Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: fixed bed

43 Effect of the Support Shape on Fischer-Tropsch Cobalt Catalyst Performance

Authors: Jian Huang, Weixin Qian, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Cobalt catalysts were supported on extruded silica carrier and different-type (SiO2, γ-Al2O3) commercial supports with different shapes and sizes to produce heavy hydrocarbons for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The catalysts were characterized by N2 physisorption and H2-TPR. The catalytic performance of the catalysts was tested in a fixed bed reactor. The results of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis performance showed that the cobalt catalyst supported on spherical silica supports displayed a higher activity and a higher selectivity to C5+ products, due to the fact that the active components were only distributed in the surface layer of spherical carrier, and the influence of gas diffusion restriction on catalytic performance was weakened. Therefore, it can be concluded that the eggshell cobalt catalyst was superior to precious metals modified catalysts in the synthesis of heavy hydrocarbons.

Keywords: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, heavy hydrocarbons, cobalt catalyst, support shape

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42 Production Process for Diesel Fuel Components Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers from Methanol and Formaldehyde Solution

Authors: Xiangjun Li, Huaiyuan Tian, Wujie Zhang, Dianhua Liu

Abstract:

Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODEn) as clean diesel additive can improve the combustion efficiency and quality of diesel fuel and alleviate the problem of atmospheric pollution. Considering synthetic routes, PODE production from methanol and formaldehyde is regarded as the most economical and promising synthetic route. However, methanol used for synthesizing PODE can produce water, which causes the loss of active center of catalyst and hydrolysis of PODEn in the production process. Macroporous strong acidic cation exchange resin catalyst was prepared, which has comparative advantages over other common solid acid catalysts in terms of stability and catalytic efficiency for synthesizing PODE. Catalytic reactions were carried out under 353 K, 1 MPa and 3mL·gcat-1·h-1 in a fixed bed reactor. Methanol conversion and PODE3-6 selectivity reached 49.91% and 23.43%, respectively. Catalyst lifetime evaluation showed that resin catalyst retained its catalytic activity for 20 days without significant changes and catalytic activity of completely deactivated resin catalyst can basically return to previous level by simple acid regeneration. The acid exchange capacities of original and deactivated catalyst were 2.5191 and 0.0979 mmol·g-1, respectively, while regenerated catalyst reached 2.0430 mmol·g-1, indicating that the main reason for resin catalyst deactivation is that Brønsted acid sites of original resin catalyst were temporarily replaced by non-hydrogen ion cations. A separation process consisting of extraction and distillation for PODE3-6 product was designed for separation of water and unreacted formaldehyde from reactive mixture and purification of PODE3-6, respectively. The concentration of PODE3-6 in final product can reach up to 97%. These results indicate that the scale-up production of PODE3-6 from methanol and formaldehyde solution is feasible.

Keywords: inactivation, separation process, polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers, sulfonic cation exchange resin

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41 Structure-Activity Relationship of Gold Catalysts on Alumina Supported Cu-Ce Oxides for CO and Volatile Organic Compound Oxidation

Authors: Tatyana T. Tabakova, Elitsa N. Kolentsova, Dimitar Y. Dimitrov, Krasimir I. Ivanov, Yordanka G. Karakirova, Petya Cv. Petrova, Georgi V. Avdeev

Abstract:

The catalytic oxidation of CO and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is considered as one of the most efficient ways to reduce harmful emissions from various chemical industries. The effectiveness of gold-based catalysts for many reactions of environmental significance was proven during the past three decades. The aim of this work was to combine the favorable features of Au and Cu-Ce mixed oxides in the design of new catalytic materials of improved efficiency and economic viability for removal of air pollutants in waste gases from formaldehyde production. Supported oxides of copper and cerium with Cu: Ce molar ratio 2:1 and 1:5 were prepared by wet impregnation of g-alumina. Gold (2 wt.%) catalysts were synthesized by a deposition-precipitation method. Catalysts characterization was carried out by texture measurements, powder X-ray diffraction, temperature programmed reduction and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The catalytic activity in the oxidation of CO, CH3OH and (CH3)2O was measured using continuous flow equipment with fixed bed reactor. Both Cu-Ce/alumina samples demonstrated similar catalytic behavior. The addition of gold caused significant enhancement of CO and methanol oxidation activity (100 % degree of CO and CH3OH conversion at about 60 and 140 oC, respectively). The composition of Cu-Ce mixed oxides affected the performance of gold-based samples considerably. Gold catalyst on Cu-Ce/γ-Al2O3 1:5 exhibited higher activity for CO and CH3OH oxidation in comparison with Au on Cu-Ce/γ-Al2O3 2:1. The better performance of Au/Cu-Ce 1:5 was related to the availability of highly dispersed gold particles and copper oxide clusters in close contact with ceria.

