Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 49

Search results for: non-Newtonian fluids

49 Exact Solution of Some Helical Flows of Newtonian Fluids

Authors: Imran Siddique

Abstract:

This paper deals with the helical flow of a Newtonian fluid in an infinite circular cylinder, due to both longitudinal and rotational shear stress. The velocity field and the resulting shear stress are determined by means of the Laplace and finite Hankel transforms and satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions. For large times, these solutions reduce to the well-known steady-state solutions.

Keywords: Newtonian fluids, Velocity field, Exact solutions, Shear stress, Cylindrical domains.

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48 Mixing Behaviors of Shear-Thinning Fluids in Serpentine-Channel Micromixers

Authors: Rei-Tang Tsai, Chih-Yang Wu, Chia-Yuan Chang, Ming-Ying Kuo

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the mixing behaviors of deionized (DI) water and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) solutions in C-shaped serpentine micromixers over a wide range of flow conditions. The flow of CMC solutions exhibits shear-thinning behaviors. Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of the mean flow speed, fluid properties and geometry parameters on flow and mixing in the micromixers with the serpentine channel of the same overall channel length. From the results, we can find the following trends. When convection dominates fluid mixing, the curvature-induced vortices enhance fluid mixing effectively. The mixing efficiency of a micromixer consisting of semicircular C-shaped repeating units with a smaller centerline radius is better than that of a micromixer consisting of major segment repeating units with a larger centerline radius. The viscosity of DI water is less than the overall average apparent viscosity of CMC solutions, and so the effect of curvature-induced vortices on fluid mixing in DI water is larger than that in CMC solutions for the cases with the same mean flow speed.

Keywords: Microfluidics, mixing, non-Newtonian fluids, curved channel, vortex.

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47 Oscillatory Electroosmotic Flow of Power-Law Fluids in a Microchannel

Authors: Rubén Bãnos, José Arcos, Oscar Bautista, Federico Méndez

Abstract:

The Oscillatory electroosmotic flow (OEOF) in power law fluids through a microchannel is studied numerically. A time-dependent external electric field (AC) is suddenly imposed at the ends of the microchannel which induces the fluid motion. The continuity and momentum equations in the x and y direction for the flow field were simplified in the limit of the lubrication approximation theory (LAT), and then solved using a numerical scheme. The solution of the electric potential is based on the Debye-H¨uckel approximation which suggest that the surface potential is small,say, smaller than 0.025V and for a symmetric (z : z) electrolyte. Our results suggest that the velocity profiles across the channel-width are controlled by the following dimensionless parameters: the angular Reynolds number, Reω, the electrokinetic parameter, ¯κ, defined as the ratio of the characteristic length scale to the Debye length, the parameter λ which represents the ratio of the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski velocity to the characteristic length scale and the flow behavior index, n. Also, the results reveal that the velocity profiles become more and more non-uniform across the channel-width as the Reω and ¯κ are increased, so oscillatory OEOF can be really useful in micro-fluidic devices such as micro-mixers.

Keywords: Oscillatory electroosmotic flow, Non-Newtonian fluids, power-law model, low zeta potentials.

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46 Effects of Pressure and Temperature on the Extraction of Benzyl Isothiocyanate by Supercritical Fluids from Tropaeolum majus L. Leaves

Authors: Espinoza S. Clara, Gamarra Q. Flor, Marianela F. Ramos Quispe S. Miguel, Flores R. Omar

Abstract:

Tropaeolum majus L. is a native plant to South and Central America, used since ancient times by our ancestors to combat different diseases. Glucotropaeolonin is one of its main components, which when hydrolyzed, forms benzyl isothiocyanate (BIT) that promotes cellular apoptosis (programmed cell death in cancer cells). Therefore, the present research aims to evaluate the effect of the pressure and temperature of BIT extraction by supercritical CO2 from Tropaeolum majus L. The extraction was carried out in a supercritical fluid extractor equipment Speed SFE BASIC Brand: Poly science, the leaves of Tropaeolum majus L. were ground for one hour and lyophilized until obtaining a humidity of 6%. The extraction with supercritical CO2 was carried out with pressures of 200 bar and 300 bar, temperatures of 50°C, 60°C and 70°C, obtained by the conjugation of these six treatments. BIT was identified by thin layer chromatography using 98% BIT as the standard, and as the mobile phase hexane: dichloromethane (4:2). Subsequently, BIT quantification was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The highest yield of oleoresin by supercritical CO2 extraction was obtained pressure 300 bar and temperature at 60°C; and the higher content of BIT at pressure 200 bar and 70°C for 30 minutes to obtain 113.615 ± 0.03 mg BIT/100 g dry matter was obtained.

