Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 94

Search results for: Unbalance

94 A Neural Network Control for Voltage Balancing in Three-Phase Electric Power System

Authors: Dana M. Ragab, Jasim A. Ghaeb

Abstract:

The three-phase power system suffers from different challenging problems, e.g. voltage unbalance conditions at the load side. The voltage unbalance usually degrades the power quality of the electric power system. Several techniques can be considered for load balancing including load reconfiguration, static synchronous compensator and static reactive power compensator. In this work an efficient neural network is designed to control the unbalanced condition in the Aqaba-Qatrana-South Amman (AQSA) electric power system. It is designed for highly enhanced response time of the reactive compensator for voltage balancing. The neural network is developed to determine the appropriate set of firing angles required for the thyristor-controlled reactor to balance the three load voltages accurately and quickly. The parameters of AQSA power system are considered in the laboratory model, and several test cases have been conducted to test and validate the proposed technique capabilities. The results have shown a high performance of the proposed Neural Network Control (NNC) technique for correcting the voltage unbalance conditions at three-phase load based on accuracy and response time.

Keywords: Three-phase power system, reactive power control, voltage unbalance factor, neural network, power quality.

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93 A Linear Relation for Voltage Unbalance Factor Evaluation in Three-Phase Electrical Power System Using Space Vector

Authors: Dana M. Ragab, Jasim A Ghaeb

Abstract:

The Voltage Unbalance Factor (VUF) index is recommended to evaluate system performance under unbalanced operation. However, its calculation requires complex algebra which limits its use in the field. Furthermore, one system cycle is required at least to detect unbalance using the VUF. Ideally unbalance mitigation must be performed within 10 ms for 50 Hz systems. In this work, a linear relation for VUF evaluation in three-phase electrical power system using space vector (SV) is derived. It is proposed to determine the voltage unbalance quickly and accurately and to overcome the constraints associated with the traditional methods of VUF evaluation. Aqaba-Qatrana-South Amman (AQSA) power system is considered to study the system performance under unbalanced conditions. The results show that both the complexity of calculations and the time required to evaluate VUF are reduced significantly.

Keywords: Power quality, space vector, unbalance evaluation.

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92 Impact of Terrorism as an Asymmetrical Threat on the State's Conventional Security Forces

Authors: Igor Pejic

Abstract:

The main focus of this research will be on analyzing correlative links between terrorism as an asymmetrical threat and the consequences it leaves on conventional security forces. The methodology behind the research will include qualitative research methods focusing on comparative analysis of books, scientific papers, documents and other sources, in order to deduce, explore and formulate the results of the research. With the coming of the 21st century and the rising multi-polar, new world threats quickly emerged. The realistic approach in international relations deems that relations among nations are in a constant state of anarchy since there are no definitive rules and the distribution of power varies widely. International relations are further characterized by egoistic and self-orientated human nature, anarchy or absence of a higher government, security and lack of morality. The asymmetry of power is also reflected on countries' security capabilities and its abilities to project power. With the coming of the new millennia and the rising multi-polar world order, the asymmetry of power can be also added as an important trait of the global society which consequently brought new threats. Among various others, terrorism is probably the most well-known, well-based and well-spread asymmetric threat. In today's global political arena, terrorism is used by state and non-state actors to fulfill their political agendas. Terrorism is used as an all-inclusive tool for regime change, subversion or a revolution. Although the nature of terrorist groups is somewhat inconsistent, terrorism as a security and social phenomenon has a one constant which is reflected in its political dimension. The state's security apparatus, which was embodied in the form of conventional armed forces, is now becoming fragile, unable to tackle new threats and to a certain extent outdated. Conventional security forces were designed to defend or engage an exterior threat which is more or less symmetric and visible. On the other hand, terrorism as an asymmetrical threat is a part of hybrid, special or asymmetric warfare in which specialized units, institutions or facilities represent the primary pillars of security. In today's global society, terrorism is probably the most acute problem which can paralyze entire countries and their political systems. This problem, however, cannot be engaged on an open field of battle, but rather it requires a different approach in which conventional armed forces cannot be used traditionally and their role must be adjusted. The research will try to shed light on the phenomena of modern day terrorism and to prove its correlation with the state conventional armed forces. States are obliged to adjust their security apparatus to the new realism of global society and terrorism as an asymmetrical threat which is a side-product of the unbalanced world.

Keywords: Asymmetrical warfare, conventional forces, security, terrorism.