Keywords: copper oxide, ceria, CO and VOCs oxidation, gold catalysts

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40 A Comparative Study on Biochar from Slow Pyrolysis of Corn Cob and Cassava Wastes

Authors: Adilah Shariff, Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor, Alexander Lau, Muhammad Azwan Mohd Ali

Abstract:

Biomass such as corn and cassava wastes if left to decay will release significant quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG) including carbon dioxide and methane. The biomass wastes can be converted into biochar via thermochemical process such as slow pyrolysis. This approach can reduce the biomass wastes as well as preserve its carbon content. Biochar has the potential to be used as a carbon sequester and soil amendment. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome in order to identify their potential as pyrolysis feedstocks for biochar production. This was achieved by using the proximate and elemental analyses as well as calorific value and lignocellulosic determination. The second objective is to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the biochar produced. A fixed bed slow pyrolysis reactor was used to pyrolyze the corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome. The pyrolysis temperatures were varied between 400 °C and 600 °C, while the heating rate and the holding time were fixed at 5 °C/min and 1 hour, respectively. Corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome were found to be suitable feedstocks for pyrolysis process because they contained a high percentage of volatile matter more than 80 mf wt.%. All the three feedstocks contained low nitrogen and sulphur content less than 1 mf wt.%. Therefore, during the pyrolysis process, the feedstocks give off very low rate of GHG such as nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides. Independent of the types of biomass, the percentage of biochar yield is inversely proportional to the pyrolysis temperature. The highest biochar yield for each studied temperature is from slow pyrolysis of cassava rhizome as the feedstock contained the highest percentage of ash compared to the other two feedstocks. The percentage of fixed carbon in all the biochars increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased. The increment of pyrolysis temperature from 400 °C to 600 °C increased the fixed carbon of corn cob biochar, cassava stem biochar and cassava rhizome biochar by 26.35%, 10.98%, and 6.20% respectively. Irrespective of the pyrolysis temperature, all the biochars produced were found to contain more than 60 mf wt.% fixed carbon content, much higher than its feedstocks.

Keywords: biomass, pyrolysis, Biochar, corn cob, cassava wastes

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39 Investigation on Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Cobalt-Gadolinium Catalyst

Authors: Jian Huang, Weixin Qian, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Cobalt-gadolinium catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was prepared by impregnation method with commercial silica gel, and its texture properties were characterized by BET, XRD, and TPR. The catalytic performance of the catalyst was tested in a fixed bed reactor. The results showed that the addition of gadolinium to the cobalt catalyst might decrease the size of cobalt particles, and increased the dispersion of catalytic active cobalt phases. The carbon number distributions for the catalysts was calculated by ASF equation.

Keywords: gadolinium, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, cobalt-based catalysts, carbon number distributions

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38 The Purification of Waste Printing Developer with the Fixed Bed Adsorption Column

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Ranogajec G. Jonjaua, Kecić S. Vesna, Oros B. Ivana

Abstract:

The present study investigates the effectiveness of newly designed clayey pellets (fired clay pellets diameter sizes of 5 and 8 mm, and unfired clay pellets with the diameter size of 15 mm) as the beds in the column adsorption process. The adsorption experiments in the batch mode were performed before the column experiment with the purpose to determine the order of adsorbent package in the column which was to be designed in the investigation. The column experiment was performed by using a known mass of the clayey beds and the volume of the waste printing developer, which was purified. The column was filled in the following order: fired clay pellets of the diameter size of 5 mm, fired clay pellets of the diameter size of 8 mm, and unfired clay pellets of the diameter size of 15 mm. The selected order of the adsorbents showed a high removal efficiency for zinc (97.8%) and copper (81.5%) ions. These efficiencies were better than those in the case of the already existing mode adsorption. The obtained experimental data present a good basis for the selection of an appropriate column fill, but further testing is necessary in order to obtain more accurate results.

Keywords: Clay Materials, fix bed adsorption column, printing developer, metal ions

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37 Removal of Rhodamine B from Aqueous Solution Using Natural Clay by Fixed Bed Column Method

Authors: A. Ghribi, M. Bagane

Abstract:

The discharge of dye in industrial effluents is of great concern because their presence and accumulation have a toxic or carcinogenic effect on living species. The removal of such compounds at such low levels is a difficult problem. The adsorption process is an effective and attractive proposition for the treatment of dye contaminated wastewater. Activated carbon adsorption in fixed beds is a very common technology in the treatment of water and especially in processes of decolouration. However, it is expensive and the powdered one is difficult to be separated from aquatic system when it becomes exhausted or the effluent reaches the maximum allowable discharge level. The regeneration of exhausted activated carbon by chemical and thermal procedure is also expensive and results in loss of the sorbent. The focus of this research was to evaluate the adsorption potential of the raw clay in removing rhodamine B from aqueous solutions using a laboratory fixed-bed column. The continuous sorption process was conducted in this study in order to simulate industrial conditions. The effect of process parameters, such as inlet flow rate, adsorbent bed height, and initial adsorbate concentration on the shape of breakthrough curves was investigated. A glass column with an internal diameter of 1.5 cm and height of 30 cm was used as a fixed-bed column. The pH of feed solution was set at 8.5. Experiments were carried out at different bed heights (5 - 20 cm), influent flow rates (1.6- 8 mL/min) and influent rhodamine B concentrations (20 - 80 mg/L). The obtained results showed that the adsorption capacity increases with the bed depth and the initial concentration and it decreases at higher flow rate. The column regeneration was possible for four adsorption–desorption cycles. The clay column study states the value of the excellent adsorption capacity for the removal of rhodamine B from aqueous solution. Uptake of rhodamine B through a fixed-bed column was dependent on the bed depth, influent rhodamine B concentration, and flow rate.

Keywords: Adsorption, Regeneration, Clay, fixed bed column, rhodamine B, breakthrough curve

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36 Torrefaction of Biomass Pellets: Modeling of the Process in a Fixed Bed Reactor

Authors: Ekaterina Artiukhina, Panagiotis Grammelis

Abstract:

Torrefaction of biomass pellets is considered as a useful pretreatment technology in order to convert them into a high quality solid biofuel that is more suitable for pyrolysis, gasification, combustion, and co-firing applications. In the course of torrefaction, the temperature varies across the pellet, and therefore chemical reactions proceed unevenly within the pellet. However, the uniformity of the thermal distribution along the pellet is generally assumed. The torrefaction process of a single cylindrical pellet is modeled here, accounting for heat transfer coupled with chemical kinetics. The drying sub-model was also introduced. The nonstationary process of wood pellet decomposition is described by the system of non-linear partial differential equations over the temperature and mass. The model captures well the main features of the experimental data.

Keywords: model, Torrefaction, biomass pellets, heat and mass transfer

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35 Biosorption of Metal Ions from Sarcheshmeh Acid Mine Drainage by Immobilized Bacillus thuringiensis in a Fixed-Bed Column

Authors: V. Khosravi, F. D. Ardejani, A. Aryafar, M. Sedighi

Abstract:

Heavy metals have a damaging impact for the environment, animals and humans due to their extreme toxicity and removing them from wastewaters is a very important and interesting task in the field of water pollution control. Biosorption is a relatively new method for treatment of wastewaters and recovery of heavy metals. In this study, a continuous fixed bed study was carried out by using Bacillus thuringiensis as a biosorbent for the removal of Cu and Mn ions from Sarcheshmeh Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). The effect of operating parameters such as flow rate and bed height on the sorption characteristics of B. thuringiensis was investigated at pH 6.0 for each metal ion. The experimental results showed that the breakthrough time decreased with increasing flow rate and decreasing bed height. The data also indicated that the equilibrium uptake of both metals increased with decreasing flow rate and increasing bed height. BDST, Thomas, and Yoon–Nelson models were applied to experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves. All models were found suitable for describing the whole dynamic behavior of the column with respect to flow rate and bed height. In order to regenerate the adsorbent, an elution step was carried out with 1 M HCl and five adsorption-desorption cycles were carried out in continuous manner.

Keywords: biosorption, fixed bed, Bacillus thuringiensis, acid mine drainage, cu and mn ions

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34 Continuous Fixed Bed Reactor Application for Decolourization of Textile Effluent by Adsorption on NaOH Treated Eggshell

Authors: M. Chafi, S. Akazdam, C. Asrir, L. Sebbahi, B. Gourich, N. Barka, M. Essahli

Abstract:

Fixed bed adsorption has become a frequently used industrial application in wastewater treatment processes. Various low cost adsorbents have been studied for their applicability in treatment of different types of effluents. In this work, the intention of the study was to explore the efficacy and feasibility for azo dye, Acid Orange 7 (AO7) adsorption onto fixed bed column of NaOH Treated eggshell (TES). The effect of various parameters like flow rate, initial dye concentration, and bed height were exploited in this study. The studies confirmed that the breakthrough curves were dependent on flow rate, initial dye concentration solution of AO7 and bed depth. The Thomas, Yoon–Nelson, and Adams and Bohart models were analysed to evaluate the column adsorption performance. The adsorption capacity, rate constant and correlation coefficient associated to each model for column adsorption was calculated and mentioned. The column experimental data were fitted well with Thomas model with coefficients of correlation R2 ≥0.93 at different conditions but the Yoon–Nelson, BDST and Bohart–Adams model (R2=0.911), predicted poor performance of fixed-bed column. The (TES) was shown to be suitable adsorbent for adsorption of AO7 using fixed-bed adsorption column.