Keywords: Tropaeolum majus L., supercritical fluids, benzyl isothiocyanate.

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45 Applying Different Working Fluids in a Combined Power and Ejector Refrigeration Cycle with Low Temperature Heat Sources

Authors: Samad Jafarmadar, Amin Habibzadeh

Abstract:

A power and cooling cycle, which combines the organic Rankine cycle and the ejector refrigeration cycle supplied by waste heat energy sources, is discussed in this paper. 13 working fluids including wet, dry, and isentropic fluids are studied in order to find their performances on the combined cycle. Various operating conditions’ effects on the proposed cycle are examined by fixing power/refrigeration ratio. According to the results, dry and isentropic fluids have better performance compared with wet fluids.

Keywords: Combined power and refrigeration cycle, low temperature heat sources, organic rankine cycle, working fluids.

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44 Heat Transfer Dependent Vortex Shedding of Thermo-Viscous Shear-Thinning Fluids

Authors: Markus Rütten, Olaf Wünsch

Abstract:

Non-Newtonian fluid properties can change the flow behaviour significantly, its prediction is more difficult when thermal effects come into play. Hence, the focal point of this work is the wake flow behind a heated circular cylinder in the laminar vortex shedding regime for thermo-viscous shear thinning fluids. In the case of isothermal flows of Newtonian fluids the vortex shedding regime is characterised by a distinct Reynolds number and an associated Strouhal number. In the case of thermo-viscous shear thinning fluids the flow regime can significantly change in dependence of the temperature of the viscous wall of the cylinder. The Reynolds number alters locally and, consequentially, the Strouhal number globally. In the present CFD study the temperature dependence of the Reynolds and Strouhal number is investigated for the flow of a Carreau fluid around a heated cylinder. The temperature dependence of the fluid viscosity has been modelled by applying the standard Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation. In the present simulation campaign thermal boundary conditions have been varied over a wide range in order to derive a relation between dimensionless heat transfer, Reynolds and Strouhal number. Together with the shear thinning due to the high shear rates close to the cylinder wall this leads to a significant decrease of viscosity of three orders of magnitude in the nearfield of the cylinder and a reduction of two orders of magnitude in the wake field. Yet the shear thinning effect is able to change the flow topology: a complex K´arm´an vortex street occurs, also revealing distinct characteristic frequencies associated with the dominant and sub-dominant vortices. Heating up the cylinder wall leads to a delayed flow separation and narrower wake flow, giving lesser space for the sequence of counter-rotating vortices. This spatial limitation does not only reduce the amplitude of the oscillating wake flow it also shifts the dominant frequency to higher frequencies, furthermore it damps higher harmonics. Eventually the locally heated wake flow smears out. Eventually, the CFD simulation results of the systematically varied thermal flow parameter study have been used to describe a relation for the main characteristic order parameters.

Keywords: Heat transfer, thermo-viscous fluids, shear thinning, vortex shedding.

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43 CFD Parametric Study of Mixers Performance

Authors: Mikhail Strongin

Abstract:

The mixing of two or more liquids is very common in many industrial applications from automotive to food processing. CFD simulations of these processes require comparison with test results. In many cases it is practically impossible. Therefore, comparison provides with scalable tests.  So, parameterization of the problem is sufficient to capture the performance of the mixer.

However, the influence of geometrical and thermo-physical parameters on the mixing is not well understood.

In this work influence of geometrical and thermal parameters was studied. It was shown that for full developed turbulent flows (Re > 104), Pet»const and concentration of secondary fluid ~ F(r/l).

In other words, the mixing is practically independent of total flow rate and scale for a given geometry and ratio of flow rates of mixing flows. This statement was proved in present work for different geometries and mixtures such as EGR and water-urea mixture.