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91 Numerical Analysis of Effect of Crack Location on the Crack Breathing Behavior

Authors: H. M. Mobarak, Helen Wu, Keqin Xiao

Abstract:

In this work, a three-dimensional finite element model was developed to investigate the crack breathing behavior at different crack locations considering the effect of unbalance force. A two-disk rotor with a crack is simulated using ABAQUS. The duration of each crack status (open, closed and partially open/closed) during a full shaft rotation was examined to analyse the crack breathing behavior. Unbalanced shaft crack breathing behavior was found to be different at different crack locations. The breathing behavior of crack along the shaft length is divided into different regions depending on the unbalance force and crack location. The simulated results in this work can be further utilised to obtain the time-varying stiffness matrix of the cracked shaft element under the influence of unbalance force.

Keywords: Crack breathing, crack location, slant crack, unbalance force, rotating shaft.

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90 Analysis of the Interference from Risk-Determining Factors of Cooperative and Conventional Construction Contracts

Authors: E. Harrer, M. Mauerhofer, T. Werginz

Abstract:

As a result of intensive competition, the building sector is suffering from a high degree of rivalry. Furthermore, there can be observed an unbalanced distribution of project risks. Clients are aimed to shift their own risks into the sphere of the constructors or planners. The consequence of this is that the number of conflicts between the involved parties is inordinately high or even increasing; an alternative approach to counter on that developments are cooperative project forms in the construction sector. This research compares conventional contract models and models with partnering agreements to examine the influence on project risks by an early integration of the involved parties. The goal is to show up deviations in different project stages from the design phase to the project transfer phase. These deviations are evaluated by a survey of experts from the three spheres: clients, contractors and planners. By rating the influence of the participants on specific risk factors it is possible to identify factors which are relevant for a smooth project execution.

Keywords: Collaborative work, construction industry, contract-models, influence, partnering, project management, risk.

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89 Mathieu Stability of Offshore Buoyant Leg Storage and Regasification Platform

Authors: S. Chandrasekaran, P. A. Kiran

Abstract:

Increasing demand for large-sized Floating, Storage and Regasification Units (FSRUs) for oil and gas industries led to the development of novel geometric form of Buoyant Leg Storage and Regasification Platform (BLSRP). BLSRP consists of a circular deck supported by six buoyant legs placed symmetrically with respect to wave direction. Circular deck is connected to buoyant legs using hinged joints, which restrain transfer of rotational response from the legs to deck and vice-versa. Buoyant legs are connected to seabed using taut moored system with high initial pretension, enabling rigid body motion in vertical plane. Encountered environmental loads induce dynamic tether tension variations, which in turn affect stability of the platform. The present study investigates Mathieu stability of BLSRP under the postulated tether pullout cases by inducing additional tension in the tethers. From the numerical studies carried out, it is seen that postulated tether pullout on any one of the buoyant legs does not result in Mathieu type instability even under excessive tether tension. This is due to the presence of hinged joints, which are capable of dissipating the unbalanced loads to other legs. However, under tether pullout of consecutive buoyant legs, Mathieu-type instability is observed.

Keywords: Offshore platforms, stability, postulated failure, dynamic tether tension.

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88 Condition Monitoring for Twin-Fluid Nozzles with Internal Mixing

Authors: C. Lanzerstorfer

Abstract:

Liquid sprays of water are frequently used in air pollution control for gas cooling purposes and for gas cleaning. Twin-fluid nozzles with internal mixing are often used for these purposes because of the small size of the drops produced. In these nozzles the liquid is dispersed by compressed air or another pressurized gas. In high efficiency scrubbers for particle separation, several nozzles are operated in parallel because of the size of the cross section. In such scrubbers, the scrubbing water has to be re-circulated. Precipitation of some solid material can occur in the liquid circuit, caused by chemical reactions. When such precipitations are detached from the place of formation, they can partly or totally block the liquid flow to a nozzle. Due to the resulting unbalanced supply of the nozzles with water and gas, the efficiency of separation decreases. Thus, the nozzles have to be cleaned if a certain fraction of blockages is reached. The aim of this study was to provide a tool for continuously monitoring the status of the nozzles of a scrubber based on the available operation data (water flow, air flow, water pressure and air pressure). The difference between the air pressure and the water pressure is not well suited for this purpose, because the difference is quite small and therefore very exact calibration of the pressure measurement would be required. Therefore, an equation for the reference air flow of a nozzle at the actual water flow and operation pressure was derived. This flow can be compared with the actual air flow for assessment of the status of the nozzles.

