Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 731

Search results for: support carbon sequestration

731 A Supplier-Manufacturer Relationship Model for Teak Forest Carbon Sequestration and Teak Log Demand Fulfillment with Sustainability Consideration

Authors: Ririn Dewi Cahyani, Muh. Hisjam, Wahyudi Sutopo, Kuncoro Harto Widodo

Abstract:

Availability of raw materials is important for Indonesia as a furniture exporting country. Teak log as raw materials is supplied to the furniture industry by Perum Perhutani (PP). PP needs to involve carbon trading for nature conservation. PP also has an obligation in the Corporate Social Responsibility program. PP and furniture industry also must prosecute the regulations related to ecological issues and labor rights. This study has the objective to create the relationship model between supplier and manufacturer to fulfill teak log demand that involving teak forest carbon sequestration. A model is formulated as Goal Programming to get the favorable solution for teak log procurement and support carbon sequestration that considering economical, ecological, and social aspects of both supplier and manufacturer. The results show that the proposed model can be used to determine the teak log quantity involving carbon trading to achieve the seven goals to be satisfied the sustainability considerations.

Keywords: Availability of teak log, support carbon sequestration, goal programming, sustainability consideration.

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730 Improving Carbon Sequestration in Concrete: A Literature Review

Authors: Adedokun D. A., Ndambuki J. M., Salim R. W.

Abstract:

Due to urbanization, trees and plants which covered a great land mass of the earth and are an excellent carbon dioxide (CO2) absorber through photosynthesis are being replaced by several concrete based structures. It is therefore important to have these cement based structures absorb the large volume of carbon dioxide which the trees would have removed from the atmosphere during their useful lifespan. Hence the need for these cement based structures to be designed to serve other useful purposes in addition to shelter. This paper reviews the properties of Sodium carbonate and sugar as admixtures in concrete with respect to improving carbon sequestration in concrete.

Keywords: Carbon sequestration, Sodium carbonate, Sugar, concrete, Carbon dioxide.

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729 The Building Thermal Performance and Carbon Sequestration Evaluation for Psophocarpus tetrogonobulus on Biofaçade Wall in the Tropical Environment

Authors: Abdul M. A. Rahman , Foong S. Yeok, Atikah F. Amir

Abstract:

Plants are commonly known for its positive correlation in reducing temperature. Since it can benefit buildings by modifying the microclimate, it-s also believed capable of reducing the internal temperature. Various experiments have been done in Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang to investigate the comparison in thermal benefits between two rooms, one being a typical control room (exposed wall) and the other a biofacade room (plant shaded wall). The investigations were conducted during non-rainy season for approximately a month. Climbing plant Psophocarpus tetrogonobulus from legume species was selected as insulation for the biofacade wall. Conclusions were made on whether the biofacade can be used to tackle the energy efficiency, based on the parameters taken into consideration.

Keywords: biofacade, thermal benefits, carbon sequestration, Psophocarpus tetrogonobulus.

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728 Exploring Tree Growth Variables Influencing Carbon Sequestration in the Face of Climate Change

Authors: F. S. Eguakun, P. O. Adesoye

Abstract:

One of the major problems being faced by human society is that the global temperature is believed to be rising due to human activity that releases carbon IV Oxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. Carbon IV Oxide is the most important greenhouse gas influencing global warming and possible climate change. With climate change becoming alarming, reducing CO2 in our atmosphere has become a primary goal of international efforts. Forest lands are major sink and could absorb large quantities of carbon if the trees are judiciously managed. The study aims at estimating the carbon sequestration capacity of Pinus caribaea (pine) and Tectona grandis (Teak) under the prevailing environmental conditions and exploring tree growth variables that influences the carbon sequestration capacity in Omo Forest Reserve, Ogun State, Nigeria. Improving forest management by manipulating growth characteristics that influences carbon sequestration could be an adaptive strategy of forestry to climate change. Random sampling was used to select Temporary Sample Plots (TSPs) in the study area from where complete enumeration of growth variables was carried out within the plots. The data collected were subjected to descriptive and correlational analyses. The results showed that average carbon stored by Pine and Teak are 994.4±188.3 Kg and 1350.7±180.6 Kg respectively. The difference in carbon stored in the species is significant enough to consider choice of species relevant in climate change adaptation strategy. Tree growth variables influence the capacity of the tree to sequester carbon. Height, diameter, volume, wood density and age are positively correlated to carbon sequestration. These tree growth variables could be manipulated by the forest manager as an adaptive strategy for climate change while plantations of high wood density species could be relevant for management strategy to increase carbon storage.

