Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 166

Search results for: low zeta potentials.

166 Analysis of Dust Particles in Snow Cover in the Surroundings of the City of Ostrava: Particle Size Distribution, Zeta Potential and Heavy Metal Content

Authors: Roman Marsalek

Abstract:

In this paper, snow samples containing dust particles from several sampling points around the city of Ostrava were analyzed. The pH values of sampled snow were measured and solid particles analyzed. Particle size, zeta potential and content of selected heavy metals were determined in solid particles. The pH values of most samples lay in the slightly acid region. Mean values of particle size ranged from 290.5 to 620.5 nm. Zeta potential values varied between -5 and -26.5 mV. The following heavy metal concentration ranges were found: copper 0.08-0.75 mg/g, lead 0.05-0.9 mg/g, manganese 0.45-5.9 mg/g and iron 25.7-280.46 mg/g. The highest values of copper and lead were found in the vicinity of busy crossroads, and on the contrary, the highest levels of manganese and iron were detected close to a large steelworks. The proportion between pH values, zeta potentials, particle sizes and heavy metal contents was established. Zeta potential decreased with rising pH values and, simultaneously, heavy metal content in solid particles increased. At the same time, higher metal content corresponded to lower particle size.

Keywords: Dust, snow, zeta potential, particles size distribution, heavy metals.

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165 Adsorption of Bovine Serum Albumin on CeO2

Authors: Roman Marsalek

Abstract:

Preparation of nanoparticles of cerium oxide and adsorption of bovine serum albumin on them were studied. Particle size distribution and influence of pH on zeta potential of prepared CeO2 were determined. Average size of prepared cerium oxide nanoparticles was 9 nm. The simultaneous measurements of the bovine serum albumin adsorption and zeta potential determination of the (adsorption) suspensions were carried out. The adsorption isotherms were found to be of typical Langmuir type; values of the bovine serum albumin adsorption capacities were calculated. Increasing of pH led to decrease of zeta potential and decrease of adsorption capacity of cerium oxide nanoparticles. The maximum adsorption capacity was found for strongly acid suspension (am = 118 mg/g). The samples of nanoceria with positive zeta potential adsorbed more bovine serum albumin on the other hand, the samples with negative zeta potential showed little or no protein adsorption. Surface charge or better say zeta potential of CeO2 nanoparticles plays the key role in adsorption of proteins on such type of materials.

Keywords: Adsorption, BSA, cerium oxide nanoparticles, zeta potential.

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164 The Role of Ionic Strength and Mineral Size to Zeta Potential for the Adhesion of P. putida to Mineral Surfaces

Authors: M. Z. Fathiah, R. G. Edyvean

Abstract:

Electrostatic interaction energy (ΔEEDL) is a part of the Extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) theory, which, together with van der Waals (ΔEVDW) and acid base (ΔEAB) interaction energies, has been extensively used to investigate the initial adhesion of bacteria to surfaces. Electrostatic or electrical double layer interaction energy is considerably affected by surface potential; however it cannot be determined experimentally and is usually replaced by zeta (ζ) potential via electrophoretic mobility. This paper focusses on the effect of ionic concentration as a function of pH and the effect of mineral grain size on ζ potential. It was found that both ionic strength and mineral grain size play a major role in determining the value of ζ potential for the adhesion of P. putida to hematite and quartz surfaces. Higher ζ potential values lead to higher electrostatic interaction energies and eventually to higher total XDLVO interaction energy resulting in bacterial repulsion.

Keywords: XDLVO, Electrostatic interaction energy, zeta potential, P. putida, mineral.

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163 Modeling of Electrokinetic Mixing in Lab on Chip Microfluidic Devices

Authors: Virendra J. Majarikar, Harikrishnan N. Unni

Abstract:

This paper sets to demonstrate a modeling of electrokinetic mixing employing electroosmotic stationary and time-dependent microchannel using alternate zeta patches on the lower surface of the micromixer in a lab on chip microfluidic device. Electroosmotic flow is amplified using different 2D and 3D model designs with alternate and geometric zeta potential values such as 25, 50, and 100 mV, respectively, to achieve high concentration mixing in the electrokinetically-driven microfluidic system. The enhancement of electrokinetic mixing is studied using Finite Element Modeling, and simulation workflow is accomplished with defined integral steps. It can be observed that the presence of alternate zeta patches can help inducing microvortex flows inside the channel, which in turn can improve mixing efficiency. Fluid flow and concentration fields are simulated by solving Navier-Stokes equation (implying Helmholtz-Smoluchowski slip velocity boundary condition) and Convection-Diffusion equation. The effect of the magnitude of zeta potential, the number of alternate zeta patches, etc. are analysed thoroughly. 2D simulation reveals that there is a cumulative increase in concentration mixing, whereas 3D simulation differs slightly with low zeta potential as that of the 2D model within the T-shaped micromixer for concentration 1 mol/m3 and 0 mol/m3, respectively. Moreover, 2D model results were compared with those of 3D to indicate the importance of the 3D model in a microfluidic design process.

Keywords: COMSOL, electrokinetic, electroosmotic, microfluidics, zeta potential.

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162 Integrable Heisenberg Ferromagnet Equations with Self-Consistent Potentials

Authors: Gulgassyl Nugmanova, Zhanat Zhunussova, Kuralay Yesmakhanova, Galya Mamyrbekova, Ratbay Myrzakulov

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider some integrable Heisenberg Ferromagnet Equations with self-consistent potentials. We study their Lax representations. In particular we derive their equivalent counterparts in the form of nonlinear Schr¨odinger type equations. We present the integrable reductions of the Heisenberg Ferromagnet Equations with self-consistent potentials. These integrable Heisenberg Ferromagnet Equations with self-consistent potentials describe nonlinear waves in ferromagnets with some additional physical fields.

Keywords: Spin systems, equivalent counterparts, integrable reductions, self-consistent potentials.

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161 Effect of Formulation Compositions on Particle Size and Zeta Potential of Diclofenac Sodium-Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles

Authors: Rathapon Asasutjarit, Chayanid Sorrachaitawatwong, Nardauma Tipchuwong, Sirijit Pouthai

Abstract:

This study was conducted to formulate diclofenac sodium-loaded chitosan nanoparticles and to study the effect of formulation compositions on particle size and zeta potential of chitosan nanoparticles (CSN) containing diclofenac sodium (DC) prepared by ionotropic gelation method. It was found that the formulations containing chitosan, DC and tripolyphosphate (TPP) at a weight ratio of 4:1:1, respectively, with various pH provided various systems. At pH 5.0 and 6.0, the obtained systems were turbid because of precipitation of DC and chitosan, respectively. However, the dispersed system of CSN possessing diameter of 108±1 nm and zeta potential of 19±1 mV could be obtained at pH 5.5. These CSN also showed spherical morphology observed via a transmission scanning electron microscope. Change in weight ratio of chitosan:DC:TPP i.e. 1:1:1, 2:1:1, 3:1:1 and 4:1:1 showed that these ratios led to precipitation of particles except for the ratio of 4:1:1 providing CSN properly. The effect of Tween 80 as a stabilizer was also determined. It suggested that increment of Tween 80 concentration to 0.02% w/v could stabilize CSN at least 48 hours. However, increment of Tween 80 to 0.03% w/v led to quick precipitation of particles. The study of effect of TPP suggested that increment of TPP concentration increased particle size but decreased zeta potential. The excess TPP caused precipitation of CSN. Therefore, the optimized CSN was the CSN containing chitosan, DC and TPP at the ratio of 4:1:1and 0.02% w/v Tween 80 prepared at pH 5.5. Their particle size, zeta potential and entrapment efficiency were 128±1 nm, 15±1 mV and 45.8±2.6%, respectively.

Keywords: Chitosan nanoparticles, diclofenac sodium, size, zeta potential.

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160 Grading of Emulsified Agarwood Oil Using Gel Electrophoresis Technique

Authors: Y. T. Boon, M. N. Naim, R. Zakaria, N. F. Abu Bakar, N. Ahmad, I. W. Lenggoro

Abstract:

In this study, encapsulation of agarwood oil with non-ionic surfactant, Tween 80 was prepared at critical micelle concentration of 0.0167 % v/v to produce the most stable nano-emulsion in aqueous. The encapsulation has minimized the bioactive compounds degradation in various pH conditions thus prolong their shelf life and maintained its initial oil grade. The oil grading of the prepared samples were conducted using the gel electrophoresis instead of using common analytical industrial grading such as gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC- MS). The grading method was chosen due to their unique zeta potential value after the encapsulation process. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of applying the electrophoresis principles to separate the encapsulated agarwood oil or grading of the emulsified agarwood oil. The results indicated that the grading process are potential to be further investigate based on their droplet size and zeta potential value at various pH condition when the droplet were migrate through polyacrylamide gel.