Keywords: adsorption models, acid orange 7, bed depth, breakthrough, dye adsorption, fixed-bed column, treated eggshell

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33 Fluidised Bed Gasification of Multiple Agricultural Biomass Derived Briquettes

Authors: Rukayya Ibrahim Muazu, Aiduan Li Borrion, Julia A. Stegemann

Abstract:

Biomass briquette gasification is regarded as a promising route for efficient briquette use in energy generation, fuels and other useful chemicals. However, previous research has been focused on briquette gasification in fixed bed gasifiers such as updraft and downdraft gasifiers. Fluidised bed gasifier has the potential to be effectively sized to medium or large scale. This study investigated the use of fuel briquettes produced from blends of rice husks and corn cobs biomass, in a bubbling fluidised bed gasifier. The study adopted a combination of numerical equations and Aspen Plus simulation software, to predict the product gas (syngas) composition base on briquette density and biomass composition (blend ratio of rice husks to corn cobs). The Aspen Plus model was based on an experimentally validated model from the literature. The results based on a briquette size 32 mm diameter and relaxed density range of 500 to 650kg/m3, indicated that fluidisation air required in the gasifier increased with increase in briquette density, and the fluidisation air showed to be the controlling factor compared with the actual air required for gasification of the biomass briquettes. The mass flowrate of CO2 in the predicted syngas composition increased with an increase in air flow, in the gasifier, while CO decreased and H2 was almost constant. The ratio of H2 to CO for various blends of rice husks and corn cobs did not significantly change at the designed process air, but a significant difference of 1.0 was observed between 10/90 and 90/10 % blend of rice husks and corn cobs.

Keywords: gasification, aspen plus, briquettes, syngas, fluidised bed

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32 CFD Study on the Effect of Primary Air on Combustion of Simulated MSW Process in the Fixed Bed

Authors: Rui Sun, Tamer M. Ismail, Xiaohan Ren, M. Abd El-Salam

Abstract:

Incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the key scopes in the global clean energy strategy. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was established in order to reveal these features of the combustion process in a fixed porous bed of MSW. Transporting equations and process rate equations of the waste bed were modeled and set up to describe the incineration process, according to the local thermal conditions and waste property characters. Gas phase turbulence was modeled using k-ε turbulent model and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The heterogeneous reaction rates were determined using Arrhenius eddy dissipation and the Arrhenius-diffusion reaction rates. The effects of primary air flow rate and temperature in the burning process of simulated MSW are investigated experimentally and numerically. The simulation results in bed are accordant with experimental data well. The model provides detailed information on burning processes in the fixed bed, which is otherwise very difficult to obtain by conventional experimental techniques.

Keywords: fixed bed, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, municipal solid waste (MSW), primary air, Waste Incineration

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31 Progressive Loading Effect of Co over SiO2/Al2O3 Catalyst for Cox Free Hydrogen and Carbon Nanotubes Production via Catalytic Decomposition of Methane

Authors: Sushil Kumar Saraswat, K. K. Pant

Abstract:

Co metal supported on SiO2 and Al2O3 catalysts with a metal loading varied from 30 of 70 wt.% were evaluated for decomposition of methane to COx free hydrogen and carbon nanomaterials. The catalytic runs were carried out from 550-800oC under atmospheric pressure using fixed bed vertical flow reactor. The fresh and spent catalysts were characterized by BET surface area analyzer, XRD, SEM, TEM and TG analysis. The data showed that 50% Co/Al2O3 catalyst exhibited remarkable higher activity at 800oC with respect to H2 production compared to rest of the catalysts. However, the catalytic activity and durability was greatly declined at higher temperature. The main reason for the catalytic inhibition of Co containing SiO2 catalysts is the higher reduction temperature of Co2SiO4. TEM images illustrate that the carbon materials with various morphologies, carbon nanofibers (CNFs), helical-shaped CNFs and branched CNFs depending on the catalyst composition and reaction temperature were obtained.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, Hydrogen production, cobalt, methane decomposition

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30 A Numerical Model Simulation for an Updraft Gasifier Using High Temperature Steam

Authors: T. M. Ismail, M. Abd El-Salam

Abstract:

A mathematical model study was carried out to investigate gasification of biomass fuels using high temperature air and steam as a gasifying agent using high-temperature air up to 1000°C. In this study, a 2D computational fluid dynamics model was developed to study the gasification process in an updraft gasifier, considering drying, pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification reactions. The gas and solid phases were resolved using a Euler−Euler multiphase approach, with exchange terms for the momentum, mass, and energy. The standard k−ε turbulence model was used in the gas phase, and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The results show that the present model giving a promise way in its capability and sensitivity for the parameter affects that influence the gasification process.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, gasification, biomass fuel, fixed bed gasifier

