Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1076

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1076 Evaluating the Tracking Abilities of Microsoft HoloLens-1 for Small-Scale Industrial Processes

Authors: Kuhelee Chandel, Julia Åhlén, Stefan Seipel

Abstract:

This study evaluates the accuracy of Microsoft HoloLens (Version 1) for small-scale industrial activities, comparing its measurements to ground truth data from a Kuka Robotics arm. Two experiments were conducted to assess its position-tracking capabilities, revealing that the HoloLens device is effective for measuring the position of dynamic objects with small dimensions. However, its precision is affected by the velocity of the trajectory and its position within the device's field of view. While the HoloLens device may be suitable for small-scale tasks, its limitations for more complex and demanding applications requiring high precision and accuracy must be considered. The findings can guide the use of HoloLens devices in industrial applications and contribute to the development of more effective and reliable position-tracking systems.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, AR, Microsoft HoloLens, object tracking, industrial processes.

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1075 Social Media Impact on Startup Entrepreneurial Intention: Evidence from Greece

Authors: Panagiotis I. Mallios, Vassilis S. Moustakis

Abstract:

The research reported herein presents a conceptual model that explores the relationship between social media factors and entrepreneurial intention, with a focus on the Greek startup ecosystem. The significance of the study is that social media gained importance in explaining the entrepreneurial process, and through them, nascent and potential entrepreneurs seem to get inspired and motivated to initiate their businesses. The research methodology employed in this study included a qualitative research approach, utilizing in-depth interviews with a sample of 15 startup entrepreneurs providing valuable retrospective information. The data collected were analyzed using the content analysis method. The major findings of the study are that social media factors such as usefulness, influence, and credibility have a significant impact on entrepreneurial intention. We also found that social media can be a powerful tool for entrepreneurs to access resources, knowledge and networks that can help them in their venture creation. Overall, this research contributes to the entrepreneurship literature by uncovering the relationship between social media factors and entrepreneurial intention and has implications for entrepreneurial education, policymakers, and official partners, highlighting the potential of social media to enhance the startup ecosystem.

Keywords: Entrepreneurial intention, entrepreneurship, social media, startup ecosystem.

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1074 Sustainable Solutions for Enhancing Efficiency, Safety, and Quality of Construction Value Chain Services Integration

Authors: Lo Kar Yin

Abstract:

In view of the increasing speed and quantity of the housing supply, building, and civil engineering infrastructure works triggered by the pandemic across the globe, contractors, professional services providers (PSP), including consultants (e.g., architect, project manager, civil/geotechnical/structural engineer, building services engineer, quantity surveyor/cost manager, etc.) and suppliers have faced tremendous challenges of the fierce market, limited manpower, and resources under contract prices fluctuation and competitive fee and price. With qualitative analysis, this paper is to identify the available information from the industry stakeholders with a view to finding solutions for enhancing efficiency, safety, and quality of construction value chain services for public and private organisations/companies’ sustainable growth, not limited to checking the deliverables and data transfer from multi-disciplinary parties. Technology, contracts, and people are the key requirements for shaping the construction industry. With the integration of a modern engineering contract (e.g., NEC) collaborative approach, practical workflows are designed to address loopholes together with different levels of people employment/retention and technology adoption to achieve the best value for money.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Sustainable solutions, contract, construction value chain, Building Information Modelling, BIM integration.

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1073 IoT Device Cost Effective Storage Architecture and Real-Time Data Analysis/Data Privacy Framework

Authors: Femi Elegbeleye, Seani Rananga

Abstract:

This paper focused on cost effective storage architecture using fog and cloud data storage gateway, and presented the design of the framework for the data privacy model and data analytics framework on a real-time analysis when using machine learning method. The paper began with the system analysis, system architecture and its component design, as well as the overall system operations. Several results obtained from this study on data privacy models show that when two or more data privacy models are integrated via a fog storage gateway, we often have more secure data. Our main focus in the study is to design a framework for the data privacy model, data storage, and real-time analytics. This paper also shows the major system components and their framework specification. And lastly, the overall research system architecture was shown, including its structure, and its interrelationships.

Keywords: IoT, fog storage, cloud storage, data analysis, data privacy.