Keywords: Electrophoretic mobility, essential oil, nanoemulsion, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Tween 80, zeta potential.

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159 Environmental Potentials within the Production of Asphalt Mixtures

Authors: Florian Gschösser, Walter Purrer

Abstract:

The paper shows examples for the (environmental) optimization of production processes for asphalt mixtures applied for typical road pavements in Austria and Switzerland. The conducted “from-cradle-to-gate” LCA firstly analyzes the production one cubic meter of asphalt and secondly all material production processes for exemplary highway pavements applied in Austria and Switzerland. It is shown that environmental impacts can be reduced by the application of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and by the optimization of specific production characteristics, e.g. the reduction of the initial moisture of the mineral aggregate and the reduction of the mixing temperature by the application of low-viscosity and foam bitumen. The results of the LCA study demonstrate reduction potentials per cubic meter asphalt of up to 57 % (Global Warming Potential–GWP) and 77 % (Ozone depletion–ODP). The analysis per square meter of asphalt pavement determined environmental potentials of up to 40 % (GWP) and 56 % (ODP).

Keywords: Asphalt mixtures, environmental potentials, life cycle assessment, material production.

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158 Increased Signal to Noise Ratio in P300 Potentials by the Method of Coherent Self-Averaging in BCI Systems

Authors: Ricardo Espinosa

Abstract:

The coherent Self-Averaging (CSA), is a new method proposed in this work; applied to simulated signals evoked potentials related to events (ERP) to find the wave P300, useful systems in the brain computer interface (BCI). The CSA method cleans signal in the time domain of white noise through of successive averaging of a single signal. The method is compared with the traditional method, coherent averaging or synchronized (CA), showing optimal results in the improvement of the signal to noise ratio (SNR). The method of CSA is easy to implement, robust and applicable to any physiological time series contaminated with white noise

Keywords: Evoked potentials, wave P300, Coherent Self-averaging, brain - computer interface (BCI).

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157 Focusing on the Utilization of Information and Communication Technology for Improving Children’s Potentials in Science: Challenges for Sustainable Development in Nigeria

Authors: Osagiede Mercy Afe

Abstract:

After the internet explosion in the 90’s, technology was immediately integrated into the school system. Technology which symbolizes advancement in human knowledge was seen as a setback by many educators. Efforts have been made to help stem this erroneous believes and help educators realize the benefits of technology and ways of implementing it in the classrooms especially in the sciences. This advancement created a constantly expanding gap between the pupil’s perception on the use of technology within the learning atmosphere and the teacher’s perception and limitations hence, the focus of this paper is on the need to refocus on the use of Science and Technology in enhancing children’s potentials in learning at school especially in Science for sustainable development in Nigeria. The paper recommended measures for facilitating the sustenance of science and technology in Nigerian schools so as to enhance the potentials of our children in Science and Technology for a better tomorrow.

Keywords: Children’s potential, Educational system, ICT, Sustainable development.

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156 Assessing the Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Nanoparticles by Fluorescence-Labeling

Authors: Laidson P. Gomes, Cristina T. Andrade, Eduardo M. Del Aguila, Cameron Alexander, Vânia M. F. Paschoalin

Abstract:

Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide prepared by the N-deacetylation of chitin. In this study, the physicochemical and antibacterial properties of chitosan nanoparticles, produced by ultrasound irradiation, were evaluated. The physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were determined by dynamic light scattering and zeta potential analysis. Chitosan nanoparticles inhibited the growth of E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were lower than 0.5 mg/mL, and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were similar or higher than MIC values. Confocal laser scanning micrographs (CLSM) were used to observe the interaction between E. coli suspensions mixed with FITC-labeled chitosan polymers and nanoparticles.

Keywords: Chitosan nanoparticles, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, confocal microscopy, antibacterial activity.