Keywords: Twin-fluid nozzles, operation data, condition monitoring, flow equation.

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87 Dependence of Shaft Stiffness on the Crack Location

Authors: H. M. Mobarak, Helen Wu, Chunhui Yang

Abstract:

In this study, an analytical model is developed to study crack breathing behavior under the effect of crack location and unbalance force. Crack breathing behavior is determined using effectual bending angle by studying the transient change in closed area of the crack. The status of the crack of a balanced shaft is symmetrical about shaft rotational angle and the duration of each crack status remains unchanged. The global stiffness of the balanced shaft is independent of crack location. Different crack breathing behavior for the unbalanced shaft has been observed. The influence of crack location on the unbalanced shaft stiffness can be divided into three regions. When the crack is located between 0.3L and 0.8335L, where L is the total length of the shaft, the unbalanced shaft is less stiff and when located outside this region it is stiffer than the balanced shaft. It was also found that unbalanced shaft stiffness has a maximum value with a crack at 0.1946L, a minimum value at 0.8053L and same value as balanced shaft at 0.3L and 0.8335L.

Keywords: Cracked shaft, crack location, shaft stiffness, unbalanced force.

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86 An Efficient Tool for Mitigating Voltage Unbalance with Reactive Power Control of Distributed Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

Authors: Malinwo Estone Ayikpa

Abstract:

With the rapid increase of grid-connected PV systems over the last decades, genuine challenges have arisen for engineers and professionals of energy field in the planning and operation of existing distribution networks with the integration of new generation sources. However, the conventional distribution network, in its design was not expected to receive other generation outside the main power supply. The tools generally used to analyze the networks become inefficient and cannot take into account all the constraints related to the operation of grid-connected PV systems. Some of these constraints are voltage control difficulty, reverse power flow, and especially voltage unbalance which could be due to the poor distribution of single-phase PV systems in the network. In order to analyze the impact of the connection of small and large number of PV systems to the distribution networks, this paper presents an efficient optimization tool that minimizes voltage unbalance in three-phase distribution networks with active and reactive power injections from the allocation of single-phase and three-phase PV plants. Reactive power can be generated or absorbed using the available capacity and the adjustable power factor of the inverter. Good reduction of voltage unbalance can be achieved by reactive power control of the PV systems. The presented tool is based on the three-phase current injection method and the PV systems are modeled via an equivalent circuit. The primal-dual interior point method is used to obtain the optimal operating points for the systems.

Keywords: Photovoltaic generation, primal-dual interior point method, three-phase optimal power flow, unbalanced system.

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85 Unbalanced Distribution Optimal Power Flow to Minimize Losses with Distributed Photovoltaic Plants

Authors: Malinwo Estone Ayikpa

Abstract:

Electric power systems are likely to operate with minimum losses and voltage meeting international standards. This is made possible generally by control actions provide by automatic voltage regulators, capacitors and transformers with on-load tap changer (OLTC). With the development of photovoltaic (PV) systems technology, their integration on distribution networks has increased over the last years to the extent of replacing the above mentioned techniques. The conventional analysis and simulation tools used for electrical networks are no longer able to take into account control actions necessary for studying distributed PV generation impact. This paper presents an unbalanced optimal power flow (OPF) model that minimizes losses with association of active power generation and reactive power control of single-phase and three-phase PV systems. Reactive power can be generated or absorbed using the available capacity and the adjustable power factor of the inverter. The unbalance OPF is formulated by current balance equations and solved by primal-dual interior point method. Several simulation cases have been carried out varying the size and location of PV systems and the results show a detailed view of the impact of PV distributed generation on distribution systems.

Keywords: Distribution system, losses, photovoltaic generation, primal-dual interior point method, reactive power control.

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84 Co-payment Strategies for Chronic Medications: A Qualitative and Comparative Analysis at European Level

Authors: Pedro M. Abreu, Bruno R. Mendes

Abstract:

The management of pharmacotherapy and the process of dispensing medicines is becoming critical in clinical pharmacy due to the increase of incidence and prevalence of chronic diseases, the complexity and customization of therapeutic regimens, the introduction of innovative and more expensive medicines, the unbalanced relation between expenditure and revenue as well as due to the lack of rationalization associated with medication use. For these reasons, co-payments emerged in Europe in the 70s and have been applied over the past few years in healthcare. Co-payments lead to a rationing and rationalization of user’s access under healthcare services and products, and simultaneously, to a qualification and improvement of the services and products for the end-user. This analysis, under hospital practices particularly and co-payment strategies in general, was carried out on all the European regions and identified four reference countries, that apply repeatedly this tool and with different approaches. The structure, content and adaptation of European co-payments were analyzed through 7 qualitative attributes and 19 performance indicators, and the results expressed in a scorecard, allowing to conclude that the German models (total score of 68,2% and 63,6% in both elected co-payments) can collect more compliance and effectiveness, the English models (total score of 50%) can be more accessible, and the French models (total score of 50%) can be more adequate to the socio-economic and legal framework. Other European models did not show the same quality and/or performance, so were not taken as a standard in the future design of co-payments strategies. In this sense, we can see in the co-payments a strategy not only to moderate the consumption of healthcare products and services, but especially to improve them, as well as a strategy to increment the value that the end-user assigns to these services and products, such as medicines.

Keywords: Clinical pharmacy, co-payments, healthcare, medicines.

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83 An Analysis of Classification of Imbalanced Datasets by Using Synthetic Minority Over-Sampling Technique

Authors: Ghada A. Alfattni

Abstract:

Analysing unbalanced datasets is one of the challenges that practitioners in machine learning field face. However, many researches have been carried out to determine the effectiveness of the use of the synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE) to address this issue. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the effectiveness of the SMOTE over different models on unbalanced datasets. Three classification models (Logistic Regression, Support Vector Machine and Nearest Neighbour) were tested with multiple datasets, then the same datasets were oversampled by using SMOTE and applied again to the three models to compare the differences in the performances. Results of experiments show that the highest number of nearest neighbours gives lower values of error rates. 

Keywords: Imbalanced datasets, SMOTE, machine learning, logistic regression, support vector machine, nearest neighbour.

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82 The Operating Behaviour of Unbalanced Unpaced Merging Assembly Lines

Authors: S. Shaaban, T. McNamara, S. Hudson

Abstract:

This paper reports on the performance of deliberately unbalanced, reliable, non-automated and assembly lines that merge, whose workstations differ in terms of their mean operation times. Simulations are carried out on 5- and 8-station lines with 1, 2 and 4 buffer capacity units, % degrees of line imbalance of 2, 5 and 12, and 24 different patterns of means imbalance. Data on two performance measures, namely throughput and average buffer level were gathered, statistically analysed and compared to a merging balanced line counterpart. It was found that the best configurations are a balanced line arrangement and a monotone decreasing order for each of the parallel merging lines, with the first generally resulting in a lower throughput and the second leading to a lower average buffer level than those of a balanced line.

Keywords: Average buffer level, merging lines, simulation, throughput, unbalanced.

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81 Unbalanced Cylindrical Magnetron for Accelerating Cavities Coating

Authors: G. Rosaz, V. Semblanet, S. Calatroni, A. Sublet, M. Taborelli

Abstract:

We report in this paper the design and qualification of a cylindrical unbalanced magnetron source. The dedicated magnetic assemblies were simulated using a finite element model. A hall-effect magnetic probe was then used to characterize those assemblies and compared to the theoretical magnetic profiles. These show a good agreement between the expected and actual values. The qualification of the different magnetic assemblies was then performed by measuring the ion flux density reaching the surface of the sample to be coated using a commercial retarding field energy analyzer. The strongest unbalanced configuration shows an increase from 0.016 A.cm-2 to 0.074 A.cm-2 of the ion flux density reaching the sample surface compared to the standard balanced configuration for a pressure 5.10-3 mbar and a plasma source power of 300 W.

Keywords: Ion energy distribution, niobium, retarding field energy analyzer, sputtering, SRF cavity, unbalanced magnetron.

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80 Interfacing Photovoltaic Systems to the Utility Grid: A Comparative Simulation Study to Mitigate the Impact of Unbalanced Voltage Dips

Authors: Badr M. Alshammari, A. Rabeh, A. K. Mohamed

Abstract:

This paper presents the modeling and the control of a grid-connected photovoltaic system (PVS). Firstly, the MPPT control of the PVS and its associated DC/DC converter has been analyzed in order to extract the maximum of available power. Secondly, the control system of the grid side converter (GSC) which is a three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) has been presented. A special attention has been paid to the control algorithms of the GSC converter during grid voltages imbalances. Especially, three different control objectives are to achieve; the mitigation of the grid imbalance adverse effects, at the point of common coupling (PCC), on the injected currents, the elimination of double frequency oscillations in active power flow, and the elimination of double frequency oscillations in reactive power flow. Simulation results of two control strategies have been performed via MATLAB software in order to demonstrate the particularities of each control strategy according to power quality standards.