Keywords: Adaptation, carbon sequestration, climate change, growth variables, wood density.

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727 Capability Investigation of Carbon Sequestration in Two Species (Artemisia sieberi Besser and Stipabarbata Desf) Under Different Treatments of Vegetation Management (Saveh, Iran)

Authors: M. Alizadeh, M. Mahdavi, M.H. Jouri

Abstract:

The rangelands, as one of the largest dynamic biomes in the world, have very capabilities. Regulation of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere, particularly carbon dioxide as the main these gases, is one of these cases. The attention to rangeland, as cheep and reachable resources to sequestrate the carbon dioxide, increases after the Industrial Revolution. Rangelands comprise the large parts of Iran as a steppic area. Rudshur (Saveh), as area index of steppic area, was selected under three sites include long-term exclosure, medium-term exclosure, and grazable area in order to the capable of carbon dioxide’s sequestration of dominated species. Canopy cover’s percentage of two dominated species (Artemisia sieberi Besser & Stipa barbata Desf) was determined via establishing of random 1 square meter plot. The sampling of above and below ground biomass style was obtained by complete random. After determination of ash percentage in the laboratory; conversion ratio of plant biomass to organic carbon was calculated by ignition method. Results of the paired t-test showed that the amount of carbon sequestration in above ground and underground biomass of Artemisia sieberi Besser & Stipa barbata Desf is different in three regions. It, of course, hasn’t any difference between under and surface ground’s biomass of Artemisia sieberi Besser in long-term exclosure. The independent t-test results indicate differences between underground biomass corresponding each other in the studied sites. Carbon sequestration in the Stipa barbata Desf was totally more than Artemisia sieberi Besser. Altogether, the average sequestration of the long-term exclosure was 5.842gr/m², the medium-term exclosure was 4.115gr/m², and grazable area was 5.975gr/m² so that there isn’t valuable statistical difference in term of total amount of carbon sequestration to three sites.

Keywords: Carbon sequestration, the Industrial Revolution, greenhouse gases, Artemisia sieberi Besser, Stipa barbata Desf, steppic rangelands

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726 Effect of Open Burning on Soil Carbon Stock in Sugarcane Plantation in Thailand

Authors: Wilaiwan Sornpoon, Sébastien Bonnet, Savitri Garivait

Abstract:

Open burning of sugarcane fields is recognized to have a negative impact on soil by degrading its properties, especially soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Better understating the effect of open burning on soil carbon dynamics is crucial for documenting the carbon sequestration capacity of agricultural soils. In this study, experiments to investigate soil carbon stocks under burned and unburned sugarcane plantation systems in Thailand were conducted. The results showed that cultivation fields without open burning during 5 consecutive years enabled to increase the SOC content at a rate of 1.37 Mg ha-1y-1. Also it was found that sugarcane fields burning led to about 15% reduction of the total carbon stock in the 0-30 cm soil layer. The overall increase in SOC under unburned practice is mainly due to the large input of organic material through the use of sugarcane residues. 

Keywords: Soil organic carbon, Soil inorganic carbon, Carbon sequestration, Open burning, Sugarcane.

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725 Production of Natural Gas Hydrate by Using Air and Carbon Dioxide

Authors: Yun-Ho Ahn, Hyery Kang, Dong-Yeun Koh, Huen Lee

Abstract:

In this study, we demonstrate the production of natural gas hydrates from permeable marine sediments with simultaneous mechanisms for methane recovery and methane-air or methane-air/carbon dioxide replacement. The simultaneous melting happens until the chemical potentials become equal in both phases as natural gas hydrate depletion continues and self-regulated methane-air replacement occurs over an arbitrary point. We observed certain point between dissociation and replacement mechanisms in the natural gas hydrate reservoir, and we call this boundary as critical methane concentration. By the way, when carbon dioxide was added, the process of chemical exchange of methane by air/carbon dioxide was observed in the natural gas hydrate. The suggested process will operate well for most global natural gas hydrate reservoirs, regardless of the operating conditions or geometrical constraints.