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155 Method for Assessing Potential in Distribution Logistics

Authors: B. Groß, P. Fronia, P. Nyhuis

Abstract:

In addition to the production, which is already frequently optimized, improving the distribution logistics also opens up tremendous potential for increasing an enterprise’s competitiveness. Here too though, numerous interactions need to be taken into account, enterprises thus need to be able to identify and weigh between different potentials for economically efficient optimizations. In order to be able to assess potentials, enterprises require a suitable method. This paper first briefly presents the need for this research before introducing the procedure that will be used to develop an appropriate method that not only considers interactions but is also quickly and easily implemented.

Keywords: Distribution Logistics, Evaluation of Potential, Methods, Model.

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154 Characteristics of Suspended Solids Removal by Electrocoagulation

Authors: C. Phalakornkule, W. Worachai, T. Satitayut

Abstract:

The electrochemical coagulation of a kaolin suspension was investigated at the currents of 0.06, 0.12, 0.22, 0.44, 0.85 A (corresponding to 0.68, 1.36, 2.50, 5.00, 9.66 mA·cm-2, respectively) for the contact time of 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50 min. The TSS removal efficiency at currents of 0.06 A, 0.12 A and 0.22 A increased with the amount of iron generated by the sacrificial anode, while the removal efficiencies did not increase proportionally with the amount of iron generated at the currents of 0.44 and 0.85 A, where electroflotation was clearly observed. Zeta potential measurement illustrated the presence of the highly positive charged particles created by sorption of highly charged polymeric metal hydroxyl species onto the negative surface charged kaolin particles at both low and high applied currents. The disappearance of the individual peaks after certain contact times indicated the attraction between these positive and negative charged particles causing agglomeration. It was concluded that charge neutralization of the individual species was not the only mechanism operating in the electrocoagulation process at any current level, but electrostatic attraction was likely to co-operate or mainly operate.

Keywords: Coagulation, Electrocoagulation, Electrostatics, Suspended solids, Zeta potential

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153 The Effect of Hydropriming and Halopriming on Germination and Early Growth Stage of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Authors: Hamid Abbasdokht , Mohammad Reza Edalatpishe, Ahmad Gholami

Abstract:

In order to study of hydropriming and halopriming on germination and early growth stage of wheat (Triticum aestivum) an experiment was carried out in laboratory of the Department of Agronomy and Plant breeding, Shahrood University of Technology. Seed treatments consisted of T1: control (untreated seeds), T2: soaking in distilled water for 18 h (hydropriming). T3: soaking in - 1.2 MPa solution of CaSO4 for 36 h (halopriming). Germination and early seedling growth were studied using distilled water (control) and under osmotic potentials of -0.4, -0.8 and -1.2 MPa for NaCl and polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000), respectively. Results showed that Hydroprimed seeds achieved maximum germination seedling dry weight, especially during the higher osmotic potentials. Minimum germination was recorded at untreated seeds (control) followed by osmopriming. Under high osmotic potentials, hydroprimed seeds had higher GI (germination index) as compared to haloprimed or untreated seeds. Interaction effect of seed treatment and osmotic potential significantly affected the seedling vigour index (SVI).

Keywords: Wheat, hydropriming, halopriming, germination

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152 Application of Stabilized Polyaniline Microparticles for Better Protective Ability of Zinc Coatings

Authors: N. Boshkova, K. Kamburova, N. Tabakova, N. Boshkov, Ts. Radeva

Abstract:

Coatings based on polyaniline (PANI) can improve the resistance of steel against corrosion. In this work, the preparation of stable suspensions of colloidal PANI-SiO2 particles, suitable for obtaining of composite anticorrosive coating on steel, is described. Electrokinetic data as a function of pH are presented, showing that the zeta potentials of the PANI-SiO2 particles are governed primarily by the charged groups at the silica oxide surface. Electrosteric stabilization of the PANI-SiO2 particles’ suspension against aggregation is realized at pH>5.5 (EB form of PANI) by adsorption of positively charged polyelectrolyte molecules onto negatively charged PANI-SiO2 particles. The PANI-SiO2 particles are incorporated by electrodeposition into the metal matrix of zinc in order to obtain composite (hybrid) coatings. The latter are aimed to ensure sacrificial protection of steel mainly in aggressive media leading to local corrosion damages. The surface morphology of the composite zinc coatings is investigated with SEM. The influence of PANI-SiO2 particles on the cathodic and anodic processes occurring in the starting electrolyte for obtaining of the coatings is followed with cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical and corrosion behavior is evaluated with potentiodynamic polarization curves and polarization resistance measurements. The beneficial effect of the stabilized PANI-SiO2 particles for the increased protective ability of the composites is commented and discussed.