Present study has been shown that the best way to improve the mixing is to establish geometry with the lowest Pet number possible by intensifying the turbulence in the domain. This is achievable by using step geometry, impinging flow EGR on a wall, or EGR jets, with a strong change in the flow direction, or using swirler like flow in the domain or combination all of these factors. All of these results are applicable to any mixtures of no compressible fluids.  

Keywords: CFD, mixing, fluids, parameterization, scalability.

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42 Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer and Flow of Nano Fluids in Horizontal Circular Tube

Authors: Abdulhassan Abd. K, Sattar Al-Jabair, Khalid Sultan

Abstract:

We have measured the pressure drop and convective heat transfer coefficient of water – based AL(25nm),AL2O3(30nm) and CuO(50nm) Nanofluids flowing through a uniform heated circular tube in the fully developed laminar flow regime. The experimental results show that the data for Nanofluids friction factor show a good agreement with analytical prediction from the Darcy's equation for single-phase flow. After reducing the experimental results to the form of Reynolds, Rayleigh and Nusselt numbers. The results show the local Nusselt number and temperature have distribution with the non-dimensional axial distance from the tube entry. Study decided that thenNanofluid as Newtonian fluids through the design of the linear relationship between shear stress and the rate of stress has been the study of three chains of the Nanofluid with different concentrations and where the AL, AL2O3 and CuO – water ranging from (0.25 - 2.5 vol %). In addition to measuring the four properties of the Nanofluid in practice so as to ensure the validity of equations of properties developed by the researchers in this area and these properties is viscosity, specific heat, and density and found that the difference does not exceed 3.5% for the experimental equations between them and the practical. The study also demonstrated that the amount of the increase in heat transfer coefficient for three types of Nano fluid is AL, AL2O3, and CuO – Water and these ratios are respectively (45%, 32%, 25%) with insulation and without insulation (36%, 23%, 19%), and the statement of any of the cases the best increase in heat transfer has been proven that using insulation is better than not using it. I have been using three types of Nano particles and one metallic Nanoparticle and two oxide Nanoparticle and a statement, whichever gives the best increase in heat transfer.

Keywords: Newtonian, NUR factor, Brownian motion

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41 Investigating what Effects Aviation Fluids Have on the Flatwise Compressive Strength of Nomex® Honeycomb Core Material

Authors: G. Kim, R. Sterkenburg

Abstract:

One of the disadvantages of honeycomb sandwich structure is that they are prone to fluid intrusion. The purpose of this study is to determine if the structural properties of honeycomb core are affected by contact with a fluid. The test specimens were manufactured of fiberglass prepreg for the facesheets and Nomex® honeycomb core for the core material in accordance with ASTM C-365/365M. Test specimens were soaked in several different kinds of fluids, such as aircraft fuel, turbine engine oil, hydraulic fluid, and water for a period of 60 days. A flatwise compressive test was performed, and the test results were analyzed to determine how the contact with aircraft fluids affected the compressive strength of the Nomex® honeycomb core and how the strength was recovered when the specimens were dry. In addition, the investigation of de-bonding between facesheet and core material after soaking were performed to support the study.

Keywords: Debonding, environmental degradation, honeycomb sandwich structure.

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40 Convective Heat Transfer Enhancement in an Enclosure with Fin Utilizing Nano Fluids

Authors: S. H. Anilkumar, Ghulam Jilani

Abstract:

The objective of the present work is to conduct investigations leading to a more complete explanation of single phase natural convective heat transfer in an enclosure with fin utilizing nano fluids. The nano fluid used, which is composed of Aluminum oxide nano particles in suspension of Ethylene glycol, is provided at various volume fractions. The study is carried out numerically for a range of Rayleigh numbers, fin heights and aspect ratio. The flow and temperature distributions are taken to be two-dimensional. Regions with the same velocity and temperature distributions are identified as symmetry of sections. One half of such a rectangular region is chosen as the computational domain taking into account the symmetry about the fin. Transport equations are modeled by a stream functionvorticity formulation and are solved numerically by finite-difference schemes. Comparisons with previously published works on the basis of special cases are done. Results are presented in the form of streamline, vector and isotherm plots as well as the variation of local Nusselt number along the fin under different conditions.