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1072 Attention-Based Spatio-Temporal Approach for Fire and Smoke Detection

Authors: A. Mirrashid, M. Khoshbin, A. Atghaei, H. Shahbazi

Abstract:

In various industries, smoke and fire are two of the most important threats in the workplace. One of the common methods for detecting smoke and fire is the use of infrared thermal and smoke sensors, which cannot be used in outdoor applications. Therefore, the use of vision-based methods seems necessary. The problem of smoke and fire detection is spatiotemporal and requires spatiotemporal solutions. This paper presents a method that uses spatial features along with temporal-based features to detect smoke and fire in the scene. It consists of three main parts; the task of each part is to reduce the error of the previous part so that the final model has a robust performance. This method also uses transformer modules to increase the accuracy of the model. The results of our model show the proper performance of the proposed approach in solving the problem of smoke and fire detection and can be used to increase workplace safety.

Keywords: Attention, fire detection, smoke detection, spatiotemporal.

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1071 Approach for a Safety Element out of Context for an Actuator Circuit Control Module

Authors: H. Noun, C. Urban-Seelmann, M. Abdelfattah, G. Zeller, G. Rajesh, I. Mozgova, R. Lachmayer

Abstract:

Several modules in automotive are usually modified and adapted for various project-specific applications. Due to a standardized safety concept a high reusability is accessible. A safety element out of context (SEooC) according to ISO 26262 can be a suitable approach. Based on the same safety concept and analysis, common modules can reach high reusability. For developing according to a module out of context, an appropriate and detailed development approach is required. This paper shows how to deduce this development processes for platform modules. Therefore, the detailed approach of the SEooC is derived. The aim is to create a detailed workflow for all phases of the development and integration of any kind of system modules. As an application example, an automotive project for an actuator control module is considered.

Keywords: Functional Safety, Safety Element out of Context, System Engineering, Hardware Engineering.

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1070 Modular Data and Calculation Framework for a Technology-Based Mapping of the Manufacturing Process According to the Value Stream Management Approach

Authors: Tim Wollert, Fabian Behrendt

Abstract:

Value Stream Management (VSM) is a widely used methodology in the context of Lean Management for improving end-to-end material and information flows from a supplier to a customer from a company’s perspective. Whereas the design principles, e.g. Pull, value-adding, customer-orientation and further ones are still valid against the background of an increasing digitalized and dynamic environment, the methodology itself for mapping a value stream is characterized as time- and resource-intensive due to the high degree of manual activities. The digitalization of processes in the context of Industry 4.0 enables new opportunities to reduce these manual efforts and make the VSM approach more agile. The paper at hand aims at providing a modular data and calculation framework, utilizing the available business data, provided by information and communication technologies for automizing the value stream mapping process with focus on the manufacturing process.

Keywords: Industry 4.0, lean management 4.0, value stream management 4.0, value stream mapping.

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1069 Additive Manufacturing with Ceramic Filler Concerning Filament Creation and Strength

Authors: Wolfram Irsa, Lorenz Boruch

Abstract:

Innovative solutions in additive manufacturing applying material extrusion for functional parts necessitates innovative filaments with persistent quality. Uniform homogeneity and consistent dispersion of particles embedded in filaments generally require multiple cycles of extrusion or well-prepared primal matter by injection molding, kneader machines, or mixing equipment. These technologies commit to dedicated equipment that are rarely at disposal in production laboratories unfamiliar with research in polymer materials. This stands in contrast to laboratories which investigate on complex material topics and technology science to leverage on the potential of 3-D printing. Consequently, scientific studies in labs are often constrained to compositions and concentrations of fillers offered from the market. Therefore, we present a prototypal laboratory methodology scalable to tailored primal matter for extruding ceramic composite filaments with fused filament fabrication (FFF) technology. A desktop single-screw extruder serves as core device for the experiments. Custom-made filament encapsulates the ceramic fillers and serves with polylactide (PLA), which is a thermoplastic polyester, as primal matter and is processed in the melting area of the extruder preserving the defined concentration of the fillers. Validated results demonstrate that this approach enables continuously produced and uniform composite filaments with consistent homogeneity. It is 3-D printable with controllable dimensions, which is a prerequisite for any scalable application. Additionally, digital microscopy confirms steady dispersion of the ceramic particles in the composite filament. This permits a 2D reconstruction of the planar distribution of the embedded ceramic particles in the PLA matrices. The innovation of the introduced method lies in the smart simplicity of preparing the composite primal matter. It circumvents the inconvenience of numerous extrusion operations and expensive laboratory equipment. Nevertheless, it delivers consistent filaments of controlled, predictable, and reproducible filler concentration, which is the prerequisite for any industrial application. The introduced prototypal laboratory methodology seems capable for other polymer matrices and suitable to further utilitarian particle types, beyond and above of ceramic fillers. This inaugurates a roadmap for supplementary laboratory development of peculiar composite filaments, providing value for industries and societies. This low-threshold entry of sophisticated preparation of composite filaments - enabling businesses creating their own dedicated filaments - will support the mutual efforts for establishing 3D printing to new functional devices.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, ceramic composites, complex filament, industrial application.