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29 Hydrogen Production from Dehydrogenation of Ethanol over Ag-Based Catalysts

Authors: S. Totong, K. Faungnawakij, N. Laosiripojana

Abstract:

The development of alternative energy is interesting in the present especially, hydrogen production because it is an important energy resource in the future. This paper studied the hydrogen production from catalytic dehydrogenation of ethanol through via low temperature (<500°C) reaction. Copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) supported on fumed silica (SiO2) were selected in the present work; in addition, bimetallic material; Ag-Cu supported on SiO2 was also investigated. The catalysts were prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method and characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR)and nitrogen adsorption measurements. The catalytic dehydrogenation of ethanol was carried out in a fixed bed continuous flow reactor at atmospheric pressure. The effect of reaction temperature between 300-375°C was studied in order to maximize the hydrogen yield. It was found that Ag-Cu/SiO2 exhibited the highest hydrogen yield compared to Ag/SiO2 and Cu/SiO2 at low reaction temperature (300°C) with full ethanol conversion. The highest hydrogen yield observed was 40% and will be further used as a reactant in fuel cells to generate electricity or feedstock of chemical production. 

Keywords: dehydrogenation, Ethanol, Catalyst, hydrogen production

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28 Utilization of Cement Kiln Dust in Adsorption Technology

Authors: Yousef Swesi, Asia Elmeshergi, Abdelati Elalem, Walid Alfoghy

Abstract:

This paper involves a study of the heavy metal pollution of the soils around one of cement plants in Libya called Suk-Alkhameas and surrounding urban areas caused by cement kiln dust (CKD) emitted. Samples of soil was collected from sites at four directions around the cement factory at distances 250m, 1000m, and 3000m from the factory and at (0-10)cm deep in the soil. These samples are analyzed for Fe (iii), Zn(ii), and Pb (ii) as major pollutants. These values are compared with soils at 25 Km distances from the factory as a reference or control samples. The results show that the concentration of Fe ions in the surface soil was within the acceptable range of 1000ppm. However, for Zn and Pb ions the concentrations at the east and north sides of the factory were found six fold higher than the benchmark level. This high value was attributed to the wind which blows usually from south to north and from west to east. This work includes an investigation of the adsorption isotherms and adsorption efficiency of CKD as adsorbent of heavy metal ions (Fe (iii), Zn(ii), and Pb(ii)) from the polluted soils of Suk-Alkameas city. The investigation was conducted in batch and fixed bed column flow technique. The adsorption efficiency of the studied heavy metals ions removals onto CKD depends on the pH of the solution. The optimum pH values are found to be in the ranges of 8-10 and decreases at lower pH values. The removal efficiency of these heavy metals ions ranged from 93% for Pb, 94% for Zn, and 98% for Fe ions for 10 g.l-1 adsorbent concentration. The maximum removal efficiency of these ions was achieved at 50-60 minutes contact times at which equilibrium is reached. Fixed bed column experimental measurements are also made to evaluate CKD as an adsorbent for the heavy metals. Results obtained are with good agreement with Langmuir and Drachsal assumption of multilayer formation on the adsorbent surface.

Keywords: Adsorption, isotherms, Cement Kiln dust (CKD & CAC), Zn and Pb ions

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27 Thermochemical Conversion: Jatropha curcus in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Slow Pyrolysis

Authors: Vipan Kumar Sohpal, Rajesh Kumar Sharma

Abstract:

Thermochemical conversion of non-edible biomass offers an efficient and economically process to provide valuable fuels and prepare chemicals derived from biomass in the context of developing countries. Pyrolysis has advantages over other thermochemical conversion techniques because it can convert biomass directly into solid, liquid and gaseous products by thermal decomposition of biomass in the absence of oxygen. The present paper aims to focus on the slow thermochemical conversion processes for non-edible Jatropha curcus seed cake. The present discussion focuses on the effect of nitrogen gas flow rate on products composition (wt %). In addition, comparative analysis has been performed for different mesh size for product composition. Result shows that, slow pyrolysis experiments of Jatropha curcus seed cake in fixed bed reactor yield the bio-oil 18.42 wt % at a pyrolysis temperature of 500°C, particle size of -6+8 mesh number and nitrogen gas flow rate of 150 ml/min.

