Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: cooling tower

7 Control Strategy of Solar Thermal Cooling System under the Indonesia Climate

Authors: Budihardjo Sarwo Sastrosudiro, Arnas Lubis, Muhammad Idrus Alhamid, Nasruddin Jusuf

Abstract:

Solar thermal cooling system was installed on Mechanical Research Center (MRC) Building that is located in Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia. It is the first cooling system in Indonesia that utilizes solar energy as energy input combined with natural gas; therefore, the control system must be appropriated with the climates. In order to stabilize the cooling capacity and also to maximize the use of solar energy, the system applies some controllers. Constant flow rate and on/off controller are applied for the hot water, chilled water and cooling water pumps. The hot water circulated by pump when the solar radiation is over than 400W/m2, and the chilled water is continually circulated by pump and its temperature is kept constant 7 °C by absorption chiller. The cooling water is also continually circulated until the outlet temperature of cooling tower below than 27 oC. Furthermore, the three-way valve is used to control the hot water for generate vapor on absorption chiller. The system performance using that control system is shown in this study results.

Keywords: Absorption chiller, control system, solar cooling, solar energy.

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6 Progressive Collapse of Hyperbolic Cooling Tower Considering the Support Inclinations

Authors: Esmaeil Asadzadeh, Mehtab Alam

Abstract:

Progressive collapse of the layered hyperbolic tower shells are studied considering the influences of changes in the supporting columns’ types and angles. 3-D time history analyses employing the finite element method are performed for the towers supported with I-type and ᴧ-type column. It is found that the inclination angle of the supporting columns is a very important parameter in optimization and safe design of the cooling towers against the progressive collapse. It is also concluded that use of Demand Capacity Ratio (DCR) criteria of the linear elastic approach recommended by GSA is un-conservative for the hyperbolic tower shells.

Keywords: Progressive collapse, cooling towers, finite element analysis, crack generation, reinforced concrete.

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5 A Survey on Hyperbolic Cooling Towers

Authors: E. Asadzadeh, M. Alam

Abstract:

This study offers a comprehensive review of the research papers published in the field of cooling towers and gives an insight into the latest developments of the natural draught cooling towers. Different modeling, analysis and design techniques are summarized and the challenges are discussed. The 118 references included in this paper are mostly concentrated on the review of the published papers after 2005. The present paper represents a complete collection of the studies done for cooling towers and would give an updated material for the researchers and design engineers in the field of hyperbolic cooling towers.

Keywords: Hyperbolic cooling towers, earthquakes, wind, nonlinear behavior, buckling, collapse, interference.

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4 Optimum Shape and Design of Cooling Towers

Authors: A. M. El Ansary, A. A. El Damatty, A. O. Nassef

Abstract:

The aim of the current study is to develop a numerical tool that is capable of achieving an optimum shape and design of hyperbolic cooling towers based on coupling a non-linear finite element model developed in-house and a genetic algorithm optimization technique. The objective function is set to be the minimum weight of the tower. The geometric modeling of the tower is represented by means of B-spline curves. The finite element method is applied to model the elastic buckling behaviour of a tower subjected to wind pressure and dead load. The study is divided into two main parts. The first part investigates the optimum shape of the tower corresponding to minimum weight assuming constant thickness. The study is extended in the second part by introducing the shell thickness as one of the design variables in order to achieve an optimum shape and design. Design, functionality and practicality constraints are applied.

Keywords: B-splines, Cooling towers, Finite element, Genetic algorithm, Optimization

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3 Large-Dimensional Shells under Mining Tremors from Various Mining Regions in Poland

Authors: Joanna M. Dulińska, Maria Fabijańska

Abstract:

In the paper a detailed analysis of the dynamic response of a cooling tower shell to mining tremors originated from two main regions of mining activity in Poland (Upper Silesian Coal Basin and Legnica-Glogow Copper District) was presented. The representative time histories registered in the both regions were used as ground motion data in calculations of the dynamic response of the structure. It was proved that the dynamic response of the shell is strongly dependent not only on the level of vibration amplitudes but on the dominant frequency range of the mining shock typical for the mining region as well. Also a vertical component of vibrations occurred to have considerable influence on the total dynamic response of the shell. Finally, it turned out that non-uniformity of kinematic excitation resulting from spatial variety of ground motion plays a significant role in dynamic analysis of large-dimensional shells under mining shocks.

Keywords: Cooling towers, dynamic response, mining tremors, non-uniform kinematic excitation

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2 Optimal Water Conservation in a Mechanical Cooling Tower Operations

Authors: M. Boumaza, Y. Bakhabkhi

Abstract:

Water recycling represents an important challenge for many countries, in particular in countries where this natural resource is rare. On the other hand, in many operations, water is used as a cooling medium, as a high proportion of water consumed in industry is used for cooling purposes. Generally this water is rejected directly to the nature. This reject will cause serious environment damages as well as an important waste of this precious element.. On way to solve these problems is to reuse and recycle this warm water, through the use of natural cooling medium, such as air in a heat exchanger unit, known as a cooling tower. A poor performance, design or reliability of cooling towers will result in lower flow rate of cooling water an increase in the evaporation of water, an hence losses of water and energy. This paper which presents an experimental investigate of thermal and hydraulic performances of a mechanical cooling tower, enables to show that the water evaporation rate, Mev, increases with an increase in the air and water flow rates, as well as inlet water temperature and for fixed air flow rates, the pressure drop (ΔPw/Z) increases with increasing , L, due to the hydrodynamic behavior of the air/water flow.

Keywords: water, recycle, performance, cooling tower

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1 Performance Characteristics of a Closed Circuit Cooling Tower with Multi Path

Authors: Gyu-Jin Shim, Seung-Moon Baek, Choon-Geun Moon, Ho-Saeng Lee, Jung-In Yoon

Abstract:

The experimental thermal performance of two heat exchangers in closed-wet cooling tower (CWCT) was investigated in this study. The test sections are heat exchangers which have multi path that is used as the entrance of cooling water and are consisting of bare-type copper tubes between 15.88mm and 19.05mm. The process fluids are the cooling water that flows from top part of heat exchanger to bottom side in the inner side of tube, and spray water that flows gravitational direction in the outer side of it. Air contacts its outer side of that as it counterflows. Heat and mass transfer coefficients and cooling capacity were calculated with variations of process fluids, multi path and different diameter tubes to figure out the performance of characteristics of CWCT. The main results were summarized as follows: The results show this experiment is reliable with values of heat and mass transfer coefficients comparing to values of correlations. Heat and mass transfer coefficients and cooling capacity of two paths are higher than these with one path using 15.88 and 19.05mm tubes. Cooling capacity per unit volume with 15.88mm tube using one and two paths are higher than 19.05mm tube due to increase of surface area per unit volume.

Keywords: Closed–Wet Cooling Tower, Cooling Capacity, Heatand Mass Transfer Coefficients.

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