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1068 An Overview of Project Management Application in Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Sajith Sajeev

Abstract:

The application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is widespread in engineering and industry, including aerospace, automotive, and energy. CFD simulations necessitate the use of intricate mathematical models and a substantial amount of computational power to accurately describe the behavior of fluids. The implementation of CFD projects can be difficult, and a well-structured approach to project management is required to assure the timely and cost-effective delivery of high-quality results. This paper's objective is to provide an overview of project management in CFD, including its problems, methodologies, and best practices. The study opens with a discussion of the difficulties connected with CFD project management, such as the complexity of the mathematical models, the need for extensive computational resources, and the difficulties associated with validating and verifying the results. In addition, the study examines the project management methodologies typically employed in CFD, such as the Traditional/Waterfall model, Agile and Scrum. Comparisons are made between the advantages and disadvantages of each technique, and suggestions are made for their effective implementation in CFD projects. The study concludes with a discussion of the best practices for project management in CFD, including the utilization of a well-defined project scope, a clear project plan, and effective teamwork. In addition, it highlights the significance of continuous process improvement and the utilization of metrics to monitor progress and discover improvement opportunities. This article is a resource for project managers, researchers, and practitioners in the field of CFD. It can aid in enhancing project outcomes, reducing risks, and enhancing the productivity of CFD projects. This paper provides a complete overview of project management in CFD and is a great resource for individuals who wish to implement efficient project management methods in CFD projects.

Keywords: Project management, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Traditional/Waterfall methodology, agile methodology, scrum methodology.

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1067 Application of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems Technique for Modeling of Postweld Heat Treatment Process of Pressure Vessel Steel ASTM A516 Grade 70

Authors: Omar Al Denali, Abdelaziz Badi

Abstract:

The ASTM A516 Grade 70 steel is a suitable material used for the fabrication of boiler pressure vessels working in moderate and lower temperature services, and it has good weldability and excellent notch toughness. The post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) or stress-relieving heat treatment has significant effects on avoiding the martensite transformation and resulting in high hardness, which can lead to cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). An adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was implemented to predict the material tensile strength of PWHT experiments. The ANFIS models presented excellent predictions, and the comparison was carried out based on the mean absolute percentage error between the predicted values and the experimental values. The ANFIS model gave a Mean Absolute Percentage Error of 0.556%, which confirms the high accuracy of the model.

Keywords: Prediction, post-weld heat treatment, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, ANFIS, mean absolute percentage error.

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1066 Design of Quality Assessment System for On-Orbit 3D Printing Based on 3D Reconstruction Technology

Authors: Jianning Tang, Xiaofeng Wu

Abstract:

With the increasing demand for space use in multiple sectors (navigation, telecommunication, imagery, etc.), the deployment and maintenance demand of satellites are growing. Considering the high launching cost and the restrictions on weight and size of the payload when using launch vehicle, the technique of on-orbit manufacturing has obtained more attention because of its significant potential to support future space missions. 3D printing is the most promising manufacturing technology that could be applied in space. However, due to the lack of autonomous quality assessment, the operation of conventional 3D printers still relies on human presence to supervise the printing process. This paper is proposed to develop an automatic 3D reconstruction system aiming at detecting failures on the 3D printed objects through application of point cloud technology. Based on the data obtained from the point cloud, the 3D printer could locate the failure and repair the failure. The system will increase automation and provide 3D printing with more feasibilities for space use without human interference.

Keywords: 3D printing, quality assessment, point cloud, on-orbit manufacturing.