Keywords: Air injection, Carbon dioxide sequestration, Hydrate production, Natural gas hydrate.

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724 Prospects in Waste Oil Shale Ash Sustainable Valorization

Authors: Olga Velts, Mai Uibu, Juha Kallas, Rein Kuusik

Abstract:

An innovative approach utilizing highly alkaline oil shale waste ash and carbon dioxide gas (CO2), associated with power production, as a resource for production of precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) is introduced in this paper. The specifics and feasibility of the integrated ash valorization and CO2 sequestration process by indirect aqueous carbonation of lime-consisting ash were elaborated and the main parameters established. Detailed description of the formed precipitates was included. Complimentary carbonation experiments with commercial CaO fine powder were conducted for comparative characterization of the final products obtained on the basis of two different raw materials. Finally, the expected CO2 uptake was evaluated.

Keywords: Calcium Carbonate, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration, Oil Shale Ash, Waste Valorization.

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723 CO2 Sequestration Potential of Construction and Demolition Alkaline Waste Material in Indian Perspective

Authors: G.Anjali, M.Bhavya, N.Arvind Kumar

Abstract:

In order to avoid the potentially devastating consequences of global warming and climate change, the carbon dioxide “CO2" emissions caused due to anthropogenic activities must be reduced considerably. This paper presents the first study examining the feasibility of carbon sequestration in construction and demolition “C&D" waste. Experiments were carried out in a self fabricated Batch Reactor at 40ºC, relative humidity of 50-70%, and flow rate of CO2 at 10L/min for 1 hour for water-to-solids ratio of 0.2 to 1.2. The effect of surface area was found by comparing the theoretical extent of carbonation of two different sieve sizes (0.3mm and 2.36mm) of C&D waste. A 38.44% of the theoretical extent of carbonation equating to 4% CO2 sequestration extent was obtained for C&D waste sample for 0.3mm sieve size. Qualitative, quantitative and morphological analyses were done to validate carbonate formation using X-ray diffraction “X.R.D.," thermal gravimetric analysis “T.G.A., “X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy “X.R.F.," and scanning electron microscopy “S.E.M".

Keywords: Alkaline waste, construction and demolition waste, CO2 sequestration, mineral carbonation.

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722 Synthesis of Aragonite Superstructure from Steelmaking Slag via Indirect CO2 Mineral Sequestration

Authors: Weijun Bao, Huiquan Li

Abstract:

Using steelmaking slag as a raw material, aragonite superstructure product had been synthesized via an indirect CO2 mineral sequestration rout. It mainly involved two separate steps, in which the element of calcium is first selectively leached from steelmaking slag by a novel leaching media consisting of organic solvent Tributyl phosphate (TBP), acetic acid, and ultra-purity water, followed by enhanced carbonation in a separate step for aragonite superstructure production as well as efficiency recovery of leaching media. Based on the different leaching medium employed in the steelmaking slag leaching process, two typical products were collected from the enhanced carbonation step. The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. It reveals that the needle-like aragonite crystals self-organized into aragonite superstructure particles including aragonite microspheres as well as dumbbell-like spherical particles, can be obtained from the steelmaking slag with the purity over 99%.

Keywords: Aragonite superstructure, Steelmaking slag, Indirect CO2 mineral sequestration, Selective leaching, Enhanced carbonation.

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721 Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized Using Sugar Cane as a Percursor

Authors: Vanessa Romanovicz, Beatriz A. Berns, Stephen D. Carpenter, Deyse Carpenter

Abstract:

This article deals with the carbon nanotubes (CNT) synthesized from a novel precursor, sugar cane and Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO). The objective was to produce CNTs to be used as catalyst supports for Proton Exchange Membranes. The influence of temperature, inert gas flow rate and concentration of the precursor is presented. The CNTs prepared were characterized using TEM, XRD, Raman Spectroscopy, and the surface area determined by BET. The results show that it is possible to form CNT from sugar cane by pyrolysis and the CNTs are the type multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The MWCNTs are short and closed at the two ends with very small surface area of SBET= 3.691m,/g.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, sugar cane, fuel cell, catalyst support.