Keywords: Corrosion, polyaniline particles, zinc, protective ability.

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151 Eigenvalues of Particle Bound in Single and Double Delta Function Potentials through Numerical Analysis

Authors: Edward Aris D. Fajardo, Hamdi Muhyuddin D. Barra

Abstract:

This study employs the use of the fourth order Numerov scheme to determine the eigenstates and eigenvalues of particles, electrons in particular, in single and double delta function potentials. For the single delta potential, it is found that the eigenstates could only be attained by using specific potential depths. The depth of the delta potential well has a value that varies depending on the delta strength. These depths are used for each well on the double delta function potential and the eigenvalues are determined. There are two bound states found in the computation, one with a symmetric eigenstate and another one which is antisymmetric.

Keywords: Double Delta Potential, Eigenstates, Eigenvalue, Numerov Method, Single Delta Potential

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150 Requirements Management as a Competitive Factor in the it Mid Tier Business Concerning the Implementation of Erp-Software

Authors: Oliver Grün

Abstract:

The success of IT-projects concerning the implementation of business application Software is strongly depending upon the application of an efficient requirements management, to understand the business requirements and to realize them in the IT. But in fact, the Potentials of the requirements management are not fully exhausted by small and medium sized enterprises (SME) of the IT sector. To work out recommendations for action and furthermore a possible solution, allowing a better exhaust of potentials, it shall be examined in a scientific research project, which problems occur out of which causes. In the same place, the storage of knowledge from the requirements management, and its later reuse are important, to achieve sustainable improvements of the competitive of the IT-SMEs. Requirements Engineering is one of the most important topics in Product Management for Software to achieve the goal of optimizing the success of the software product.

Keywords: ERP, Requirements Management

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149 Oscillatory Electroosmotic Flow of Power-Law Fluids in a Microchannel

Authors: Rubén Bãnos, José Arcos, Oscar Bautista, Federico Méndez

Abstract:

The Oscillatory electroosmotic flow (OEOF) in power law fluids through a microchannel is studied numerically. A time-dependent external electric field (AC) is suddenly imposed at the ends of the microchannel which induces the fluid motion. The continuity and momentum equations in the x and y direction for the flow field were simplified in the limit of the lubrication approximation theory (LAT), and then solved using a numerical scheme. The solution of the electric potential is based on the Debye-H¨uckel approximation which suggest that the surface potential is small,say, smaller than 0.025V and for a symmetric (z : z) electrolyte. Our results suggest that the velocity profiles across the channel-width are controlled by the following dimensionless parameters: the angular Reynolds number, Reω, the electrokinetic parameter, ¯κ, defined as the ratio of the characteristic length scale to the Debye length, the parameter λ which represents the ratio of the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski velocity to the characteristic length scale and the flow behavior index, n. Also, the results reveal that the velocity profiles become more and more non-uniform across the channel-width as the Reω and ¯κ are increased, so oscillatory OEOF can be really useful in micro-fluidic devices such as micro-mixers.

Keywords: Oscillatory electroosmotic flow, Non-Newtonian fluids, power-law model, low zeta potentials.

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148 Numerical Investigation into Mixing Performance of Electrokinetically-Driven Power-Law Fluids in Microchannel with Patterned Trapezoid Blocks

Authors: Cha’o-Kuang Chen, Ching-Chang Cho

Abstract:

The study investigates the mixing performance of electrokinetically-driven power-law fluids in a microchannel containing patterned trapezoid blocks. The effects of the geometry parameters of the patterned trapezoid blocks and the flow behavior index in the power-law model on the mixing efficiency within the microchannel are explored. The results show that the mixing efficiency can be improved by increasing the width of the blocks and extending the length of upper surface of the blocks. In addition, the results show that the mixing efficiency increases with an increasing flow behavior index. Furthermore, it is shown that a heterogeneous patterning of the zeta potential on the upper surfaces of the trapezoid blocks prompts the formation of local flow recirculations, and therefore improves the mixing efficiency. Consequently, it is shown that the mixing performance improves with an increasing magnitude of the heterogeneous surface zeta potential.

