is proposed that the subject should be approached from the perspective of cognitive science in order to connect tacit knowledge to empirically studied cognitive phenomena. Some of the most important examples of tacit knowing presented by Polanyi are analyzed in order to trace the cognitive mechanisms of tacit knowing and to promote better understanding of the nature of tacit knowledge. The cognitive approach to Polanyi-s theory reveals that the tacit/explicit typology of knowledge often presented in the knowledge management literature is not only artificial but totally opposite approach compared to Polanyi-s thinking.

Keywords: Cognitive science, explicit knowledge, knowledgemanagement, tacit knowledge.

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217 The Cost Structure of Intermodal Transportation: The Chilean Case

Authors: Mabel A. Leva

Abstract:

This study defines a methodology to compute unitary costs for freight transportation modes. The main objective was to gather relevant costs data to support the formulation and evaluation of railway, road, pipelines and port projects. This article will concentrate on the following steps: Compilation and analysis of relevant modal cost studies, Methodological adjustments to make cost figures comparable between studies, Definition of typology and scope of transportation modes, Analysis and validation of cost values for relevant freight transportation modes in Chile. In order to define the comparison methodology for the costs between the different transportation modes, it was necessary to consider that the relevant cost depends on who performs the comparison. Thus, for the transportation user (e.g. exporter) the pertinent costs are the mode tariffs, whereas from the operators perspective (e.g. rail manager), the pertinent costs are the operating costs of each mode.

Keywords: Intermodal costs, Logistics, Transportation costs.

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216 Typological Study of Traditional Mosque Ornamentation in Malaysia – Prospect of Traditional Ornament in Urban Mosque

Authors: N. Utaberta, S. D. M. Sojak, M. Surat, A. I. Che-Ani, M.M. Tahir

Abstract:

Since the admission of Islam onto the Malay World in 16th century, the Malay culture began to grow in line with the teachings of Islam as a guide of life. Mosque become a symbol of Muslim communities, as well as the cultural values that have been adapted represent the maturity and readiness of Malay Muslim in manifest a lifestyle tradition into the community. Refinement of ornament that used to take from Hindu-Buddhist beliefs before were adopted and refined to the Islamic values based on the teachings of al-Quran and as-Sunnah delivered a certain message to convey a meaning to the observer. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the typology and classification of ornaments in Malaysia-s traditional mosque as a channel to the community towards understanding of the identity and also the framework of design thinking in ornaments particularly to the urban mosques in Malaysia.

Keywords: Aesthetic, Malay Traditional Mosque, Ornamentation, Symbolism

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215 The HDH Model for the Development of Creative Structural Thinking and Its Applications to Other Systems

Authors: Mosseri Avraham

Abstract:

Teaching structures and structural design in architectural studies is considered a difficult mission due to complex reasons and circumstances. This article proposes a new conceptual model (HDH) for teaching structures and structural design in architectural studies. Because of its systems-thinking orientation it is also relevant and applicable to other fields and systems. The HDH model was developed in order to encourage the integration of science and art, especially in relation to structures, in architectural studies.

Keywords: Structural Thinking, Conceptual Design, Teaching Structures, Systems Thinking.

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214 A Type of Urban Genesis in Romanian Outer-Carpathian Area: the Genoan Cities

Authors: Denis Câprâroiu, Gica Pehoiu

Abstract:

The Mongol expansion in the West and the political and commercial interests arising from antagonisms between the Golden Horde and the Persian Ilkhanate determined the transformation of the Black Sea into an international trade turntable beginning with the last third of the XIIIth century. As the Volga Khanate attracted the maritime power of Genoa in the transcontinental project of deviating the Silk Road to its own benefit, the latter took full advantage of the new historical conjuncture, to the detriment of its rival, Venice. As a consequence, Genoa settled important urban centers on the Pontic shores, having mainly a commercial role. In the Romanian outer-Carpathian area, Vicina, Cetatea Albâ, and Chilia are notable, representing distinct, important types of cities within the broader context of the Romanian medieval urban genesis typology.

Keywords: Black Sea, Vicina, Cetatea Albâ, Chilia.