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1065 The Role of Social and Technical Lean Implementation in Improving Operational Performance: Insights from the Pharmaceutical Industry

Authors: M. Bernasconi, M. Grothkopp, T. Friedli

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to examine the relationships between technical and social lean bundles as well as operational performance in the context of the pharmaceutical industry. We investigate the direct and mediating effects of the lean bundles Total Productive Maintenance (TPM), Total Quality Management (TQM), Just-In-Time (JIT), and Human Resource Management (HRM) on operational performance. Our analysis relies on 113 manufacturing facilities from the St.Gallen OPEX benchmarking database. The results show that HRM has a positive indirect effect on operational performance mediated by the technical lean bundles.

Keywords: Human resource management, operational performance, pharmaceutical industry, technical lean practices.

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1064 Performance Evaluation of Conventional and Wiper Carbide Tools When Turning 6060 Aluminium Alloy: Analysis of Surface Roughness

Authors: Salah Gariani, Taher Dao, Khaled Jegandi

Abstract:

Wiper inserts are widely used nowadays, particularly in turning and milling operations, due to their unique geometric characteristics that generate superb surface finish and improve productivity. Wiper inserts can produce double the feed rate while preserving comparable surface roughness compared to that produced by conventional cutting tools. This paper reports an experimental investigation of surface quality generated in the precision dry turning of 6060 Aluminium alloy using conventional and wiper inserts at different cutting conditions. The Taguchi L9 array, Analysis of Means (AOM) and variance (ANOVA) were employed in the development of the experimental design and to optimise the process parameter identified: average surface roughness (Ra). The experimental results show that the wiper inserts substantially improved the surface quality of the machined samples by a factor of two compared to those for the conventional insert under all cutting conditions. The ANOVA and AOM analysis showed that the type of insert is the most significant factor affecting surface roughness, with a Percentage Contribution Ratio (PCR) value of 67.41%. Feed rate also significantly affected surface roughness but contributed less to its variation. No significant difference was found between values of Ra using wiper inserts under dry and wet cooling modes when turning 6060 Aluminium alloy.

Keywords: 6060 Aluminium alloy, conventional and wiper carbide tools, dry turning, average surface roughness.

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1063 Hybrid Project Management Model Based on Lean and Agile Approach

Authors: F. Z. Eddoug, J. Benhra, R. Benabbou

Abstract:

Excellence and Success are the ultimate goal for any project and in order to achieve it, every project manager looks for the convenient tools and methods. This work proposes a framework that seeks an efficient management of general project through a lean and agile approach. In order to get this objective, the article was divided in two stages, the first one was emphasized on exploring and analyzing the existing project management models and then in the second one the desired framework was created, beginning by focusing on seven existing models and then proposing for each phase of the framework the convenient lean and agile tools.

Keywords: Agility, hybrid project management, lean, scrum.

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1062 Redesigning Business Processes: A Method Based on Simulation and Process Mining Techniques

Authors: Zahra Mohammadnazari, Fateme Rostambeygi, Fatemeh Dehrouyeh, Hwang Ki-Soon, Amir Aghsami

Abstract:

Corporations have always prioritized efforts to examine and improve processes. Various metrics, such as the cost and time required to implement the process and can be specified in this regard. Process improvement can be defined as an improvement of these indicators. This is accomplished by looking at prospective adjustments to the current executive process model or the resources allotted to it. Research has been conducted in this paper to the improve the procurement process and aims to explore assessment prospects in the project using a combination of process mining and simulation (benefiting from Play-In and Play-Out methodologies). To run the simulation, we will need to complete the control flow diagram, institution settings, resource settings, and activity settings. The process of mining event logs yields the process control flow. However, both the entry of institutions and the distribution of resources must be modeled. The rate of admission of institutions and the distribution of time for the implementation of activities will be determined in the next step.

Keywords: Business reengineering, Petri net, process-based simulation, process mining.

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1061 Resilient Manufacturing: Use of Augmented Reality to Advance Training and Operating Practices in Manual Assembly

Authors: L. C. Moreira, M. Kauffman

Abstract:

This paper outlines the results of an experimental research on deploying an emerging augmented reality (AR) system for real-time task assistance (or work instructions) of highly customised and high-risk manual operations. The focus is on human operators’ training effectiveness and performance and the aim is to test if such technologies can support enhancing the knowledge retention levels and accuracy of task execution to improve health and safety (H&S). An AR enhanced assembly method is proposed and experimentally tested using a real industrial process as case study for electric vehicles’ (EV) battery module assembly. The experimental results revealed that the proposed method improved the training practices and performance through increases in the knowledge retention levels from 40% to 84%, and accuracy of task execution from 20% to 71%, when compared to the traditional paper-based method. The results of this research validate and demonstrate how emerging technologies are advancing the choice for manual, hybrid or fully automated processes by promoting the XR-assisted processes, and the connected worker (a vision for Industry 4 and 5.0), and supporting manufacturing become more resilient in times of constant market changes.