Keywords: Fin height, Nano fluid, natural convection, Rayleigh number.

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39 Prediction of Oxygen Transfer and Gas Hold-Up in Pneumatic Bioreactors Containing Viscous Newtonian Fluids

Authors: Caroline E. Mendes, Alberto C. Badino

Abstract:

Pneumatic reactors have been widely employed in various sectors of the chemical industry, especially where are required high heat and mass transfer rates. This study aimed to obtain correlations that allow the prediction of gas hold-up (Ԑ) and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa), and compare these values, for three models of pneumatic reactors on two scales utilizing Newtonian fluids. Values of kLa ​​were obtained using the dynamic pressure-step method, while e was used for a new proposed measure. Comparing the three models of reactors studied, it was observed that the mass transfer was superior to draft-tube airlift, reaching e of 0.173 and kLa of 0.00904s-1. All correlations showed good fit to the experimental data (R2≥94%), and comparisons with correlations from the literature demonstrate the need for further similar studies due to shortage of data available, mainly for airlift reactors and high viscosity fluids.

Keywords: Bubble column, internal loop airlift, gas hold-up, kLa.

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38 Simulations of Cryogenic Cavitation of Low Temperature Fluids with Thermodynamics Effects

Authors: A. Alhelfi, B. Sunden

Abstract:

Cavitation in cryogenic liquids is widely present in contemporary science. In the current study, we re-examine a previously validated acoustic cavitation model which was developed for a gas bubble in liquid water. Furthermore, simulations of cryogenic fluids including the thermal effect, the effect of acoustic pressure amplitude and the frequency of sound field on the bubble dynamics are presented. A gas bubble (Helium) in liquids Nitrogen, Oxygen and Hydrogen in an acoustic field at ambient pressure and low temperature is investigated numerically. The results reveal that the oscillation of the bubble in liquid Hydrogen fluctuates more than in liquids Oxygen and Nitrogen. The oscillation of the bubble in liquids Oxygen and Nitrogen is approximately similar.

Keywords: Cryogenic liquids, cavitation, rocket engineering, ultrasound.

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37 Extractability of Heavy Metals in Green Liquor Dregs using Artificial Sweat and Gastric Fluids

Authors: Kati Manskinen, Risto Pöykiö, Hannu Nurmesniemi

Abstract:

In an assessment of the extractability of metals in green liquor dregs from the chemical recovery circuit of semichemical pulp mill, extractable concentrations of heavy metals in artificial gastric fluid were between 10 (Ni) and 717 (Zn) times higher than those in artificial sweat fluid. Only Al (6.7 mg/kg; d.w.), Ni (1.2 mg/kg; d.w.) and Zn (1.8 mg/kg; d.w.) showed extractability in the artificial sweat fluid, whereas Al (730 mg/kg; d.w.), Ba (770 mg/kg; d.w.) and Zn (1290 mg/kg; d.w.) showed clear extractability in the artificial gastric fluid. As certain heavy metals were clearly soluble in the artificial gastric fluid, the careful handling of this residue is recommended in order to prevent the penetration of green liquor dregs across the human gastrointestinal tract.

Keywords: Dregs, non-process elements, pulping, waste.

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36 Influence of Natural Gum on Curcumin Supersaturation in Gastrointestinal Fluids

Authors: Patcharawalai Jaisamut, Kamonthip Wiwattanawongsa, Ruedeekorn Wiwattanapatapee

Abstract:

Supersaturation of drugs in the gastrointestinal tract is one approach to increase the absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. The stabilization of a supersaturated state was achieved by adding precipitation inhibitors that may act through a variety of mechanisms. In this study, the effect of the natural gums, acacia, gelatin, pectin and tragacanth on curcumin supersaturation in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) (pH 1.2), fasted state simulated gastric fluid (FaSSGF) (pH 1.6), and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) (pH 6.8) was investigated. The results indicated that all natural gums significantly increased the curcumin solubility (about 1.2-6-fold) when compared to the absence of gum, and assisted in maintaining the supersaturated drug solution. Among the tested gums, pectin at 3% w/w was the best precipitation inhibitor with a significant increase in the degree of supersaturation about 3-fold in SGF, 2.4-fold in FaSSGF and 2-fold in SIF.