Keywords: Renewable energies, photovoltaic systems, DC link, voltage source inverter, space vector SVPWM, unbalanced voltage dips, symmetrical components.

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79 Elman Neural Network for Diagnosis of Unbalance in a Rotor-Bearing System

Authors: S. Sendhilkumar, N. Mohanasundaram, M. Senthilkumar, S. N. Sivanandam

Abstract:

The operational life of rotating machines has to be extended using a predictive condition maintenance tool. Among various condition monitoring techniques, vibration analysis is most widely used technique in industry. Signals are extracted for evaluating the condition of machine; further diagnostics is carried out with detected signals to extend the life of machine. With help of detected signals, further interpretations are done to predict the occurrence of defects. To study the problem of defects, a test rig with various possibilities of defects is constructed and experiments are performed considering the unbalanced condition. Further, this paper presents an approach for fault diagnosis of unbalance condition using Elman neural network and frequency-domain vibration analysis. Amplitudes with variation in acceleration are fed to Elman neural network to classify fault or no-fault condition. The Elman network is trained, validated and tested with experimental readings. Results illustrate the effectiveness of Elman network in rotor-bearing system.

Keywords: Elman neural network, fault detection, rotating machines, unbalance, vibration analysis.

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78 Condition Monitoring for Controlling the Stability of the Rotating Machinery

Authors: A. Chellil, I. Gahlouz, S. Lecheb, A. Nour, S. Chellil, H. Mechakra, H. Kebir

Abstract:

In this paper, the experimental study for the instability of a separator rotor is presented, under dynamic loading response in the harmonic analysis condition. The global measurement and analysis of vibration on the cement separator RC500 is carried, the points of measurement used are radial dots, vertical, horizontal and oblique. The measures of trends and spectral analysis for reconnaissance of the main anomalies, the main defects in the separator and manifestation, the results prove that the defects effect has a negative effect on the stability of the rotor. Experimentally the study of the rotor in transient system allowed to determine the vibratory responses due to the unbalances and various excitations.

Keywords: Rotor, experimental, defect, frequency, specter.

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77 A Fault Analysis Cracked-Rotor-to-Stator Rub and Unbalance by Vibration Analysis Technique

Authors: B. X. Tchomeni, A. A. Alugongo, L. M. Masu

Abstract:

An analytical 4-DOF nonlinear model of a de Laval rotor-stator system based on Energy Principles has been used theoretically and experimentally to investigate fault symptoms in a rotating system. The faults, namely rotor-stator-rub, crack and unbalance are modeled as excitations on the rotor shaft. Mayes steering function is used to simulate the breathing behaviour of the crack. The fault analysis technique is based on waveform signal, orbits and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) derived from simulated and real measured signals. Simulated and experimental results manifest considerable mutual resemblance of elliptic-shaped orbits and FFT for a same range of test data.

Keywords: A breathing crack, fault, FFT, nonlinear, orbit, rotorstator rub, vibration analysis.

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76 Time-Frequency Modeling and Analysis of Faulty Rotor

Authors: B. X. Tchomeni, A. A. Alugongo, T. B. Tengen

Abstract:

In this paper, de Laval rotor system has been characterized by a hinge model and its transient response numerically treated for a dynamic solution. The effect of the ensuing non-linear disturbances namely rub and breathing crack is numerically simulated. Subsequently, three analysis methods: Orbit Analysis, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), and Wavelet Transform (WT) are employed to extract features of the vibration signal of the faulty system. An analysis of the system response orbits clearly indicates the perturbations due to the rotor-to-stator contact. The sensitivities of WT to the variation in system speed have been investigated by Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT). The analysis reveals that features of crack, rubs and unbalance in vibration response can be useful for condition monitoring. WT reveals its ability to detect nonlinear signal, and obtained results provide a useful tool method for detecting machinery faults.

Keywords: Continuous wavelet, crack, discrete wavelet, high acceleration, low acceleration, nonlinear, rotor-stator, rub.