Keywords: Augmented reality, extended reality, connected worker, XR-assisted operator, manual assembly 4.0, industry 5.0, smart training, battery assembly.

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1060 Social Entrepreneurship: The Role of Intangible Resources in the Resource Scarce Environment

Authors: Seham Ghalwash, Ayman Ismail

Abstract:

Resources are crucial to the development and sustainability of social ventures. Thus, resources and resources scarcity are central concepts to study and understand the phenomenon of social entrepreneurship specially in developing countries where resources are very limited. Social entrepreneurs in developing countries face bigger challenges because financial resources are scarce. The empirical findings in this paper suggest that social enterprises in poor resources environments survive and grow because of the existence of social and human capitals in which they serve as prerequisites for the physical resources required for sustainability. This research paper explores how governments and policymakers might take nativities to support and foster social entrepreneurial activities in a resource-constraints environment reflecting on the experiences of Egypt-based social enterprises.

Keywords: Social ventures, financial constraints, intangible resources, scarce resources, legitimacy, developing countries, Egypt.

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1059 MLOps Scaling Machine Learning Lifecycle in an Industrial Setting

Authors: Yizhen Zhao, Adam S. Z. Belloum, Gonc¸alo Maia da Costa, Zhiming Zhao

Abstract:

Machine learning has evolved from an area of academic research to a real-world applied field. This change comes with challenges, gaps and differences exist between common practices in academic environments and the ones in production environments. Following continuous integration, development and delivery practices in software engineering, similar trends have happened in machine learning (ML) systems, called MLOps. In this paper we propose a framework that helps to streamline and introduce best practices that facilitate the ML lifecycle in an industrial setting. This framework can be used as a template that can be customized to implement various machine learning experiments. The proposed framework is modular and can be recomposed to be adapted to various use cases (e.g. data versioning, remote training on Cloud). The framework inherits practices from DevOps and introduces other practices that are unique to the machine learning system (e.g.data versioning). Our MLOps practices automate the entire machine learning lifecycle, bridge the gap between development and operation.

Keywords: Cloud computing, continuous development, data versioning, DevOps, industrial setting, MLOps, machine learning.

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1058 The Analysis on Leadership Skills in UK Automobile Manufacturing Enterprises

Authors: Yanting Cao, Kazumitsu Nawata

Abstract:

The UK has strong economic growth, which attracts other countries to invest there through globalization. This research process will be based on quantitative and qualitative descriptive analysis using interviews. The secondary analysis will involve a case study approach to understand the important aspects of leadership skills. The research outcomes will be identifying the strength and weakness of the leadership skills of UK automobile manufacturing enterprises and suggest the best practices adopted by the respective countries for better results.

Keywords: engineering management, leadership, industrial project management, project managers, automobile manufacturing

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1057 Performance Evaluation of Minimum Quantity Lubrication on EN3 Mild Steel Turning

Authors: Swapnil Rajan Jadhav, Ajay Vasantrao Kashikar

Abstract:

Lubrication, cooling and chip removal are the desired functions of any cutting fluid. Conventional or flood lubrication requires high volume flow rate and cost associated with this is higher. In addition, flood lubrication possesses health risks to machine operator. To avoid these consequences, dry machining and minimum quantity are two alternatives. Dry machining cannot be a suited alternative as it can generate greater heat and poor surface finish. Here, turning work is carried out on a Lathe machine using EN3 Mild steel. Variable cutting speeds and depth of cuts are provided and corresponding temperatures and surface roughness values were recorded. Experimental results are analyzed by Minitab software. Regression analysis, main effect plot, and interaction plot conclusion are drawn by using ANOVA. There is a 95.83% reduction in the use of cutting fluid. MQL gives a 9.88% reduction in tool temperature, this will improve tool life. MQL produced a 17.64% improved surface finish. MQL appears to be an economical and environmentally compatible lubrication technique for sustainable manufacturing.