Keywords: Non-Newtonian fluid, Power-law fluid, Electroosmotic flow, Passive mixer, Mixing, Micromixer.

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147 Robot Navigation and Localization Based on the Rat’s Brain Signals

Authors: Endri Rama, Genci Capi, Shigenori Kawahara

Abstract:

The mobile robot ability to navigate autonomously in its environment is very important. Even though the advances in technology, robot self-localization and goal directed navigation in complex environments are still challenging tasks. In this article, we propose a novel method for robot navigation based on rat’s brain signals (Local Field Potentials). It has been well known that rats accurately and rapidly navigate in a complex space by localizing themselves in reference to the surrounding environmental cues. As the first step to incorporate the rat’s navigation strategy into the robot control, we analyzed the rats’ strategies while it navigates in a multiple Y-maze, and recorded Local Field Potentials (LFPs) simultaneously from three brain regions. Next, we processed the LFPs, and the extracted features were used as an input in the artificial neural network to predict the rat’s next location, especially in the decision-making moment, in Y-junctions. We developed an algorithm by which the robot learned to imitate the rat’s decision-making by mapping the rat’s brain signals into its own actions. Finally, the robot learned to integrate the internal states as well as external sensors in order to localize and navigate in the complex environment.

Keywords: Brain machine interface, decision-making, local field potentials, mobile robot, navigation, neural network, rat, signal processing.

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146 Robot Control by ERPs of Brain Waves

Authors: K. T. Sun, Y. H. Tai, H. W. Yang, H. T. Lin

Abstract:

This paper presented the technique of robot control by event-related potentials (ERPs) of brain waves. Based on the proposed technique, severe physical disabilities can free browse outside world. A specific component of ERPs, N2P3, was found and used to control the movement of robot and the view of camera on the designed brain-computer interface (BCI). Users only required watching the stimuli of attended button on the BCI, the evoked potentials of brain waves of the target button, N2P3, had the greatest amplitude among all control buttons. An experimental scene had been constructed that the robot required walking to a specific position and move the view of camera to see the instruction of the mission, and then completed the task. Twelve volunteers participated in this experiment, and experimental results showed that the correct rate of BCI control achieved 80% and the average of execution time was 353 seconds for completing the mission. Four main contributions included in this research: (1) find an efficient component of ERPs, N2P3, for BCI control, (2) embed robot's viewpoint image into user interface for robot control, (3) design an experimental scene and conduct the experiment, and (4) evaluate the performance of the proposed system for assessing the practicability.

Keywords: Brain-computer interface (BCI), event-related potentials (ERPs), robot control, severe physical disabilities.

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145 Visualisation Techniques Connecting VRML and GENESIS Environments

Authors: Eduard Kuriščák, Jiří Chludil

Abstract:

We created the tool, which combines the powerful GENESIS (GEneral NEural SImulation System) simulation language with the up-to-date visualisation and internet techniques. Our solution resides in the connection between the simulation output from GENESIS, which is converted to the data-structure suitable for WWW browsers and VRML (Virtual Reality Modelling Language) viewers. The selected GENESIS simulations are once exported into the VRML code, and stored in our neurovisualisation portal (webserver). There, the loaded models, demonstrating mainly the spread of electrical signal (action potentials, postsynaptic potentials) along the neuronal membrane (axon, dendritic tree, neuron) could be displayed in the client-s VRML viewer, without interacting with original GENESIS environment. This enables the visualisation of basic neurophysiological phenomena designed for GENESIS simulator on the independent OS (operation system).

Keywords: GENESIS, neurosimulation, VRML, Java3D.