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75 Error Correction of Radial Displacement in Grinding Machine Tool Spindle by Optimizing Shape and Bearing Tuning

Authors: Khairul Jauhari, Achmad Widodo, Ismoyo Haryanto

Abstract:

In this article, the radial displacement error correction capability of a high precision spindle grinding caused by unbalance force was investigated. The spindle shaft is considered as a flexible rotor mounted on two sets of angular contact ball bearing. Finite element methods (FEM) have been adopted for obtaining the equation of motion of the spindle. In this paper, firstly, natural frequencies, critical frequencies, and amplitude of the unbalance response caused by residual unbalance are determined in order to investigate the spindle behaviors. Furthermore, an optimization design algorithm is employed to minimize radial displacement of the spindle which considers dimension of the spindle shaft, the dynamic characteristics of the bearings, critical frequencies and amplitude of the unbalance response, and computes optimum spindle diameters and stiffness and damping of the bearings. Numerical simulation results show that by optimizing the spindle diameters, and stiffness and damping in the bearings, radial displacement of the spindle can be reduced. A spindle about 4 μm radial displacement error can be compensated with 2 μm accuracy. This certainly can improve the accuracy of the product of machining.

Keywords: Error correction, High precision grinding, Optimization, Radial displacement, Spindle.

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74 Optimal Planning of Dispatchable Distributed Generators for Power Loss Reduction in Unbalanced Distribution Networks

Authors: Mahmoud M. Othman, Y. G. Hegazy, A. Y. Abdelaziz

Abstract:

This paper proposes a novel heuristic algorithm that aims to determine the best size and location of distributed generators in unbalanced distribution networks. The proposed heuristic algorithm can deal with the planning cases where power loss is to be optimized without violating the system practical constraints. The distributed generation units in the proposed algorithm is modeled as voltage controlled node with the flexibility to be converted to constant power factor node in case of reactive power limit violation. The proposed algorithm is implemented in MATLAB and tested on the IEEE 37 -node feeder. The results obtained show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. 

Keywords: Distributed generation, heuristic approach, Optimization, planning.

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73 Optimal Planning of Voltage Controlled Distributed Generators for Power Loss Reduction in Unbalanced Distribution Systems

Authors: Mahmoud M. Othman, Yasser G. Hegazy

Abstract:

This paper proposes a novel heuristic algorithm that aims to determine the best size and location of distributed generators in unbalanced distribution networks. The proposed heuristic algorithm can deal with the planning cases where power loss is to be optimized without violating the system practical constraints. The distributed generation units in the proposed algorithm is modeled as voltage controlled node with the flexibility to be converted to constant power factor node in case of reactive power limit violation. The proposed algorithm is implemented in MATLAB and tested on the IEEE 37 -node feeder. The results obtained show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Distributed generation, heuristic approach, Optimization, planning.

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72 Unreliable Production Lines with Simultaneously Unbalanced Operation Time Means, Breakdown, and Repair Rates

Authors: S. Shaaban, T. McNamara, S. Hudson

Abstract:

This paper investigates the benefits of deliberately unbalancing both operation time means (MTs) and unreliability (failure and repair rates) for non-automated production lines. The lines were simulated with various line lengths, buffer capacities, degrees of imbalance and patterns of MT and unreliability imbalance. Data on two performance measures, namely throughput (TR) and average buffer level (ABL) were gathered, analyzed and compared to a balanced line counterpart. A number of conclusions were made with respect to the ranking of configurations, as well as to the relationships among the independent design parameters and the dependent variables. It was found that the best configurations are a balanced line arrangement and a monotone decreasing MT order, coupled with either a decreasing or a bowl unreliability configuration, with the first generally resulting in a reduced TR and the second leading to a lower ABL than those of a balanced line.

Keywords: Average buffer level, throughput, unbalanced failure and repair rates, unequal mean operation times, unreliable production lines.

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71 An Optimization Tool-Based Design Strategy Applied to Divide-by-2 Circuits with Unbalanced Loads

Authors: Agord M. Pinto Jr., Yuzo Iano, Leandro T. Manera, Raphael R. N. Souza

Abstract:

This paper describes an optimization tool-based design strategy for a Current Mode Logic CML divide-by-2 circuit. Representing a building block for output frequency generation in a RFID protocol based-frequency synthesizer, the circuit was designed to minimize the power consumption for driving of multiple loads with unbalancing (at transceiver level). Implemented with XFAB XC08 180 nm technology, the circuit was optimized through MunEDA WiCkeD tool at Cadence Virtuoso Analog Design Environment ADE.

Keywords: Divide-by-2 circuit, CMOS technology, PLL phase locked-loop, optimization tool, CML current mode logic, RF transceiver.