Keywords: Curcumin, Solubility, Supersaturation, Precipitation inhibitor.

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35 Alternative Acidizing Fluids and Their Impact on the Southern Algerian Shale Formations

Authors: Rezki Akkal, Mohamed Khodja, Slimane Azzi

Abstract:

Acidification is a technique used in oil reservoirs to improve annual production, reduce the skin and increase the pressure of an oil well while eliminating the formation damage that occurs during the drilling process, completion and, amongst others, to create new channels allowing the easy circulation of oil around a producing well. This is achieved by injecting an acidizing fluid at a relatively low pressure to prevent fracturing formation. The treatment fluid used depends on the type and nature of the reservoir rock traversed as well as its petrophysical properties. In order to understand the interaction mechanisms between the treatment fluids used for the reservoir rock acidizing, several candidate wells for stimulation were selected in the large Hassi Messaoud deposit in southern Algeria. The stimulation of these wells is completed using different fluids composed mainly of HCl acid with other additives such as corrosion inhibitors, clay stabilizers and iron controllers. These treatment fluids are injected over two phases, namely with clean tube (7.5% HCl) and matrix aidizing with HCl (15%). The stimulation results obtained are variable according to the type of rock traversed and its mineralogical composition. These results show that there has been an increase in production flow and head pressure respectively from 1.99 m3 / h to 3.56 m3 / h and from 13 Kgf / cm2 to 20 kgf / cm2 in the sands formation having good petrophysical properties of (porosity = 16%) and low amount of clay (Vsh = 6%).

Keywords: Acidizing, Hassi-Messaoud reservoir, tube clean, matrix stimulation.

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34 Internal Power Recovery in Cryogenic Cooling Plants Part I: Expander Development

Authors: Ambra Giovannelli, Erika Maria Archilei

Abstract:

The amount of the electrical power required by refrigeration systems is relevant worldwide. It is evaluated in the order of 15% of the total electricity production taking refrigeration and air-conditioning into consideration. For this reason, in the last years several energy saving techniques have been proposed to reduce the power demand of such plants. The paper deals with the development of an innovative internal recovery system for cryogenic cooling plants. Such a system consists in a Compressor-Expander Group (CEG) designed on the basis of the automotive turbocharging technology. In particular, the paper is focused on the design of the expander, the critical component of the CEG system. Due to the low volumetric flow entering the expander and the high expansion ratio, a commercial turbocharger expander wheel was strongly modified. It was equipped with a transonic nozzle, designed to have a radially inflow full admission. To verify the performance of such a machine and suggest improvements, two different set of nozzles have been designed and modelled by means of the commercial Ansys-CFX software. steady-state 3D CFD simulations of the second-generation prototype are presented and compared with the initial ones.

Keywords: Energy saving, organic fluids, radial turbine, refrigeration plant, vapor compression systems.

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33 Propagation of Viscous Waves and Activation Energy of Hydrocarbon Fluids

Authors: Ram N. Singh, Abraham K. George, Dawood N. Al-Namaani

Abstract:

The Euler-s equation of motion is extended to include the viscosity stress tensor leading to the formulation of Navier– Stokes type equation. The latter is linearized and applied to investigate the rotational motion or vorticity in a viscous fluid. Relations for the velocity of viscous waves and attenuation parameter are obtained in terms of viscosity (μ) and the density (¤ü) of the fluid. μ and ¤ü are measured experimentally as a function of temperature for two different samples of light and heavy crude oil. These data facilitated to determine the activation energy, velocity of viscous wave and the attenuation parameter. Shear wave velocity in heavy oil is found to be much larger than the light oil, whereas the attenuation parameter in heavy oil is quite low in comparison to light one. The activation energy of heavy oil is three times larger than light oil.

Keywords: Activation Energy, Attenuation, Crude Oil, Navier- Stokes Equation, Viscosity.