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213 Models of State Organization and Influence over Collective Identity and Nationalism in Spain

Authors: Muñoz-Sanchez, Victor Manuel, Perez-Flores, Antonio Manuel

Abstract:

The main objective of this paper is to establish the relationship between models of state organization and the various types of collective identity expressed by the Spanish. The question of nationalism and identity ascription in Spain has always been a topic of special importance due to the presence in that country of territories where the population emits very different opinions of nationalist sentiment than the rest of Spain. The current situation of sovereignty challenge of Catalonia to the central government exemplifies the importance of the subject matter. In order to analyze this process of interrelation, we use a secondary data mining by applying the multiple correspondence analysis technique (MCA). As a main result a typology of four types of expression of collective identity based on models of State organization are shown, which are connected with the party position on this issue.

Keywords: Models of organization of the state, nationalism, collective identity, Spain, political parties.

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212 The New Approach to Sustainability in the Design of Urban and Architectural Interiors – Elements of Composition Revised

Authors: Patrycja J. Haupt

Abstract:

Today we tend to go back to the past to our root relation to nature. Therefore in search of friendly spaces there are elements of natural environment introduced as elements of spatial composition. Though reinvented through the use of the new substance such as greenery, water etc. made possible by state of the art technologies, still, in principal, they remain the same. As a result, sustainable design, based upon the recognized means of composition in addition to the relation of architecture and urbanism vs. nature introduces a new aesthetical values into architectural and urban space.

Keywords: architectural composition, biodiversity, elements of composition, green architecture, sustainable design, urban composition, water management.

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211 Software Architectural Design Ontology

Authors: Muhammad Irfan Marwat, Sadaqat Jan, Syed Zafar Ali Shah

Abstract:

Software Architecture plays a key role in software development but absence of formal description of Software Architecture causes different impede in software development. To cope with these difficulties, ontology has been used as artifact. This paper proposes ontology for Software Architectural design based on IEEE model for architecture description and Kruchten 4+1 model for viewpoints classification. For categorization of style and views, ISO/IEC 42010 has been used. Corpus method has been used to evaluate ontology. The main aim of the proposed ontology is to classify and locate Software Architectural design information.

Keywords: Software Architecture Ontology, Semantic based Software Architecture, Software Architecture, Ontology, Software Engineering.

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210 The Relationship between the Architectural Style of the Area’s Residential Waterfront Communities of Bangnoi Floating Bangkhonthi Districts Samut Songkhram Province

Authors: Kunyaphat Thanakunwutthirot

Abstract:

Bangnoi Floating Market located at Bangkhonthi Districts Samut Songkhram Province is a valuable architectural market. The lifestyle of the community's relationship with the living space and the relationship between the architectural style of the area's residential waterfront communities of Bangnoi Floating Bangkhonthi Districts Samut Songkhram Province, which deserves to be preserved. Therefore, this research it helps to know the value of the architectural style of the area's residential waterfront communities of Bangnoi Floating Bangkhonthi Districts SamutSongkhram Province, which deserves to be preserved.

Keywords: Bangnoi Floating Market, floor plan of riverside community architecture, riverside architectural identity, style of riverside community architecture utility space.

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209 What Have Banks Done Wrong?

Authors: F. May Liou, Y. C. Edwin Tang

Abstract:

This paper aims to provide a conceptual framework to examine competitive disadvantage of banks that suffer from poor performance. Banks generate revenues mainly from the interest rate spread on taking deposits and making loans while collecting fees in the process. To maximize firm value, banks seek loan growth and expense control while managing risk associated with loans with respect to non-performing borrowers or narrowing interest spread between assets and liabilities. Competitive disadvantage refers to the failure to access imitable resources and to build managing capabilities to gain sustainable return given appropriate risk management. This paper proposes a four-quadrant framework of organizational typology is subsequently proposed to examine the features of competitive disadvantage in the banking sector. A resource configuration model, which is extracted from CAMEL indicators to examine the underlying features of bank failures.

Keywords: Bank failure, CAMEL, competitive disadvantage, resource configuration.

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