Keywords: ANOVA, MQL, regression analysis, surface roughness

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1056 The Client-Supplier Relationship in Managing Innovation: Delineating Defence Industry First Mover Challenges within the Government Contract Competition

Authors: Edward Pol

Abstract:

All companies are confronted with the need to innovate in order to meet market demands. In so doing they are challenged with the dilemma of whether to aim to be first into the market with a new innovative product, or to deliberately wait and learn from a pioneers’ mistakes; potentially avoiding higher risks. It is therefore important to critically understand from a first mover advantage and disadvantage perspective the decision-making implications of defence industry transformation onset by an innovative paradigm shift. This paper will argue that the type of industry characteristics matter, especially when considering what role the clients play in the innovation process and what their level of influence is. Through investigation of qualitative case study research, this inquiry will focus on first mover advantages and first mover disadvantages with a view to establish practical and value-added academic findings by focusing on specific industries where the clients play an active role in cooperation with the supplier innovation. The resulting findings will help managers to mitigate risk in innovative technology introduction. A selection from several defence industry innovations is specifically chosen because of the client–supplier relationship that typically differs from traditional first mover research. In this instance, case studies will be used referencing vertical-take-off-and-landing defence equipment innovations. 

Keywords: innovation, pioneer, first mover advantage, first mover disadvantage, risk

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1055 Physics of Decision for Polling Place Management: A Case Study from the 2020 USA Presidential Election

Authors: Nafe Moradkhani, Frederick Benaben, Benoit Montreuil, Ali Vatankhah Barenji, Dima Nazzal

Abstract:

In the context of the global pandemic, the practical management of the 2020 presidential election in the USA was a strong concern. To anticipate and prepare for this election accurately, one of the main challenges was to confront: (i) forecasts of voter turnout, (ii) capacities of the facilities and, (iii) potential configuration options of resources. The approach chosen to conduct this anticipative study consists of collecting data about forecasts and using simulation models to work simultaneously on resource allocation and facility configuration of polling places in Fulton County, Georgia’s largest county. This article presents the results of the simulations of such places facing pre-identified potential risks. These results are oriented towards the efficiency of these places according to different criteria (health, trust, comfort). Then a dynamic framework is introduced to describe risks as physical forces perturbing the efficiency of the observed system. Finally, the main benefits and contributions resulting from this simulation campaign are presented.

Keywords: performance, decision support, simulation, artificial intelligence, risk management, election, pandemics, information system

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1054 Performance Evaluation of Minimum Quantity Lubrication on EN3 Mild Steel Turning

Authors: Swapnil Rajan Jadhav, Ajay Vasantrao Kashikar

Abstract:

Lubrication, cooling and chip removal are the desired functions of any cutting fluid. Conventional or flood lubrication requires high volume flow rate and cost associated with this is higher. In addition, flood lubrication possesses health risks to machine operator. To avoid these consequences, dry machining and minimum quantity are two alternatives. Dry machining cannot be a suited alternative as it can generate greater heat and poor surface finish. Here, turning work is carried out on a Lathe machine using EN3 Mild steel. Variable cutting speeds and depth of cuts are provided and corresponding temperatures and surface roughness values were recorded. Experimental results are analyzed by Minitab software. Regression analysis, main effect plot, and interaction plot conclusion are drawn by using ANOVA. There is a 95.83% reduction in the use of cutting fluid. MQL gives a 9.88% reduction in tool temperature, this will improve tool life. MQL produced a 17.64% improved surface finish. MQL appears to be an economical and environmentally compatible lubrication technique for sustainable manufacturing.

Keywords: ANOVA, MQL, regression analysis, surface roughness

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1053 Technological Applications in Automobile Manufacturing Sector: A Case Study Analysis

Authors: Raja Kannusamy

Abstract:

The research focuses on the applicable technologies in the automobile industry and their effects on the productivity and annual revenue of the industry. A study has been conducted on six major automobile manufacturing industries represented in this research as M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 and M6. The results indicate that M1, which is a pioneer in technological applications, remains the market leader, followed by M5 and M2 taking the second and third positions, respectively. M3, M6 and M4 are the followers and are placed next in positions. It has also been observed that M1 and M2 have entered into an agreement to share the basic structural technologies and they maintain long-term and trusted relationships with their suppliers through the Keiretsu system. With technological giants such as Apple, Microsoft, Uber and Google entering the automobile industry in recent years, an upward trend is expected in the futuristic market with self-driving cars to dominate the automobile sector. To keep up with the market trend, it is essential for automobile manufacturers to understand the importance of developing technological capabilities and skills to be competitive in the marketplace.