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32 Use of Detectors Technology for Gamma Ray Issued from Radioactive Isotopes and its Impact on Knowledge of Behavior of the Stationary Case of Solid Phase Holdup

Authors: Abbas Ali Mahmood Karwi

Abstract:

For gamma radiation detection, assemblies having scintillation crystals and a photomultiplier tube, also there is a preamplifier connected to the detector because the signals from photomultiplier tube are of small amplitude. After pre-amplification the signals are sent to the amplifier and then to the multichannel analyser. The multichannel analyser sorts all incoming electrical signals according to their amplitudes and sorts the detected photons in channels covering small energy intervals. The energy range of each channel depends on the gain settings of the multichannel analyser and the high voltage across the photomultiplier tube. The exit spectrum data of the two main isotopes studied ,putting data in biomass program ,process it by Matlab program to get the solid holdup image (solid spherical nuclear fuel)

Keywords: Multichannel analyzer, Spectrum, Energies, Fluids holdup, Image

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31 Parametric Characterization of Load Capacity of Infinitely Wide Parabolic Slider Bearing with Couple Stress Fluids

Authors: Oladeinde Mobolaji Humphrey, Akpobi John

Abstract:

A mathematical model for the hydrodynamic lubrication of parabolic slider bearings with couple stress lubricants is presented. A numerical solution for the mathematical model using finite element scheme is obtained using three nodes isoparametric quadratic elements. Stiffness integrals obtained from the weak form of the governing equations were solved using Gauss Quadrature to obtain a finite number of stiffness matrices. The global system of equations was obtained for the bearing and solved using Gauss Seidel iterative scheme. The converged pressure solution was used to obtain the load capacity of the bearing. Parametric studies were carried out and it was shown that the effect of couple stresses and profile parameter are to increase the load carrying capacity of the parabolic slider bearing. Numerical experiments reveal that the magnitude of the profile parameter at which maximum load is obtained increases with decrease in couple stress parameter. The results are presented in graphical form.

Keywords: Finite element, numerical, parabolic slider.

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30 Analysis of Explosive Shock Wave and its Application in Snow Avalanche Release

Authors: Mahmoud Zarrini, R. N. Pralhad

Abstract:

Avalanche velocity (from start to track zone) has been estimated in the present model for an avalanche which is triggered artificially by an explosive devise. The initial development of the model has been from the concept of micro-continuum theories [1], underwater explosions [2] and from fracture mechanics [3] with appropriate changes to the present model. The model has been computed for different slab depth R, slope angle θ, snow density ¤ü, viscosity μ, eddy viscosity η*and couple stress parameter η. The applicability of the present model in the avalanche forecasting has been highlighted.

Keywords: Snow avalanche velocity, avalanche zones, shockwave, couple stress fluids.

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29 A Design of the Organic Rankine Cycle for the Low Temperature Waste Heat

Authors: K. Fraňa, M. Müller

Abstract:

A presentation of the design of the Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) with heat regeneration and superheating processes is a subject of this paper. The maximum temperature level in the ORC is considered to be 110°C and the maximum pressure varies up to 2.5MPa. The selection process of the appropriate working fluids, thermal design and calculation of the cycle and its components are described. With respect to the safety, toxicity, flammability, price and thermal cycle efficiency, the working fluid selected is R134a. As a particular example, the thermal design of the condenser used for the ORC engine with a theoretical thermal power of 179 kW was introduced. The minimal heat transfer area for a completed condensation was determined to be approximately 520m2

Keywords: Organic Rankine Cycle, thermal efficiency, working fluids.

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28 EHD Effect on the Dynamic Characteristics of a Journal Bearing Lubricated with Couple Stress Fluids

Authors: B. Chetti, W. A. Crosby

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical analysis for the dynamic performance of a finite journal bearing lubricated with couple stress fluid taking into account the effect of the deformation of the bearing liner. The modified Reynolds equation has been solved by using finite difference technique. The dynamic characteristics in terms of stiffness coefficients, damping coefficients, critical mass and whirl ratio are evaluated for different values of eccentricity ratio and elastic coefficient for a journal bearing lubricated with a couple stress fluids and a Newtonian fluid. The results show that the dynamic characteristics of journal bearings lubricated with couple stress fluids are improved compared to journal bearings lubricated with Newtonian fluids.

Keywords: Circular bearing, elastohydrodynamic, stability, couple stress.