Keywords: pyrolysis, Yield, Product composition, Jatropha curcus, thermo-chemical

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26 Development of Better Quality Low-Cost Activated Carbon from South African Pine Tree (Pinus patula) Sawdust: Characterization and Comparative Phenol Adsorption

Authors: L. Mukosha, M. S. Onyango, A. Ochieng, H. Kasaini

Abstract:

The remediation of water resources pollution in developing countries requires the application of alternative sustainable cheaper and efficient end-of-pipe wastewater treatment technologies. The feasibility of use of South African cheap and abundant pine tree (Pinus patula) sawdust for development of lowcost AC of comparable quality to expensive commercial ACs in the abatement of water pollution was investigated. AC was developed at optimized two-stage N2-superheated steam activation conditions in a fixed bed reactor, and characterized for proximate and ultimate properties, N2-BET surface area, pore size distribution, SEM, pHPZC and FTIR. The sawdust pyrolysis activation energy was evaluated by TGA. Results indicated that the chars prepared at 800oC and 2hrs were suitable for development of better quality AC at 800oC and 47% burn-off having BET surface area (1086m2/g), micropore volume (0.26cm3/g), and mesopore volume (0.43cm3/g) comparable to expensive commercial ACs, and suitable for water contaminants removal. The developed AC showed basic surface functionality at pHPZC at 10.3, and a phenol adsorption capacity that was higher than that of commercial Norit (RO 0.8) AC. Thus, it is feasible to develop better quality low-cost AC from (Pinus patula) sawdust using twostage N2-steam activation in fixed-bed reactor.

Keywords: activated carbon, phenol adsorption, sawdust integrated utilization, economical wastewater treatment

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25 Conversion of Methanol to Propylene over a High Silica B-HZSM-5 Catalyst

Authors: Aina Xu, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying, Dingye Fang

Abstract:

Hydrothermally synthesized high silica borosilicates with the MFI structure was subjected to several characterization techniques. The effect of boron on the structure and acidity of HZSM-5 catalyst were studied by XRD, SEM, N2 adsorption, solid state NMR, NH3-TPD. It was confirmed that boron had entered the framework in the boron samples. The results also revealed that strong acidity was weakened and weak acidity was strengthened by the boron added zeolite framework compared with parent catalyst. The catalytic performance was carried out in a fixed bed at 460°C for methanol to propylene (MTP) reaction. The results of MTP reaction showed a great increment of the propylene selectivity and excellent stability for the B-HZSM-5. The catalyst exhibited about 81% selectivity to C2 = - C4 = olefins with 40% selectivity of propylene as major component at near 100% methanol conversion, and the stable performance in the studied period was 100h.

Keywords: Boron, HZSM-5, Methanol to propylene

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24 Hydrogenation of Acetic Acid on Alumina-Supported Pt-Sn Catalysts

Authors: Ke Zhang, Fang Li, Haitao Zhang, Hongfang Ma, Weiyong Ying, Dingye Fang

Abstract:

Three alumina-supported Pt-Sn catalysts have been prepared by means of co-impregnation and characterized by XRD and N2 adsorption. The influence of catalyst composition and reaction conditions on the conversion and selectivity were investigated in the hydrogenation of acetic acid in an isothermal integral fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed on the temperature interval 468-548 K, liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) of 0.3-0.7h-1, pressures between 1.0 and 5.0Mpa. A good compromise of 0.75%Pt-1.5%Sn can act as an optimized acetic acid hydrogenation catalyst, and the conversion and selectivity can be tuned through the variation of reaction conditions.

Keywords: hydrogenation, Ethanol, acetic acid, Pt-Sn catalysts

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23 Thermal Distribution in Axial-Flow Fixed Bed with Flowing Gas

Authors: Kun Lei, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying, Dingye Fang

Abstract:

This paper reported an experimental research of steady-state heat transfer behaviour of a gas flowing through a fixed bed under the different operating conditions. Studies had been carried out in a fixed-bed packed methanol synthesis catalyst percolated by air at appropriate flow rate. Both radial and axial direction temperature distribution had been investigated under the different operating conditions. The effects of operating conditions including the reactor inlet air temperature, the heating pipe temperature and the air flow rate on temperature distribution was investigated and the experimental results showed that a higher inlet air temperature was conducive to uniform temperature distribution in the fixed bed. A large temperature drop existed at the radial direction, and the temperature drop increased with the heating pipe temperature increasing under the experimental conditions; the temperature profile of the vicinity of the heating pipe was strongly affected by the heating pipe temperature. A higher air flow rate can improve the heat transfer in the fixed bed. Based on the thermal distribution, heat transfer models of the fixed bed could be established, and the characteristics of the temperature distribution in the fixed bed could be finely described, that had an important practical significance.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, thermal distribution, axial-flow, fixed bed

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22 Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of Industrial Naphta Reforming Reactor

Authors: Gholamreza Zahedi, M. Tarin, M. Biglari

Abstract:

This work investigated the steady state and dynamic simulation of a fixed bed industrial naphtha reforming reactors. The performance of the reactor was investigated using a heterogeneous model. For process simulation, the differential equations are solved using the 4th order Runge-Kutta method .The models were validated against measured process data of an existing naphtha reforming plant. The results of simulation in terms of components yields and temperature of the outlet were in good agreement with empirical data. The simple model displays a useful tool for dynamic simulation, optimization and control of naphtha reforming.