Keywords: automobile manufacturing industries, competitiveness, performance improvement, technological applications

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1052 Additive Friction Stir Manufacturing Process: Interest in Understanding Thermal Phenomena and Numerical Modeling of the Temperature Rise Phase

Authors: A. Lauvray, F. Poulhaon, P. Michaud, P. Joyot, E. Duc

Abstract:

Additive Friction Stir Manufacturing, or AFSM, is a new industrial process that follows the emergence of friction-based processes. The AFSM process is a solid-state additive process using the energy produced by the friction at the interface between a rotating non-consumable tool and a substrate. Friction depends on various parameters like axial force, rotation speed or friction coefficient. The feeder material is a metallic rod that flows through a hole in the tool. There is still a lack in understanding of the physical phenomena taking place during the process. This research aims at a better AFSM process understanding and implementation, thanks to numerical simulation and experimental validation performed on a prototype effector. Such an approach is considered a promising way for studying the influence of the process parameters and to finally identify a process window that seems relevant. The deposition of material through the AFSM process takes place in several phases. In chronological order these phases are the docking phase, the dwell time phase, the deposition phase, and the removal phase. The present work focuses on the dwell time phase that enables the temperature rise of the system due to pure friction. An analytic modeling of heat generation based on friction considers as main parameters the rotational speed and the contact pressure. Another parameter considered influential is the friction coefficient assumed to be variable, due to the self-lubrication of the system with the rise in temperature or the materials in contact roughness smoothing over time. This study proposes through a numerical modeling followed by an experimental validation to question the influence of the various input parameters on the dwell time phase. Rotation speed, temperature, spindle torque and axial force are the main monitored parameters during experimentations and serve as reference data for the calibration of the numerical model. This research shows that the geometry of the tool as well as fluctuations of the input parameters like axial force and rotational speed are very influential on the temperature reached and/or the time required to reach the targeted temperature. The main outcome is the prediction of a process window which is a key result for a more efficient process implementation.

Keywords: numerical model, additive manufacturing, frictional heat generation, process

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1051 Gaits Stability Analysis for a Pneumatic Quadruped Robot Using Reinforcement Learning

Authors: Soofiyan Atar, Adil Shaikh, Sahil Rajpurkar, Pragnesh Bhalala, Aniket Desai, Irfan Siddavatam

Abstract:

Deep reinforcement learning (deep RL) algorithms leverage the symbolic power of complex controllers by automating it by mapping sensory inputs to low-level actions. Deep RL eliminates the complex robot dynamics with minimal engineering. Deep RL provides high-risk involvement by directly implementing it in real-world scenarios and also high sensitivity towards hyperparameters. Tuning of hyperparameters on a pneumatic quadruped robot becomes very expensive through trial-and-error learning. This paper presents an automated learning control for a pneumatic quadruped robot using sample efficient deep Q learning, enabling minimal tuning and very few trials to learn the neural network. Long training hours may degrade the pneumatic cylinder due to jerk actions originated through stochastic weights. We applied this method to the pneumatic quadruped robot, which resulted in a hopping gait. In our process, we eliminated the use of a simulator and acquired a stable gait. This approach evolves so that the resultant gait matures more sturdy towards any stochastic changes in the environment. We further show that our algorithm performed very well as compared to programmed gait using robot dynamics.

Keywords: model-based reinforcement learning, gait stability, supervised learning, pneumatic quadruped

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1050 Double Clustering as an Unsupervised Approach for Order Picking of Distributed Warehouses

Authors: Hsin-Yi Huang, Ming-Sheng Liu, Jiun-Yan Shiau

Abstract:

Planning the order picking lists for warehouses to achieve some operational performances is a significant challenge when the costs associated with logistics are relatively high, and it is especially important in e-commerce era. Nowadays, many order planning techniques employ supervised machine learning algorithms. However, to define features for supervised machine learning algorithms is not a simple task. Against this background, we consider whether unsupervised algorithms can enhance the planning of order-picking lists. A double zone picking approach, which is based on using clustering algorithms twice, is developed. A simplified example is given to demonstrate the merit of our approach.

