Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Friction stir welding (FSW)

9 Feasibility Study of Friction Stir Welding Application for Kevlar Material

Authors: Ahmet Taşan, Süha Tirkeş, Yavuz Öztürk, Zafer Bingül

Abstract:

Friction stir welding (FSW) is a joining process in the solid state, which eliminates problems associated with the material melting and solidification, such as cracks, residual stresses and distortions generated during conventional welding. Among the most important advantages of FSW are; easy automation, less distortion, lower residual stress and good mechanical properties in the joining region. FSW is a recent approach to metal joining and although originally intended for aluminum alloys, it is investigated in a variety of metallic materials. The basic concept of FSW is a rotating tool, made of non-consumable material, specially designed with a geometry consisting of a pin and a recess (shoulder). This tool is inserted as spinning on its axis at the adjoining edges of two sheets or plates to be joined and then it travels along the joining path line. The tool rotation axis defines an angle of inclination with which the components to be welded. This angle is used for receiving the material to be processed at the tool base and to promote the gradual forge effect imposed by the shoulder during the passage of the tool. This prevents the material plastic flow at the tool lateral, ensuring weld closure on the back of the pin. In this study, two 4 mm Kevlar® plates which were produced with the Kevlar® fabrics, are analyzed with COMSOL Multiphysics in order to investigate the weldability via FSW. Thereafter, some experimental investigation is done with an appropriate workbench in order to compare them with the analysis results.

Keywords: Analytical modeling, composite materials welding, friction stir welding, heat generation.

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8 Fatigue Behavior of Friction Stir Welded EN AW 5754 Aluminum Alloy Using Load Increase Procedure

Authors: A. B. Chehreh, M. Grätzel, M. Klein, J. P. Bergmann, F. Walther

Abstract:

Friction stir welding (FSW) is an advantageous method in the thermal joining processes, featuring the welding of various dissimilar and similar material combinations, joining temperatures below the melting point which prevents irregularities such as pores and hot cracks as well as high strengths mechanical joints near the base material. The FSW process consists of a rotating tool which is made of a shoulder and a probe. The welding process is based on a rotating tool which plunges in the workpiece under axial pressure. As a result, the material is plasticized by frictional heat which leads to a decrease in the flow stress. During the welding procedure, the material is continuously displaced by the tool, creating a firmly bonded weld seam behind the tool. However, the mechanical properties of the weld seam are affected by the design and geometry of the tool. These include in particular microstructural and surface properties which can favor crack initiation. Following investigation compares the dynamic properties of FSW weld seams with conventional and stationary shoulder geometry based on load increase test (LIT). Compared to classical Woehler tests, it is possible to determine the fatigue strength of the specimens after a short amount of time. The investigations were carried out on a robotized welding setup on 2 mm thick EN AW 5754 aluminum alloy sheets. It was shown that an increased tensile and fatigue strength can be achieved by using the stationary shoulder concept. Furthermore, it could be demonstrated that the LIT is a valid method to describe the fatigue behavior of FSW weld seams.

Keywords: Aluminum alloy, fatigue performance, fracture, friction stir welding.

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7 Temperature Evolution, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Heat-Treatable Aluminum Alloy Welded by Friction Stir Welding: Comparison with Tungsten Inert Gas

Authors: Saliha Gachi, Mouloud Aissani, Fouad Boubenider

Abstract:

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid-state welding technique that can join material without melting the plates to be welded. In this work, we are interested to demonstrate the potentiality of FSW for joining the heat-treatable aluminum alloy 2024-T3 which is reputed as difficult to be welded by fusion techniques. Thereafter, the FSW joint is compared with another one obtained from a conventional fusion process Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG). FSW welds are made up using an FSW tool mounted on a milling machine. Single pass welding was applied to fabricated TIG joint. The comparison between the two processes has been made on the temperature evolution, mechanical and microstructure behavior. The microstructural examination revealed that FSW weld is composed of four zones: Base metal (BM), Heat affected zone (HAZ), Thermo-mechanical affected zone (THAZ) and the nugget zone (NZ). The NZ exhibits a recrystallized equiaxed refined grains that induce better mechanical properties and good ductility compared to TIG joint where the grains have a larger size in the welded region compared with the BM due to the elevated heat input. The microhardness results show that, in FSW weld, the THAZ contains the lowest microhardness values and increase in the NZ; however, in TIG process, the lowest values are localized on the NZ.

Keywords: Friction stir welding, tungsten inert gaz, aluminum, microstructure.

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6 A Comparison of Double Sided Friction Stir Welding in Air and Underwater for 6mm S275 Steel Plate

Authors: Philip Baillie, Stuart W. Campbell, Alexander M. Galloway, Stephen R. Cater, Norman A. McPherson

Abstract:

This study compared the mechanical and microstructural properties produced during friction stir welding (FSW) of S275 structural steel in air and underwater. Post weld tests assessed the tensile strength, micro-hardness, distortion, Charpy impact toughness and fatigue performance in each case. The study showed that there was no significant difference in the strength, hardness or fatigue life of the air and underwater specimens. However, Charpy impact toughness was shown to decrease for the underwater specimens and was attributed to a lower degree of recrystallization caused by the higher rate of heat loss experienced when welding underwater. Reduced angular and longitudinal distortion was observed in the underwater welded plate compared to the plate welded in air.