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720 Simulation of Reflection Loss for Carbon and Nickel-Carbon Thin Films

Authors: M. Emami, R. Tarighi, R. Goodarzi

Abstract:

Maximal radar wave absorbing cannot be achieved by shaping alone. We have to focus on the parameters of absorbing materials such as permittivity, permeability, and thickness so that best absorbing according to our necessity can happen. The real and imaginary parts of the relative complex permittivity (εr' and εr") and permeability (µr' and µr") were obtained by simulation. The microwave absorbing property of carbon and Ni(C) is simulated in this study by MATLAB software; the simulation was in the frequency range between 2 to 12 GHz for carbon black (C), and carbon coated nickel (Ni(C)) with different thicknesses. In fact, we draw reflection loss (RL) for C and Ni-C via frequency. We have compared their absorption for 3-mm thickness and predicted for other thicknesses by using of electromagnetic wave transmission theory. The results showed that reflection loss position changes in low frequency with increasing of thickness. We found out that, in all cases, using nanocomposites as absorbance cannot get better results relative to pure nanoparticles. The frequency where absorption is maximum can determine the best choice between nanocomposites and pure nanoparticles. Also, we could find an optimal thickness for long wavelength absorbing in order to utilize them in protecting shields and covering.

Keywords: Absorbing, carbon, carbon nickel, frequency, thicknesses.

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719 Statistically Significant Differences of Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide Emission in Photocopying Process

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Kecić S. Vesna, Oros B. Ivana

Abstract:

Experimental results confirmed the temporal variation of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentration during the working shift of the photocopying process in a small photocopying shop in Novi Sad, Serbia. The statistically significant differences of target gases were examined with two-way analysis of variance without replication followed by Scheffe's post hoc test. The existence of statistically significant differences was obtained for carbon monoxide emission which is pointed out with F-values (12.37 and 31.88) greater than Fcrit (6.94) in contrary to carbon dioxide emission (F-values of 1.23 and 3.12 were less than Fcrit).  Scheffe's post hoc test indicated that sampling point A (near the photocopier machine) and second time interval contribute the most on carbon monoxide emission.

Keywords: Analysis of variance, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, photocopying indoor, Scheffe's test

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718 Total Organic Carbon, Porosity and Permeability Correlation: A Tool for Carbon Dioxide Storage Potential Evaluation in Irati Formation of the Parana Basin, Brazil

Authors: Richardson M. Abraham-A., Colombo Celso Gaeta Tassinari

Abstract:

The correlation between Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and flow units have been carried out to predict and compare the carbon dioxide (CO2) storage potential of the shale and carbonate rocks in Irati Formation of the Parana Basin. The equations for permeability (K), reservoir quality index (RQI) and flow zone indicator (FZI) are redefined and engaged to evaluate the flow units in both potential reservoir rocks. Shales show higher values of TOC compared to carbonates, as such,  porosity (Ф) is most likely to be higher in shales compared to carbonates. The increase in Ф corresponds to the increase in K (in both rocks). Nonetheless, at lower values of Ф, K is higher in carbonates compared to shales. This shows that at lower values of TOC in carbonates, Ф is low, yet, K is likely to be high compared to shale. In the same vein, at higher values of TOC in shales, Ф is high, yet, K is expected to be low compared to carbonates.  Overall, the flow unit factors (RQI and FZI) are better in the carbonates compared to the shales. Moreso, within the study location,  there are some portions where the thicknesses of the carbonate units are higher compared to the shale units. Most parts of the carbonate strata in the study location are fractured in situ, hence,  this could provide easy access for the storage of CO2. Therefore, based on these points and the disparities between the flow units in the evaluated rock types, the carbonate units are expected to show better potentials for the storage of CO2. The shale units may be considered as potential cap rocks or seals.