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144 Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Thermal Properties of Au3Ni Nanowire

Authors: J. Davoodi, F. Katouzi

Abstract:

The aim of this research was to calculate the thermal properties of Au3Ni Nanowire. The molecular dynamics (MD) simulation technique was used to obtain the effect of radius size on the energy, the melting temperature and the latent heat of fusion at the isobaric-isothermal (NPT) ensemble. The Quantum Sutton-Chen (Q-SC) many body interatomic potentials energy have been used for Gold (Au) and Nickel (Ni) elements and a mixing rule has been devised to obtain the parameters of these potentials for nanowire stats. Our MD simulation results show the melting temperature and latent heat of fusion increase upon increasing diameter of nanowire. Moreover, the cohesive energy decreased with increasing diameter of nanowire.

Keywords: Au3Ni Nanowire, Thermal properties, Molecular dynamics simulation

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143 Fundamental Theory of the Evolution Force: Gene Engineering utilizing Synthetic Evolution Artificial Intelligence

Authors: L. K. Davis

Abstract:

The effects of the evolution force are observable in nature at all structural levels ranging from small molecular systems to conversely enormous biospheric systems. However, the evolution force and work associated with formation of biological structures has yet to be described mathematically or theoretically. In addressing the conundrum, we consider evolution from a unique perspective and in doing so we introduce the “Fundamental Theory of the Evolution Force: FTEF”. We utilized synthetic evolution artificial intelligence (SYN-AI) to identify genomic building blocks and to engineer 14-3-3 ζ docking proteins by transforming gene sequences into time-based DNA codes derived from protein hierarchical structural levels. The aforementioned served as templates for random DNA hybridizations and genetic assembly. The application of hierarchical DNA codes allowed us to fast forward evolution, while dampening the effect of point mutations. Natural selection was performed at each hierarchical structural level and mutations screened using Blosum 80 mutation frequency-based algorithms. Notably, SYN-AI engineered a set of three architecturally conserved docking proteins that retained motion and vibrational dynamics of native Bos taurus 14-3-3 ζ.

Keywords: 14-3-3 docking genes, synthetic protein design, time based DNA codes, writing DNA code from scratch.

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142 Generation of Electro-Encephalography Readiness Potentials by Intention

Authors: Seokbeen Lim, Gilwon Yoon

Abstract:

The readiness potential in brain waves is a brain activity related with an intention whose potential arises even before its conscious intention. This study was carried out in order to understand the generation and mechanism of the readiness potential more. The experiment with two subjects was conducted in two ways following the Oddball task protocol. Firstly, auditory stimuli were randomly presented to the subjects. The subject was allowed to press the keyboard with the right index finger only when the subject heard the target stimulus but not the standard stimulus. Secondly, unlike the first one, the auditory stimuli were randomly presented, and the subjects pressed the keyboard in the same manner, but at the same time with grasping action of the left hand. The readiness potential showed up for both of these experiments. In the first Oddball experiment, the readiness potential was detected only when the target stimulus was presented. However, in the second Oddball experiment with the left hand action of grasping something, the readiness potential was detected at the presentation of for both standard and target stimuli. However, detected readiness potentials with the target stimuli were larger than those of the standard stimuli. We found an interesting phenomenon that the readiness potential was able to be detected even the standard stimulus. This indicates that motor-related readiness potentials can be generated only by the intention to move. These results present a new perspective in psychology and brain engineering since subconscious brain action may be prior to conscious recognition of the intention.

Keywords: Readiness potential, auditory stimuli, event-related potential, electroencephalography, oddball task.

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141 Event Related Potentials in Terms of Visual and Auditory Stimuli

Authors: Seokbeen Lim, KyeongSeok Sim, DaKyeong Shin, Gilwon Yoon

Abstract:

Event-related potential (ERP) is one of the useful tools for investigating cognitive reactions. In this study, the potential of ERP components detected after auditory and visual stimuli was examined. Subjects were asked to respond upon stimuli that were of three categories; Target, Non-Target and Standard stimuli. The ERP after stimulus was measured. In the experiment of visual evoked potentials (VEPs), the subjects were asked to gaze at a center point on the monitor screen where the stimuli were provided by the reversal pattern of the checkerboard. In consequence of the VEP experiments, we observed consistent reactions. Each peak voltage could be measured when the ensemble average was applied. Visual stimuli had smaller amplitude and a longer latency compared to that of auditory stimuli. The amplitude was the highest with Target and the smallest with Standard in both stimuli.

Keywords: Auditory stimulus, EEG, event related potential, oddball task, visual stimulus.