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27 Prediction of the Solubility of Benzoic Acid in Supercritical CO2 Using the PC-SAFT EoS

Authors: Hamidreza Bagheri, Alireza Shariati

Abstract:

There are many difficulties in the purification of raw components and products. However, researchers are seeking better ways for purification. One of the recent methods is extraction using supercritical fluids. In this study, the phase equilibria of benzoic acid -supercritical carbon dioxide system were investigated. Regarding the phase equilibria of this system, the modeling of solid-supercritical fluid behavior was performed using the Perturbed-Chain Statistical Association Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT) and Peng-Robinson equations of state (PR EoS). For this purpose, five PC-SAFT EoS parameters for pure benzoic acid were obtained using its experimental vapor pressure. Benzoic acid has association sites and the behavior of the benzoic acid-supercritical fluid system was well predicted using both equations of state, while the binary interaction parameter values for PR EoS were negative. Genetic algorithm, which is one of the most accurate global optimization algorithms, was also used to optimize the pure benzoic acid parameters and the binary interaction parameters. The AAD% value for the PC-SAFT EoS, were 0.22 for the carbon dioxide-benzoic acid system.

Keywords: Supercritical fluids, Solubility, Solid, PC-SAFT EoS, Genetic algorithm.

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26 Measurement and Prediction of Speed of Sound in Petroleum Fluids

Authors: S. Ghafoori, A. Al-Harbi, B. Al-Ajmi, A. Al-Shaalan, A. Al-Ajmi, M. Ali Juma

Abstract:

Seismic methods play an important role in the exploration for hydrocarbon reservoirs. However, the success of the method depends strongly on the reliability of the measured or predicted information regarding the velocity of sound in the media. Speed of sound has been used to study the thermodynamic properties of fluids. In this study, experimental data are reported and analyzed on the speed of sound in toluene and octane binary mixture. Three-factor three-level Box-Benhkam design is used to determine the significance of each factor, the synergetic effects of the factors, and the most significant factors on speed of sound. The developed mathematical model and statistical analysis provided a critical analysis of the simultaneous interactive effects of the independent variables indicating that the developed quadratic models were highly accurate and predictive.

Keywords: Experimental design, octane, speed of sound, toluene.

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25 Evaluation of Droplet Sizes from Video Images for Metal Working Fluids

Authors: R. Hacıoğlu, A. Genç, B. Bakırcı

Abstract:

Metal working fluids were used in the preparation of oil in water emulsions. The size of oil droplets were evaluated by using the analysis of video images taken from the zeta potential measurements. The evaluated size distributions for emulsions were also tested by microscopic analysis. In addition, emulsion stabilities were discussed depending on electrolyte concentration and pH. The results showed that the stability of oil emulsions was strongly related to pH and the concentration of CaCl2. However, the same dependency was not observed for NaCl.

Keywords: Droplet size distribution, emulsion stability, o/w emulsions, video images.

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24 Design and Analysis of Electric Power Production Unit for Low Enthalpy Geothermal Reservoir Applications

Authors: Ildar Akhmadullin, Mayank Tyagi

Abstract:

The subject of this paper is the design analysis of a single well power production unit from low enthalpy geothermal resources. A complexity of the project is defined by a low temperature heat source that usually makes such projects economically disadvantageous using the conventional binary power plant approach. A proposed new compact design is numerically analyzed. This paper describes a thermodynamic analysis, a working fluid choice, downhole heat exchanger (DHE) and turbine calculation results. The unit is able to produce 321 kW of electric power from a low enthalpy underground heat source utilizing n-Pentane as a working fluid. A geo-pressured reservoir located in Vermilion Parish, Louisiana, USA is selected as a prototype for the field application. With a brine temperature of 126 , the optimal length of DHE is determined as 304.8 m (1000ft). All units (pipes, turbine, and pumps) are chosen from commercially available parts to bring this project closer to the industry requirements. Numerical calculations are based on petroleum industry standards. The project is sponsored by the Department of Energy of the US.

Keywords: Downhole Heat Exchangers, Geothermal Power Generation, Organic Rankine Cycle, Refrigerants, Working Fluids.