Keywords: Total organic carbon, flow units, carbon dioxide storage.

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717 Risk Factors’ Analysis on Shanghai Carbon Trading

Authors: Zhaojun Wang, Zongdi Sun, Zhiyuan Liu

Abstract:

First of all, the carbon trading price and trading volume in Shanghai are transformed by Fourier transform, and the frequency response diagram is obtained. Then, the frequency response diagram is analyzed and the Blackman filter is designed. The Blackman filter is used to filter, and the carbon trading time domain and frequency response diagram are obtained. After wavelet analysis, the carbon trading data were processed; respectively, we got the average value for each 5 days, 10 days, 20 days, 30 days, and 60 days. Finally, the data are used as input of the Back Propagation Neural Network model for prediction.

Keywords: Shanghai carbon trading, carbon trading price, carbon trading volume, wavelet analysis, BP neural network model.

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716 A Framework to Support the Design of Mobile Applications

Authors: E. Platzer

Abstract:

This paper introduces a framework that aims to support the design and development of mobile services. The traditional innovation process and its supporting instruments in form of creativity tools, acceptance research and user-generated content analysis are screened for potentials for improvement. The result is a reshaped innovation process where acceptance research and usergenerated content analysis are fully integrated within a creativity tool. Advantages of this method are the enhancement of design relevant information for developers and designers and the possibility to forecast market success.

Keywords: design support, innovation support, technology acceptance, user-generated content analysis.

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715 The Low-carbon Transition Exploration of China's Traditional Manufacturing Industries

Authors: Heng Ma

Abstract:

Aiming at the problems existing in low-carbon technology of Chinese manufacturing industries, such as irrational energy structure, lack of technological innovation, financial constraints, this paper puts forward the suggestion that the leading role of the government is combined with the roles of enterprises and market. That is, through increasing the governmental funding the adjustment of the industrial structures and enhancement of the legal supervision are supported. Technological innovation is accelerated by the enterprises, and the carbon trading will be promoted so as to trigger the low-carbon revolution in Chinese manufacturing field.

Keywords: Low-carbon economy, traditional manufacturing industry, industrial structure, carbon emission reduction.

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714 Reasons for the Slow Uptake of Embodied Carbon Estimation in the Sri Lankan Building Sector

Authors: Amalka Nawarathna, Nirodha Fernando, Zaid Alwan

Abstract:

Global carbon reduction is not merely a responsibility of environmentally advanced developed countries, but also a responsibility of developing countries regardless of their less impact on global carbon emissions. In recognition of that, Sri Lanka as a developing country has initiated promoting green building construction as one reduction strategy. However, notwithstanding the increasing attention on Embodied Carbon (EC) reduction in the global building sector, they still mostly focus on Operational Carbon (OC) reduction (through improving operational energy). An adequate attention has not yet been given on EC estimation and reduction. Therefore, this study aims to identify the reasons for the slow uptake of EC estimation in the Sri Lankan building sector. To achieve this aim, 16 numbers of global barriers to estimate EC were identified through existing literature. They were then subjected to a pilot survey to identify the significant reasons for the slow uptake of EC estimation in the Sri Lankan building sector. A questionnaire with a three-point Likert scale was used to this end. The collected data were analysed using descriptive statistics. The findings revealed that 11 out of 16 challenges/ barriers are highly relevant as reasons for the slow uptake in estimating EC in buildings in Sri Lanka while the other five challenges/ barriers remain as moderately relevant reasons. Further, the findings revealed that there are no low relevant reasons. Eventually, the paper concluded that all the known reasons are significant to the Sri Lankan building sector and it is necessary to address them in order to upturn the attention on EC reduction.

Keywords: Embodied carbon emissions, embodied carbon estimation, global carbon reduction, Sri Lankan building sector.