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70 Banking Union: A New Step towards Completing the Economic and Monetary Union

Authors: Marijana Ivanov, Roman Šubić

Abstract:

This study analyzes the critical gaps in the architecture of European stability and the expected role of the banking union as the new important step towards completing the Economic and Monetary Union that should enable the creation of safe and sound financial sector for the euro area market. The single rulebook together with the Single Supervisory Mechanism and the Single Resolution Mechanism - as two main pillars of the banking union, should provide a consistent application of common rules and administrative standards for supervision, recovery and resolution of banks – with the final aim of replacing the former bail-out practice with the bail-in system through which possible future bank failures would be resolved by their own funds, i.e. with minimal costs for taxpayers and real economy. In this way, the vicious circle between banks and sovereigns would be broken. It would also reduce the financial fragmentation recorded in the years of crisis as the result of divergent behaviors in risk premium, lending activities and interest rates between the core and the periphery. In addition, it should strengthen the effectiveness of monetary transmission channels, in particular the credit channels and overflows of liquidity on the money market which, due to the fragmentation of the common financial market, has been significantly disabled in period of crisis. However, contrary to all the positive expectations related to the future functioning of the banking union, major findings of this study indicate that characteristics of the economic system in which the banking union will operate should not be ignored. The euro area is an integration of strong and weak entities with large differences in economic development, wealth, assets of banking systems, growth rates and accountability of fiscal policy. The analysis indicates that low and unbalanced economic growth remains a challenge for the maintenance of financial stability and this problem cannot be resolved just by a single supervision. In many countries bank assets exceed their GDP by several times and large banks are still a matter of concern, because of their systemic importance for individual countries and the euro zone as a whole. The creation of the Single Supervisory Mechanism and the Single Resolution Mechanism is a response to the European crisis, which has particularly affected peripheral countries and caused the associated loop between the banking crisis and the sovereign debt crisis, but has also influenced banks’ balance sheets in the core countries, as the result of crossborder capital flows. The creation of the SSM and the SRM should prevent the similar episodes to happen again and should also provide a new opportunity for strengthening of economic and financial systems of the peripheral countries. On the other hand, there is a potential threat that future focus of the ECB, resolution mechanism and other relevant institutions will be extremely oriented towards large and significant banks (whereby one half of them operate in the core and most important euro area countries), and therefore it remains questionable to what extent will the common resolution funds will be used for rescue of less important institutions. Recent geopolitical developments will be the optimal indicator to show whether the previously established mechanisms are sufficient enough to maintain the adequate financial stability in the euro area market.

Keywords: Banking Union, financial integration, single supervisory mechanism (SSM).

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69 A Novel Design in the Use of Planar Transformers for LDMOS Based Amplifiers in Bands II, III, DRM+, DVB-T and DAB+

Authors: Antonis Constantinides, Christos Yiallouras

Abstract:

The coaxial transformer-coupled push-pull circuitry has been used widely in HF and VHF amplifiers for many decades without significant changes in the topology of the transformers. Basic changes over the years concerned the construction and turns ratio of the transformers as has been imposed upon the newer technologies active devices demands. The balun transmission line transformers applied in push-pull amplifiers enable input/output impedance transformation, but are mainly used to convert the balanced output into unbalanced and the input unbalanced into balanced. A simple and affordable alternative solution over the traditional coaxial transformer is the coreless planar balun. A key advantage over the traditional approach lies in the high specifications repeatability; simplifying the amplifier construction requirements as the planar balun constitutes an integrated part of the PCB copper layout. This paper presents the performance analysis of a planar LDMOS MRFE6VP5600 Push-Pull amplifier that enables robust operation in Band III, DVB-T, DVB-T2 standards but functions equally well in Band II, for DRM+ new generation transmitters.

Keywords: Amplifier, balun, complex impedance, LDMOS, planar-transformers.

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68 Impacts of Financial Development and Operating Scale on Bank Efficiencies in Taiwan

Authors: Ying-Hsiu Chen, Pao-Peng Hsu

Abstract:

This paper adopts a two-stage data envelopment analysis to explore the impacts of financial development and bank operating scale on bank efficiencies. The sample comprises unbalanced panel data of 32 Taiwanese listed domestic commercial banks over the period 1998 to 2013. Empirical results show that pure technical efficiency is positively related to financial development, whereas the effect of financial development on scale efficiency is insignificant. Enlargement of bank operating scale improves bank efficiencies, but the efficiency gains are decreased gradually when the scale increases. Increases in capital adequacy ratio and market power of loans lead into a growth of bank efficiencies.

Keywords: Financial development, Operating scale, Efficiency, DEA.