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23 Extractable Heavy Metal Concentrations in Bottom Ash from Incineration of Wood-Based Residues in a BFB Boiler Using Artificial Sweat and Gastric Fluids

Authors: Risto Pöykiö, Olli Dahl, Hannu Nurmesniemi

Abstract:

The highest extractable concentration in the artificial sweat fluid was observed for Ba (120mg/kg; d.w.). The highest extractable concentration in the artificial gastric fluid was observed for Al (9030mg/kg; d.w.). Furthermore, the extractable concentrations of Ba (550mg/kg; d.w.) and Zn (400mg/kg: d.w.) in the bottom ash using artificial gastric fluid were elevated. The extractable concentrations of all heavy metals in the artificial gastric fluid were higher than those in the artificial sweat fluid. These results are reasonable in the light of the fact that the pH of the artificial gastric fluid was extremely acidic both before (pH 1.54) and after (pH 1.94) extraction, whereas the pH of the artificial sweat fluid was slightly alkaline before (pH 6.50) and after extraction (pH 8.51).

Keywords: Ash, artificial fluid, heavy metals, in vitro, waste.

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22 Comparative Study of Sub-Critical and Supercritical ORC Applications for Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery

Authors: Buket Boz, Alvaro Diez

Abstract:

Waste heat recovery by means of Organic Rankine Cycle is a promising technology for the recovery of engine exhaust heat. However, it is complex to find out the optimum cycle conditions with appropriate working fluids to match exhaust gas waste heat due to its high temperature. Hence, this paper focuses on comparing sub-critical and supercritical ORC conditions with eight working fluids on a combined diesel engine-ORC system. The model employs two ORC designs, Regenerative-ORC and Pre-Heating-Regenerative-ORC respectively. The thermodynamic calculations rely on the first and second law of thermodynamics, thermal efficiency and exergy destruction factors are the fundamental parameters evaluated. Additionally, in this study, environmental and safety, GWP (Global Warming Potential) and ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential), characteristic of the refrigerants are taken into consideration as evaluation criteria to define the optimal ORC configuration and conditions. Consequently, the studys outcomes reveal that supercritical ORCs with alkane and siloxane are more suitable for high temperature exhaust waste heat recovery in contrast to sub-critical conditions.

Keywords: Internal combustion engine, organic rankine cycle, waste heat recovery, working fluids.

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21 Ionanofluids as Novel Fluids for Advanced Heat Transfer Applications

Authors: S. M. Sohel Murshed, C. A. Nieto de Castro, M. J. V. Lourenço, J. França, A. P. C. Ribeiro, S. I. C.Vieira, C. S. Queirós

Abstract:

Ionanofluids are a new and innovative class of heat transfer fluids which exhibit fascinating thermophysical properties compared to their base ionic liquids. This paper deals with the findings of thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of ionanofluids as a function of a temperature and concentration of nanotubes. Simulation results using ionanofluids as coolants in heat exchanger are also used to access their feasibility and performance in heat transfer devices. Results on thermal conductivity and heat capacity of ionanofluids as well as the estimation of heat transfer areas for ionanofluids and ionic liquids in a model shell and tube heat exchanger reveal that ionanofluids possess superior thermal conductivity and heat capacity and require considerably less heat transfer areas as compared to those of their base ionic liquids. This novel class of fluids shows great potential for advanced heat transfer applications.

Keywords: Heat transfer, Ionanofluids, Ionic liquids, Nanotubes, Thermal conductivity.

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20 CFD Simulation of Surge Wave Generated by Flow-Like Landslides

Authors: Liu-Chao Qiu

Abstract:

The damage caused by surge waves generated in water bodies by flow-like landslides can be very high in terms of human lives and economic losses. The complicated phenomena occurred in this highly unsteady process are difficult to model because three interacting phases: air, water and sediment are involved. The problem therefore is challenging since the effects of non-Newtonian fluid describing the rheology of the flow-like landslides, multi-phase flow and free surface have to be included in the simulation. In this work, the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package FLUENT is used to model the surge waves due to flow-like landslides. The comparison between the numerical results and experimental data reported in the literature confirms the accuracy of the method.

Keywords: Flow-like landslide, surge wave, VOF, non-Newtonian fluids, multi-phase flows, free surface flow.

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