Keywords: Modeling, reforming, dynamic simulation, fixed bed reactor

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21 Dehydroxylation of Glycerol to Propylene Glycol over Cu-ZnO/Al2O3 Catalyst: Effect of Feed Purity

Authors: Thitipong Auttanat, Siriporn Jongpatiwut, Thirasak Rirksomboon

Abstract:

The catalytic dehydroxylation of glycerol to propylene glycol was investigated over Cu-ZnO/Al2O3 prepared by incipient wetness impregnation (IWI) method with different purity feedstocks - refined glycerol and technical grade glycerol. The main purpose is to investigate the effects of feed impurities that cause the catalyst deactivation. The prepared catalyst were tested for its catalytic activity and selectivity in a continuous flow fixed bed reactor at 523 K, 500 psig, H2/feed molar ratio of 4 and WHSV of 3 h-1. The results showed that conversion of refined glycerol and technical grade glycerol at time on stream 6 hour are 99% and 71% and selectivity to propylene glycol are 87% and 56% respectively. The ICP-EOS and TPO results indicated that the cause of catalyst deactivation was the amount of impurities in the feedstock. The higher amount of impurities (especially Na and K) the lower catalytic activity.

Keywords: glycerol, dehydroxylation, Cu-ZnO/Al2O3, propylene glycol

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20 Deoxygenation of Beef Fat over Pd Supported Mesoporous TiO2 Catalyst Prepared by Single-Step Sol-Gel Process with Surfactant Template

Authors: Tossaporn Jindarat, Siriporn Jongpatiwut, Somchai Osuwan, Suchada Butnark

Abstract:

Deoxygenation of beef fat for the production of hydrogenated biodiesel is investigated in a high pressure continuous flow fixed bed reactor over palladium-supported mesoporous titania catalyst synthesized via a combined single-step sol-gel process with surfactant-assisted templating method (SATM). The catalyst possessed a mesoporous charactheristic with high surface area and narrow pore size distribution. The main products of all Pd/TiO2 catalysts are n-heptadecane (n-C17) and n-pentadecane (n-C15) resulting from decarbonylation reaction. Pd/TiO2 catalyst synthesized via a combined single-step sol-gel process with SATM (SSSG) gave higher activity and selectivity to the desired products when compared to IWI/SG-TiO2 and IWI/P25-TiO2, respectively. SSSG catalyst gave the average conversion up to 80-90 % and 80 % for the selectivity in diesel range hydrocarbons. This result may cause by the higher surface area and the ability in dispersion of palladium ion in mesoporous of TiO2 during sol-gel process.

Keywords: deoxygenation, Beef fat, Hydrogenated biodiesel, Pd/TiO2

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19 Preparation and Evaluation of New Nanocatalysts for Selective Oxidation of H2S to Sulfur

Authors: Mohammad Rezaee, Mohammad Kazemeini, Ali Morad Rashidi, Moslem Fattahi

Abstract:

Selective oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur in a fixed bed reactor over newly synthesized alumina nanocatalysts was physio-chemically investigated and results compared with a commercial Claus catalyst. Amongst these new materials, Al2O3- supported sodium oxide prepared with wet chemical technique and Al2O3 nanocatalyst prepared with spray pyrolysis method were the most active catalysts for selective oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur. Other prepared nanocatalysts were quickly deactivated, mainly due to the interaction with H2S and conversion into sulfides.

Keywords: H2S, Al2O3, Claus process, Spray pyrolysis method, Wet chemical technique

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18 Intrinsic Kinetics of Methanol Dehydration over Al2O3 Catalyst

Authors: Liang Zhang, Hai-Tao Zhang, W ei-Yong Ying, Ding-Ye Fang

Abstract:

Dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) over a commercial Al2O3 catalyst was studied in an isothermal integral fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed on the temperature interval 513-613 K, liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) of 0.9-2.1h-1, pressures between 0.1 and 1.0 MPa. The effect of different operation conditions on the dehydration of methanol was investigated in a laboratory scale experiment. A new intrinsic kinetics equation based on the mechanism of Langmuir-Hinshelwood dissociation adsorption was developed for the dehydration reaction by fitting the expressions to the experimental data. An activation energy of 67.21 kJ/mol was obtained for the catalyst with the best performance. Statistic test showed that this new intrinsic kinetics equation was acceptable.