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713 Strengthening RC Columns Using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites Modified with Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Mohammad R. Irshidat, Mohammed H. Al-Saleh, Mahmoud Al-Shoubaki

Abstract:

This paper investigates the viability of using carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites modified with carbon nanotubes to strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) columns. Six RC columns was designed and constructed according to ASCE standards. The columns were wrapped using carbon fiber sheets impregnated with either neat epoxy or CNTs modified epoxy. These columns were then tested under concentric axial loading. Test results show that; compared to the unwrapped specimens; wrapping concrete columns with carbon fiber sheet embedded in CNTs modified epoxy resulted in an increase in its axial load resistance, maximum displacement, and toughness values by 24%, 109% and 232%, respectively. These results reveal that adding CNTs into epoxy resin enhanced the confinement effect, specifically, increased the axial load resistance, maximum displacement, and toughness values by 11%, 6%, and 19%, respectively compared with columns strengthening with carbon fiber sheet embedded in neat epoxy.

Keywords: CNT, epoxy, Carbon fiber, RC columns.

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712 Unsteady Simulation of Burning Off Carbon Deposition in a Coke Oven

Authors: Uzu-Kuei Hsu, Keh-Chin Chang, Joo-Guan Hang

Abstract:

Carbon Deposits are often occurred inside the industrial coke oven during coking process. Accumulation of carbon deposits may cause a big issue, which seriously influences the coking operation. The carbon is burning off by injecting fresh air through pipes into coke oven which is an efficient way practically operated in industries. The burning off carbon deposition in coke oven performed by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method has provided an evaluation of the feasibility study. A three dimensional, transient, turbulent reacting flow simulation has performed with three different injecting air flow rate and another kind of injecting configuration. The result shows that injection higher air flow rate would effectively reduce the carbon deposits. In the meantime, the opened charging holes would suck extra oxygen from atmosphere to participate in reactions. In term of coke oven operating limits, the wall temperatures are monitored to prevent over-heating of the adiabatic walls during burn-off process.

Keywords: Coke oven, burning off, carbon deposits, carbon combustion, CFD.

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711 Estimation of Carbon Released From Dry Dipterocarp Forest Fire in Thailand

Authors: Ubonwan Chaiyo, Yannick Pizzo, Savitri Garivait

Abstract:

This study focused on the estimation of carbon released to the atmosphere from dry dipterocarp forest (DDF) fires in Thailand. Laboratory experiments were conducted using a cone calorimeter to simulate the DDF fires. The leaf litter collected from DDF in western Thailand was used as biomass fuel. Three different masses of leaf litter were employed, 7g, 10g and 13g, to estimate the carbon released from this type of vegetation fire to the atmosphere. The chemical analysis of the leaf litter showed that the carbon content in the experimental biomass fuel was 46.0±0.1%. From the experiments, it was found that more than 95% of the carbon input was converted to carbon released to the atmosphere, while less than 5% were left in the form of residues, and returned to soil. From the study, the carbon released amounted 440.213±2.243 g/kgdry biomass, and the carbon retained in the residues was 19.786±2.243 g/kgdry biomass. The quantity of biomass fuel consumed to produce 1 g of carbon released was 2.27±0.01gkgdry biomass. Using these experimental data of carbon produced by the DDF fires, it was estimated that this type of fires in 2009 contributed to 4.659 tonnes of carbon released to the atmosphere, and 0.229 tonnes of carbon in the residues to be returned to soil in Thailand.

Keywords: Carbon mass balance, carbon released, tropical dry dipterocarp forest, biomass bunring.

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710 Thermodynamic Analysis of Activated Carbon- CO2 based Adsorption Cooling Cycles

Authors: Skander Jribi, Anutosh Chakraborty, Ibrahim I. El-Sharkawy, Bidyut Baran Saha, Shigeru Koyama

Abstract:

Heat powered solid sorption is a feasible alternative to electrical vapor compression refrigeration systems. In this paper, activated carbon (powder type Maxsorb and fiber type ACF-A10)- CO2 based adsorption cooling cycles are studied using the pressuretemperature- concentration (P-T-W) diagram. The specific cooling effect (SCE) and the coefficient of performance (COP) of these two cooling systems are simulated for the driving heat source temperatures ranging from 30 ºC to 90 ºC in terms of different cooling load temperatures with a cooling source temperature of 25 ºC. It is found from the present analysis that Maxsorb-CO2 couple shows higher cooling capacity and COP. The maximum COPs of Maxsorb-CO2 and ACF(A10)-CO2 based cooling systems are found to be 0.15 and 0.083, respectively. The main innovative feature of this cooling cycle is the ability to utilize low temperature waste heat or solar energy using CO2 as the refrigerant, which is one of the best alternative for applications where flammability and toxicity are not allowed.

