Supply Chain Decarbonisation – A Cost-Based Decision Support Model in Slow Steaming Maritime Operations
CO2 emissions from maritime transport operations represent a substantial part of the total greenhouse gas emission. Vessels are designed with better energy efficiency. Minimizing CO2 emission in maritime operations plays an important role in supply chain decarbonisation. This paper reviews the initiatives on slow steaming operations towards the reduction of carbon emission. It investigates the relationship and impact among slow steaming cost reduction, carbon emission reduction, and shipment delay. A scenario-based cost-driven decision support model is developed to facilitate the selection of the optimal slow steaming options, considering the cost on bunker fuel consumption, available speed, carbon emission, and shipment delay. The incorporation of the social cost of cargo is reviewed and suggested. Additional measures on the effect of vessels sizes, routing, and type of fuels towards decarbonisation are discussed.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1091174Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2345
 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2007, Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report.
 Metz, B., 2007, Climate Change 2007-Mitigation of Climate Change: Working Group III Contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC, Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.
 Boden, T.A., Marland, G., and Andres, R.J., 2010, Global, Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn., U.S.A. doi 10.3334/CDIAC/00001_V2010.
 Solomon S., 2007, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Working Group I, 2007, Climate change 2007: the physical science basis : contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2007.
 Environmental Protection Agency, 2013, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2011.
 International Maritime Organization (IMO), 2009, Second IMO GHG Study 2009.
 Hetland, J., Mulder, G., 2007, In Search of a Sustainable Hydrogen Economy: How a Large-Scale Transition to Hydrogen May Affect the Primary Energy Demand and Greenhouse Gas Emissions, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Elsevier.
 Cariou, P., 2011, Is Slow Steaming a Sustainable Means of Reducing CO2 Emissions from Container Shipping, Transportation Research Part D, 16, pp. 260-264.
 Psaraftis, H.N., Kontovas, C.A., 2010, Balancing the Economic and Environmental Performance of Maritime Transportation, Transportation Research Part D, 15, pp. 458-462.
 Lindstad, H., AsbjØrnslett, B.E., StrØmman, A.H., 2011, Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Cost by Shipping at Lower Speeds, Energy Policy, 39, pp. 3456-3464.
 Psaraftis, H.N., Kontovas, C.A., 2012, Speed Models for Energy-Efficient Maritime Transportation: A Taxonomy and Survey, Transportation Research Part C, 26, pp. 331-351.
 Miola, A., Ciuffo, B., 2011, Estimating Air Emissions from Ships: Meta-Analysis of Modeling, Atmospheric Environment, 45, pp. 2242-2251.
 Meyer, J., Stahlbock, Voβ, 2012, Slow Steaming in Container Shipping, 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Science, IEEE, pp. 1306-1314.
 Brouer, B.D., Dirksen, J., Pisinger, D., Plum C.E.M., Vaaben, B., 2013, The Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) – A MIP Model for Handling Disruptions in Liner Shipping, European Journal of Operational Research, 224, pp. 362-374.
 Johnson, L.T., and Hope, C., 2012, The Social Cost of Carbon in U.S. Regulatory Impact Analyses: An Introduction and Critique, Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences September 2012, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp 205-221.
 Interagency Working Group, 2010, Technical Support Document: - Social Cost of Carbon for Regulatory Impact Analysis – Under Executive Order 12866.
 Holladay, J.S., Schwartz, J.A., 2009, The Other Side of the Coin: The Economic Beneﬁts of Climate Legislation. Institute for Policy Integrity, New York, University School of Law.
 Tol, RSJ. 2009. The Economic Effects of Climate Change. Journal of Economic Perspectives23: 29–51.
 Tallis, H.T., Ricketts, T., Guerry, A.D., Wood, S.A., Sharp, R., 2013, InVEST 2.5.6 User's Guide: Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs. The Natural Capital Project, Standford.
 Faber, J., Freund, M., Kopke, M., Nelissen, D., 2010, Going Slow to Reduce Emission: Can the Current Surplus of Maritime Transport Capacity be Turned into an Opportunity to Reduce GHG Emissions? Sea at Risk.
 Lindstad, H., AsbjØrnslett, B.E., StrØmman, A.H., 2012, The Importance of Economies of Scale for Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Shipping, Energy Policy, 46, pp. 386-398.
 Tai, H.H., Lin, D.Y., 2013, Comparing the Unit Emissions of Daily Frequency and Slow Steaming Strategies on Trunk Route Deployment in International Container Shipping, Transportation Research Part D, 21, pp. 26-31.
 Armstrong, V.N., 2013, Vessel Optimization for Low Carbon Shipping, Ocean Engineering.