Keywords: methanol, Catalyst, dimethyl ether, intrinsic kinetics

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17 Study on Cross-flow Heat Transfer in Fixed Bed

Authors: Hong-fang Ma, Hai-tao Zhang, Wei-yong Ying, Ding-ye Fang

Abstract:

Radial flow reactor was focused for large scale methanol synthesis and in which the heat transfer type was cross-flow. The effects of operating conditions including the reactor inlet air temperature, the heating pipe temperature and the air flow rate on the cross-flow heat transfer was investigated and the results showed that the temperature profile of the area in front of the heating pipe was slightly affected by all the operating conditions. The main area whose temperature profile was influenced was the area behind the heating pipe. The heat transfer direction according to the air flow directions. In order to provide the basis for radial flow reactor design calculation, the dimensionless number group method was used for data fitting of the bed effective thermal conductivity and the wall heat transfer coefficient which was calculated by the mathematical model with the product of Reynolds number and Prandtl number. The comparison of experimental data and calculated value showed that the calculated value fit the experimental data very well and the formulas could be used for reactor designing calculation.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, cross-flow, mathematical model, fixed bed

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16 Optimization of Reaction Rate Parameters in Modeling of Heavy Paraffins Dehydrogenation

Authors: Leila Vafajoo, Farhad Khorasheh, Mehrnoosh Hamzezadeh Nakhjavani, Moslem Fattahi

Abstract:

In the present study, a procedure was developed to determine the optimum reaction rate constants in generalized Arrhenius form and optimized through the Nelder-Mead method. For this purpose, a comprehensive mathematical model of a fixed bed reactor for dehydrogenation of heavy paraffins over Pt–Sn/Al2O3 catalyst was developed. Utilizing appropriate kinetic rate expressions for the main dehydrogenation reaction as well as side reactions and catalyst deactivation, a detailed model for the radial flow reactor was obtained. The reactor model composed of a set of partial differential equations (PDE), ordinary differential equations (ODE) as well as algebraic equations all of which were solved numerically to determine variations in components- concentrations in term of mole percents as a function of time and reactor radius. It was demonstrated that most significant variations observed at the entrance of the bed and the initial olefin production obtained was rather high. The aforementioned method utilized a direct-search optimization algorithm along with the numerical solution of the governing differential equations. The usefulness and validity of the method was demonstrated by comparing the predicted values of the kinetic constants using the proposed method with a series of experimental values reported in the literature for different systems.

Keywords: Modeling, Optimization, dehydrogenation, Pt-Sn/Al2O3 Catalyst, Nelder-Mead

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15 Hexavalent Chromium Pollution Abatement by use of Scrap Iron

Authors: Marius Gheju, Laura Cocheci

Abstract:

In this study, the reduction of Cr(VI) by use of scrap iron, a cheap and locally available industrial waste, was investigated in continuous system. The greater scrap iron efficiency observed for the first two sections of the column filling indicate that most of the reduction process was carried out in the bottom half of the column filling. This was ascribed to a constant decrease of Cr(VI) concentration inside the filling, as the water front passes from the bottom to the top end of the column. While the bottom section of the column filling was heavily passivated with secondary mineral phases, the top section was less affected by the passivation process; therefore the column filling would likely ensure the reduction of Cr(VI) for time periods longer than 216 hours. The experimental results indicate that fixed beds columns packed with scrap iron could be successfully used for the first step of Cr(VI) polluted wastewater treatment. However, the mass of scrap iron filling should be carefully estimated since it significantly affects the Cr(VI) reduction efficiency.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, Heavy Metals, hexavalent chromium, scrap iron, reduction capacity

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14 Effect of Medium Capacity on the Relationship between Chemical Heterogeneity and Linearly Adsorbed Solute Dispersion into Fixed Beds

Authors: K. Kaabeche-Djerafi, N. Bendjaballah-Lalaoui, S. Semra

Abstract:

The paper aims at investigating influence of medium capacity on linear adsorbed solute dispersion into chemically heterogeneous fixed beds. A discrete chemical heterogeneity distribution is considered in the one-dimensional advectivedispersive equation. The partial differential equation is solved using finite volumes method based on the Adam-Bashforth algorithm. Increased dispersion is estimated by comparing breakthrough curves second order moments and keeping identical hydrodynamic properties. As a result, dispersion increase due to chemical heterogeneity depends on the column size and surprisingly on the solid capacity. The more intense capacity is, the more important solute dispersion is. Medium length which is known to favour this effect vanishing according to the linear adsorption in fixed bed seems to create nonmonotonous variation of dispersion because of the heterogeneity. This nonmonotonous behaviour is also favoured by high capacities.

Keywords: Porous Media, Dispersion, fixed bed, linear adsorption, chemical heterogeneity

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