Keywords: order picking, warehouse, clustering, unsupervised learning

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1049 An Approach to Capture, Evaluate and Handle Complexity of Engineering Change Occurrences in New Product Development

Authors: Mohammad Rostami Mehr, Seyed Arya Mir Rashed, Arndt Lueder, Magdalena Mißler-Behr

Abstract:

This paper represents the conception that complex problems do not necessary need similar complex solutions in order to cope with the complexity. Furthermore, a simple solution based on established methods can provide a sufficient way dealing with the complexity. To verify this conception, the presented paper focuses on the field of change management as a part of new product development process in automotive sector. In the field of complexity management, dealing with increasing complexity is essential, while, only non-flexible rigid processes that are not designed to handle complexity are available. The basic methodology of this paper can be divided in four main sections: 1) analyzing the complexity of the change management, 2) literature review in order to identify potential solutions and methods, 3) capturing and implementing expertise of experts from change management filed of an automobile manufacturing company and 4) systematical comparison of the identified methods from literature and connecting these with defined requirements of the complexity of the change management in order to develop a solution. As a practical outcome, this paper provides a method to capture the complexity of engineering changes (EC) and includes it within the EC evaluation process, following case-related process guidance to cope with the complexity. Furthermore, this approach supports the conception that dealing with complexity is possible while utilizing rather simple and established methods by combining them in to a powerful tool.

Keywords: complexity management, new product development, engineering change management, flexibility

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1048 Lean Manufacturing: Systematic Layout Planning Application to an Assembly Line Layout of a Welding Industry

Authors: Fernando Augusto Ullmann Tobe, Moacyr Amaral Domingues, Figueiredo, Stephany Rie Yamamoto Gushiken

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to present the process of elaborating the layout of an assembly line of a welding industry using the principles of lean manufacturing as the main driver. The objective of this paper is relevant since the current layout of the assembly line causes non-productive times for operators, being related to the lean waste of unnecessary movements. The methodology used for the project development was Project-based Learning (PBL), which is an active way of learning focused on real problems. The process of selecting the methodology for layout planning was developed considering three criteria to evaluate the most relevant one for this paper's goal. As a result of this evaluation, Systematic Layout Planning was selected, and three steps were added to it – Value Stream Mapping for the current situation and after layout changed and the definition of lean tools and layout type. This inclusion was to consider lean manufacturing in the layout redesign of the industry. The layout change resulted in an increase in the value-adding time of operations carried out in the sector, reduction in movement times between previous and final assemblies, and in cost savings regarding the man-hour value of the employees, which can be invested in productive hours instead of movement times.

Keywords: Assembly line, layout, lean manufacturing, systematic layout planning.

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1047 Lean Production to Increase Reproducibility and Work Safety in the Laser Beam Melting Process Chain

Authors: C. Bay, A. Mahr, H. Groneberg, F. Döpper

Abstract:

Additive Manufacturing processes are becoming increasingly established in the industry for the economic production of complex prototypes and functional components. Laser beam melting (LBM), the most frequently used Additive Manufacturing technology for metal parts, has been gaining in industrial importance for several years. The LBM process chain – from material storage to machine set-up and component post-processing – requires many manual operations. These steps often depend on the manufactured component and are therefore not standardized. These operations are often not performed in a standardized manner, but depend on the experience of the machine operator, e.g., levelling of the build plate and adjusting the first powder layer in the LBM machine. This lack of standardization limits the reproducibility of the component quality. When processing metal powders with inhalable and alveolar particle fractions, the machine operator is at high risk due to the high reactivity and the toxic (e.g., carcinogenic) effect of the various metal powders. Faulty execution of the operation or unintentional omission of safety-relevant steps can impair the health of the machine operator. In this paper, all the steps of the LBM process chain are first analysed in terms of their influence on the two aforementioned challenges: reproducibility and work safety. Standardization to avoid errors increases the reproducibility of component quality as well as the adherence to and correct execution of safety-relevant operations. The corresponding lean method 5S will therefore be applied, in order to develop approaches in the form of recommended actions that standardize the work processes. These approaches will then be evaluated in terms of ease of implementation and their potential for improving reproducibility and work safety. The analysis and evaluation showed that sorting tools and spare parts as well as standardizing the workflow are likely to increase reproducibility. Organizing the operational steps and production environment decreases the hazards of material handling and consequently improves work safety.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, lean production, reproducibility, work safety.

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