Keywords: Activated carbon, Adsorption cooling system, Carbon dioxide, Performance evaluation.

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709 A Study on the Removal of Trace Organic Matter in Water Treatment Procedures Using Powder-activated Carbon Biofilm

Authors: Rou-Han Lee, Jie, Chung Lou, Huang-Ming Fang

Abstract:

This study uses natural water and the surface properties of powdered activated carbon to acclimatize organics, forming biofilms on the surface of powdered activated carbon. To investigate the influence of different hydraulic retention times on the removal efficacy of trace organics in raw water, and to determine the optimal hydraulic retention time of a biological powdered activated carbon system, this study selects ozone-treated water processed by Feng-shan Advanced Water Purification Plant in southern Taiwan for the experiment. The evaluation indicators include assimilable organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and total organic carbon. The results of this study can improve the quality of drinking water treated using advanced water purification procedures.

Keywords: Water Purification Procedures, Biological Powdered Activated Carbon System, Assimilable Organic Carbon

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708 Beneficiation of Pyrolitic Carbon Black

Authors: Jefrey Pilusa, Edison Muzenda

Abstract:

This research investigated treatment of crude carbon black produced from pyrolysis of waste tyres in order to evaluate its quality and possible industrial applications. A representative sample of crude carbon black was dry screened to determine the initial particle size distribution. This was followed by pulverizing the crude carbon black and leaching in hot concentrated sulphuric acid for the removal of heavy metals and other contaminants. Analysis of the refined carbon black showed a significant improvement of the product quality compared to crude carbon black. It was discovered that refined carbon black can be further classified into multiple high value products for various industrial applications such as filler, paint pigment, activated carbon and fuel briquettes.

Keywords: Activated Carbon, Briquettes, Fuel, Filler, Pyrolysis.

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707 Characterization of Carbon Based Nanometer Scale Coil Growth

Authors: C. C. Su, S. H. Chang

Abstract:

The carbon based coils with the nanometer scale have the 3 dimension helix geometry. We synthesized the carbon nano-coils by the use of chemical vapor deposition technique with iron and tin as the catalysts. The fabricated coils have the external diameter of ranging few hundred nm to few thousand nm. The Scanning Electro-Microscope (SEM) and Tunneling Electro-Microscope has shown detail images of the coil-s structure. The fabrication of the carbon nano-coils can be grown on the metal and non-metal substrates, such as the stainless steel and silicon substrates. Besides growth on the flat substrate; they also can be grown on the stainless steel wires. After the synthesis of the coils, the mechanical and electro-mechanical property is measured. The experimental results were reported.

Keywords: Carbon nanocoils, chemical vapor deposition, nano-materials

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706 Investigation of Gas Phase Composition During Carbon Nanotube Production

Authors: S. Yaglikci, B. Salgara, F. Soysal, B. Cicek

Abstract:

Chemical vapor deposition method was used to produce carbon nanotubes on an iron based catalyst from acetylene. Gas-phase samples collected from the different positions of the tubular reactor were analyzed by GC/MS. A variety of species ranging from hydrogen to naphthalene were observed and changes in their concentrations were plotted against the reactor position. Briefly benzene, toluene, styrene, indene and naphthalene were the main higher molecular weight species and vinylacetylene and diacetylene were the important intermediates. Nanotube characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, chemical vapor deposition, GC/MS, species profile

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705 The Sequestration of Heavy Metals Contaminating the Wonderfonteinspruit Catchment Area using Natural Zeolite

Authors: P.P. Diale, S.S.L. Mkhize, E. Muzenda, J. Zimba

Abstract:

For more than 120 years, gold mining formed the backbone the South Africa-s economy. The consequence of mine closure was observed in large-scale land degradation and widespread pollution of surface water and groundwater. This paper investigates the feasibility of using natural zeolite in removing heavy metals contaminating the Wonderfonteinspruit Catchment Area (WCA), a water stream with high levels of heavy metals and radionuclide pollution. Batch experiments were conducted to study the adsorption behavior of natural zeolite with respect to Fe2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+. The data was analysed using the Langmuir and Freudlich isotherms. Langmuir was found to correlate the adsorption of Fe2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ better, with the adsorption capacity of 11.9 mg/g, 1.2 mg/g, 1.3 mg/g, and 14.7 mg/g, respectively. Two kinetic models namely, pseudo-first order and pseudo second order were also tested to fit the data. Pseudo-second order equation was found to be the best fit for the adsorption of heavy metals by natural zeolite. Zeolite functionalization with humic acid increased its uptake ability.

Keywords: gold-mining, natural zeolites, water pollution, WestRand.

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704 Supply Chain Decarbonisation – A Cost-Based Decision Support Model in Slow Steaming Maritime Operations

Authors: Eugene Y. C. Wong, Henry Y. K. Lau, Mardjuki Raman

Abstract:

CO2 emissions from maritime transport operations represent a substantial part of the total greenhouse gas emission. Vessels are designed with better energy efficiency. Minimizing CO2 emission in maritime operations plays an important role in supply chain decarbonisation. This paper reviews the initiatives on slow steaming operations towards the reduction of carbon emission. It investigates the relationship and impact among slow steaming cost reduction, carbon emission reduction, and shipment delay. A scenario-based cost-driven decision support model is developed to facilitate the selection of the optimal slow steaming options, considering the cost on bunker fuel consumption, available speed, carbon emission, and shipment delay. The incorporation of the social cost of cargo is reviewed and suggested. Additional measures on the effect of vessels sizes, routing, and type of fuels towards decarbonisation are discussed.

Keywords: Slow steaming, carbon emission, maritime logistics, sustainability, green supply chain.

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703 Study of Structure and Properties of Polyester/Carbon Blends for Technical Applications

Authors: Manisha A. Hira, Arup Rakshit

Abstract:

Textile substrates are endowed with flexibility and ease of making–up, but are non-conductors of electricity. Conductive materials like carbon can be incorporated into textile structures to make flexible conductive materials. Such conductive textiles find applications as electrostatic discharge materials, electromagnetic shielding materials and flexible materials to carry current or signals. This work focuses on use of carbon fiber as conductor of electricity. Carbon fibers in staple or tow form can be incorporated in textile yarn structure to conduct electricity. The paper highlights the process for development of these conductive yarns of polyester/carbon using Friction spinning (DREF) as well as ring spinning. The optimized process parameters for processing hybrid structure of polyester with carbon tow on DREF spinning and polyester with carbon staple fiber using ring spinning have been presented. The studies have been linked to highlight the electrical conductivity of the developed yarns. Further, the developed yarns have been incorporated as weft in fabric and their electrical conductivity has been evaluated. The paper demonstrates the structure and properties of fabrics developed from such polyester/carbon blend yarns and their suitability as electrically dissipative fabrics.

Keywords: Carbon fiber, hybrid yarns, electrostatic dissipative fabrics.

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702 Forming of Nanodimentional Structure Parts in Carbon Steels

Authors: A. Korchunov, M. Chukin, N. Koptseva, M. Polyakova, A. Gulin

Abstract:

A way of achieving nanodimentional structural elements in high carbon steel by special kind of heat treatment and cold plastic deformation is being explored. This leads to increasing interlamellar spacing of ferrite-carbide mixture. Decreasing the interlamellar spacing with cooling temperature increasing is determined. Experiments confirm such interlamellar spacing with which high carbon steel demonstrates the highest treatment and hardening capability. Total deformation degree effect on interlamellar spacing value in a ferrite-carbide mixture is obtained. Mechanical experiments results show that high carbon steel after heat treatment and repetitive cold plastic deformation possesses high tensile strength and yield strength keeping good percentage elongation.

Keywords: High-carbon steel, nanodimensional structural element, interlamellar spacing.

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