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67 The Classification Performance in Parametric and Nonparametric Discriminant Analysis for a Class- Unbalanced Data of Diabetes Risk Groups

Authors: Lily Ingsrisawang, Tasanee Nacharoen

Abstract:

The problems arising from unbalanced data sets generally appear in real world applications. Due to unequal class distribution, many researchers have found that the performance of existing classifiers tends to be biased towards the majority class. The k-nearest neighbors’ nonparametric discriminant analysis is a method that was proposed for classifying unbalanced classes with good performance. In this study, the methods of discriminant analysis are of interest in investigating misclassification error rates for classimbalanced data of three diabetes risk groups. The purpose of this study was to compare the classification performance between parametric discriminant analysis and nonparametric discriminant analysis in a three-class classification of class-imbalanced data of diabetes risk groups. Data from a project maintaining healthy conditions for 599 employees of a government hospital in Bangkok were obtained for the classification problem. The employees were divided into three diabetes risk groups: non-risk (90%), risk (5%), and diabetic (5%). The original data including the variables of diabetes risk group, age, gender, blood glucose, and BMI were analyzed and bootstrapped for 50 and 100 samples, 599 observations per sample, for additional estimation of the misclassification error rate. Each data set was explored for the departure of multivariate normality and the equality of covariance matrices of the three risk groups. Both the original data and the bootstrap samples showed nonnormality and unequal covariance matrices. The parametric linear discriminant function, quadratic discriminant function, and the nonparametric k-nearest neighbors’ discriminant function were performed over 50 and 100 bootstrap samples and applied to the original data. Searching the optimal classification rule, the choices of prior probabilities were set up for both equal proportions (0.33: 0.33: 0.33) and unequal proportions of (0.90:0.05:0.05), (0.80: 0.10: 0.10) and (0.70, 0.15, 0.15). The results from 50 and 100 bootstrap samples indicated that the k-nearest neighbors approach when k=3 or k=4 and the defined prior probabilities of non-risk: risk: diabetic as 0.90: 0.05:0.05 or 0.80:0.10:0.10 gave the smallest error rate of misclassification. The k-nearest neighbors approach would be suggested for classifying a three-class-imbalanced data of diabetes risk groups.

Keywords: Bootstrap, diabetes risk groups, error rate, k-nearest neighbors.

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66 Evaluation of Dynamic Behavior a Machine Tool Spindle System through Modal and Unbalance Response Analysis

Authors: Khairul Jauhari, Achmad Widodo, Ismoyo Haryanto

Abstract:

The spindle system is one of the most important components of machine tool. The dynamic properties of the spindle affect the machining productivity and quality of the work pieces. Thus, it is important and necessary to determine its dynamic characteristics of spindles in the design and development in order to avoid forced resonance. The finite element method (FEM) has been adopted in order to obtain the dynamic behavior of spindle system. For this reason, obtaining the Campbell diagrams and determining the critical speeds are very useful to evaluate the spindle system dynamics. The unbalance response of the system to the center of mass unbalance at the cutting tool is also calculated to investigate the dynamic behavior. In this paper, we used an ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) program which based on finite element method has been implemented to make the full dynamic analysis and evaluation of the results. Results show that the calculated critical speeds are far from the operating speed range of the spindle, thus, the spindle would not experience resonance, and the maximum unbalance response at operating speed is still with acceptable limit. ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) can be used by spindle designer as tools in order to increase the product quality, reducing cost, and time consuming in the design and development stages.

Keywords: ANSYS parametric design language (APDL), Campbell diagram, Critical speeds, Unbalance response, The Spindle system.

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65 In situ Modelling of Lateral-Torsional Vibration of a Rotor-Stator with Multiple Parametric Excitations

Authors: B. X. Tchomeni, A. A. Alugongo, L. M. Masu

Abstract:

This paper presents a 4-DOF nonlinear model of a cracked de Laval rotor-stator system derived based on Energy Principles. The model has been used to simulate coupled torsionallateral response of the faulty system with multiple parametric excitations; rotor-stator-rub, a breathing transverse crack, eccentric mass and an axial force. Nonlinearity of a “breathing” crack is incorporated in the model using a simple hinge mechanism suitable for a shallow crack. Response of the system while passing via its critical speed with intermittent rotor-stator rub is analyzed. Effects of eccentricity with phase and acceleration are investigated. Features of crack, rub and eccentricity in vibration response are explored for condition monitoring. The presence of a crack and rub are observable in the power spectrum despite excitations by an axial force and rotor unbalance. Obtained results are consistent with existing literature and could be adopted into rotor condition monitoring strategies.

Keywords: Axial force, Crack, Nonlinear, Rotor-Stator, Rub.

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