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140 Potentials and Influencing Factors of Dynamic Pricing in Business: Empirical Insights of European Experts

Authors: Christopher Reichstein, Ralf-Christian Härting, Martina Häußler

Abstract:

With a continuously increasing speed of information exchange on the World Wide Web, retailers in the E-Commerce sector are faced with immense possibilities regarding different online purchase processes like dynamic price settings. By use of Dynamic Pricing, retailers are able to set short time price changes in order to optimize producer surplus. The empirical research illustrates the basics of Dynamic Pricing and identifies six influencing factors of Dynamic Pricing. The results of a structural equation modeling approach show five main drivers increasing the potential of dynamic price settings in the E-Commerce. Influencing factors are the knowledge of customers’ individual willingness to pay, rising sales, the possibility of customization, the data volume and the information about competitors’ pricing strategy.

Keywords: E-commerce, empirical research, experts, Dynamic Pricing (DP), influencing factors, potentials.

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139 An Empirical Mode Decomposition Based Method for Action Potential Detection in Neural Raw Data

Authors: Sajjad Farashi, Mohammadjavad Abolhassani, Mostafa Taghavi Kani

Abstract:

Information in the nervous system is coded as firing patterns of electrical signals called action potential or spike so an essential step in analysis of neural mechanism is detection of action potentials embedded in the neural data. There are several methods proposed in the literature for such a purpose. In this paper a novel method based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) has been developed. EMD is a decomposition method that extracts oscillations with different frequency range in a waveform. The method is adaptive and no a-priori knowledge about data or parameter adjusting is needed in it. The results for simulated data indicate that proposed method is comparable with wavelet based methods for spike detection. For neural signals with signal-to-noise ratio near 3 proposed methods is capable to detect more than 95% of action potentials accurately.

Keywords: EMD, neural data processing, spike detection, wavelet decomposition.

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138 Agritourism Potentials in Oman: An Overview with Visionary for Adoption

Authors: A. Al Hinai, H. Jayasuriya, H. Kotagama

Abstract:

Most Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries with oil-based economy like Oman are looking for other potential revenue generation options as the crude oil price is regularly fluctuating due to changing geopolitical environment. Oman has advantage of possessing world-heritage nature tourism hotspots around the country and the government is making investments and strategies to uplift the tourism industry following Oman Vision 2040 strategies. Oman’s agriculture is not significantly contributing to the economy, but possesses specific and diversified arid cropping systems. Oman has modern farms; nevertheless some of the agricultural production activities are done with cultural practices and styles that would be attractive to tourists. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potentials for promoting agritourism industry in Oman; recognize potential sites, commodities and activities, and predict potential revenue generation as a projection from that of the tourism sector. Moreover, the study enables to foresee possible auxiliary advantages of agritourism such as, empowerment of women and youth, enhancement in the value-addition industry for agricultural produce through technology transfer and capacity building, and producing export quality products. Agritourism could increase employability, empowerment of women and youth, improve value-addition industry and export-oriented agribusiness. These efforts including provision of necessary technology-transfer and capacity-building should be rendered by the collaboration of academic institutions, relevant ministries and other public and private sector stakeholders.

Keywords: Agritourism, nature-based tourism, potentials, revenue generation, value addition.

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137 Quantum Statistical Mechanical Formulations of Three-Body Problems via Non-Local Potentials

Authors: A. Maghari, V. H. Maleki

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a quantum statistical mechanical formulation from our recently analytical expressions for partial-wave transition matrix of a three-particle system. We report the quantum reactive cross sections for three-body scattering processes 1+(2,3)→1+(2,3) as well as recombination 1+(2,3)→1+(3,1) between one atom and a weakly-bound dimer. The analytical expressions of three-particle transition matrices and their corresponding cross-sections were obtained from the threedimensional Faddeev equations subjected to the rank-two non-local separable potentials of the generalized Yamaguchi form. The equilibrium quantum statistical mechanical properties such partition function and equation of state as well as non-equilibrium quantum statistical properties such as transport cross-sections and their corresponding transport collision integrals were formulated analytically. This leads to obtain the transport properties, such as viscosity and diffusion coefficient of a moderate dense gas.

Keywords: Statistical mechanics, Nonlocal separable potential, three-body interaction, Faddeev equations.

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