Keywords: Charpy impact toughness, distortion, fatigue, friction stir welding (FSW), micro-hardness, underwater.

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5 Friction Stir Welded Joint Aluminum Alloy H20-H20 with Different Type of Tools Mechanical Properties

Authors: Omid A. Zargar

Abstract:

In this project three type of tools, straight cylindrical, taper cylindrical and triangular tool all made of High speed steel (Wc-Co) used for the friction stir welding (FSW) aluminum alloy H20–H20 and the mechanical properties of the welded joint tested by tensile test and vicker hardness test. Besides, mentioned mechanical properties compared with each other to make conclusion. The result helped design of welding parameter optimization for different types of friction stir process like rotational speed, depth of welding, travel speed, type of material, type of joint, work piece dimension, joint dimension, tool material and tool geometry. Previous investigations in different types of materials work pieces; joint type, machining parameter and preheating temperature take placed. In this investigation 3 mentioned tool types that are popular in FSW tested and the results completed other aspects of the process. Hope this paper can open a new horizon in experimental investigation of mechanical properties for friction stir welded joint with other different type of tools like oval shape probe, paddle shape probe, three flat sided probe, and three sided re-entrant probe and other materials and alloys like titanium or steel in near future.

Keywords: Friction stir welding (FSW), tool, CNC milling machine, aluminum alloy H20, Vickers hardness test, tensile test, straight cylindrical tool, taper cylindrical tool, triangular tool.

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4 Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys: A Review

Authors: S. K. Tiwari, Dinesh Kumar Shukla, R. Chandra

Abstract:

Friction stir welding is a solid state joining process. High strength aluminum alloys are widely used in aircraft and marine industries. Generally, the mechanical properties of fusion welded aluminum joints are poor. As friction stir welding occurs in solid state, no solidification structures are created thereby eliminating the brittle and eutectic phases common in fusion welding of high strength aluminum alloys. In this review the process parameters, microstructural evolution, and effect of friction stir welding on the properties of weld specific to aluminum alloys have been discussed.

Keywords: Aluminum alloys, Friction stir welding (FSW), Microstructure, Properties.

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3 An Experimentally Validated Thermo- Mechanical Finite Element Model for Friction Stir Welding in Carbon Steels

Authors: A. H. Kheireddine, A. A. Khalil, A. H. Ammouri, G. T. Kridli, R. F. Hamade

Abstract:

Solidification cracking and hydrogen cracking are some defects generated in the fusion welding of ultrahigh carbon steels. However, friction stir welding (FSW) of such steels, being a solid-state technique, has been demonstrated to alleviate such problems encountered in traditional welding. FSW include different process parameters that must be carefully defined prior processing. These parameters included but not restricted to: tool feed, tool RPM, tool geometry, tool tilt angle. These parameters form a key factor behind avoiding warm holes and voids behind the tool and in achieving a defect-free weld. More importantly, these parameters directly affect the microstructure of the weld and hence the final mechanical properties of weld. For that, 3D finite element (FE) thermo-mechanical model was developed using DEFORM 3D to simulate FSW of carbon steel. At points of interest in the joint, tracking is done for history of critical state variables such as temperature, stresses, and strain rates. Typical results found include the ability to simulate different weld zones. Simulations predictions were successfully compared to experimental FSW tests. It is believed that such a numerical model can be used to optimize FSW processing parameters to favor desirable defect free weld with better mechanical properties.

Keywords: Carbon Steels, DEFORM 3D, FEM, Friction stir welding.

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2 Friction Stir Welding Process: A Green Technology

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Stephen A. Akinlabi

Abstract:

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process invented and patented by The Welding Institute (TWI) in the United Kingdom in 1991 for butt and lap welding of metals and plastics. This paper highlights the benefits of friction stir welding process as an energy efficient and a green technology process in the field of welding. Compared to the other conventional welding processes, its benefits, typical applications and its use in joining similar and dissimilar materials are also presented.

Keywords: Dissimilar materials, Friction Stir Welding, Green technology, similar materials.

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1 Effect of Friction Stir Welding on Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Copper Alloy

Authors: Dhananjayulu Avula, Ratnesh Kumar Raj Singh, D.K.Dwivedi, N.K.Mehta

Abstract:

This study demonstrates the feasibility of joining the commercial pure copper plates by friction stir welding (FSW). Microstructure, microhardness and tensile properties in terms of the joint efficiency were found 94.03 % compare to as receive base material (BM). The average hardness at the top was higher than bottom. Hardness of weld zone was higher than the base material. Different microstructure zones were revealed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The stirred zone (SZ) exhibited primary two phases namely, recrystallized grains and fine precipitates in matrix of copper.

Keywords: Welding; FSW, Commercial Copper, Mechanical properties

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