Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4246

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Computer and Information Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

4246 Real-time Network Anomaly Detection Systems Based on Machine-Learning Algorithms

Authors: Zahra Ramezanpanah, Joachim Carvallo, Aurelien Rodriguez

Abstract:

This paper aims to detect anomalies in streaming data using machine learning algorithms. In this regard, we designed two separate pipelines and evaluated the effectiveness of each separately. The first pipeline, based on supervised machine learning methods, consists of two phases. In the first phase, we trained several supervised models using the UNSW-NB15 data set. We measured the efficiency of each using different performance metrics and selected the best model for the second phase. At the beginning of the second phase, we first, using Argus Server, sniffed a local area network. Several types of attacks were simulated and then sent the sniffed data to a running algorithm at short intervals. This algorithm can display the results of each packet of received data in real-time using the trained model. The second pipeline presented in this paper is based on unsupervised algorithms, in which a Temporal Graph Network (TGN) is used to monitor a local network. The TGN is trained to predict the probability of future states of the network based on its past behavior. Our contribution in this section is introducing an indicator to identify anomalies from these predicted probabilities.

Keywords: Cyber-security, Intrusion Detection Systems, Temporal Graph Network, Anomaly Detection.

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4245 Augmenting People's Creative Idea Generation Using an Artificial Intelligent Sketching Collaborator

Authors: Joseph Maloba Makokha

Abstract:

Idea generation is an important part of the design process, and many strategies to support this stage have been developed. As artificial intelligence (AI) gains adoption in many domains, we need to understand its role, if any, in the design process. This paper introduces the concept of a “Disruptive Interjector”, an AI system that frequently interjects with suggestions based on observing what a user does. The concept emanates from a study that was conducted with pairs of humans on one hand, and human-AI pairs on the other collaborating on idea generation by sketching. Results from a study show that participants who collaborated with, and took cues from the AI sketch suggestions generated more ideas; and also had more ideas ranked by experts as “creative” compared to two humans working together on the same tasks. It is notable that while researchers from diverse fields of engineering, psychology, art and others have explored conditions and environments that enhance people's creativity - and have provided insights on creativity in general - there still exists a gap on the role that AI can play on creativity. We attempt to narrow this gap.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, design collaboration, creativity, human-machine collaboration, machine learning.

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4244 Poli4SDG: An Application for Environmental Crises Management and Gender Support

Authors: Angelica S. Valeriani, Lorenzo Biasiolo

Abstract:

In recent years, the scale of the impact of climate change and its related side effects has become ever more massive and devastating. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), promoted by United Nations, aim to front issues related to climate change, among others. In particular, the project CROWD4SDG focuses on a bunch of SDGs, since it promotes environmental activities and climate-related issues. In this context, we developed a prototype of an application, under advanced development considering web design, that focuses on SDG 13 (SDG on climate action) by providing users with useful instruments to face environmental crises and climate-related disasters. Our prototype is thought and structured for both web and mobile development. The main goal of the application, POLI4SDG, is to help users to get through emergency services. To this extent, an organized overview and classification prove to be very effective and helpful to people in need. A careful analysis of data related to environmental crises prompted us to integrate the user contribution, i.e. exploiting a core principle of Citizen Science, into the realization of a public catalog, available for consulting and organized according to typology and specific features. In addition, gender equality and opportunity features are considered in the prototype, in order to allow women, often the most vulnerable category, to have direct support. The overall description of the application functionalities is detailed. Moreover, implementation features and properties of the prototype are discussed.

Keywords: Crowdsourcing, social media, SDG, climate change, natural disasters, gender equality.

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4243 Adopting Cloud-Based Techniques to Reduce Energy Consumption: Toward a Greener Cloud

Authors: Sandesh Achar

Abstract:

The cloud computing industry has set new goals for better service delivery and deployment, so anyone can access services such as computation, application, and storage anytime. Cloud computing promises new possibilities for approaching sustainable solutions to deploy and advance their services in this distributed environment. This work explores energy-efficient approaches and how cloud-based architecture can reduce energy consumption levels amongst enterprises leveraging cloud computing services. Adopting cloud-based networking, database, and server machines provide a comprehensive means of achieving the potential gains in energy efficiency that cloud computing offers. In energy-efficient cloud computing, virtualization is one aspect that can integrate several technologies to achieve consolidation and better resource utilization. Moreover, the Green Cloud Architecture for cloud data centers is discussed in terms of cost, performance, and energy consumption, and appropriate solutions for various application areas are provided.

Keywords: Greener Cloud, cloud computing, energy efficiency, energy consumption, metadata tags, Green Cloud Advisor.

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4242 Evaluation of Video Quality Metrics and Performance Comparison on Contents Taken from Most Commonly Used Devices

Authors: Pratik Dhabal Deo, Manoj P.

Abstract:

With the increasing number of social media users, the amount of video content available has also significantly increased. Currently, the number of smartphone users is at its peak, and many are increasingly using their smartphones as their main photography and recording devices. There have been a lot of developments in the field of video quality assessment in since the past years and more research on various other aspects of video and image are being done. Datasets that contain a huge number of videos from different high-end devices make it difficult to analyze the performance of the metrics on the content from most used devices even if they contain contents taken in poor lighting conditions using lower-end devices. These devices face a lot of distortions due to various factors since the spectrum of contents recorded on these devices is huge. In this paper, we have presented an analysis of the objective Video Quality Analysis (VQA) metrics on contents taken only from most used devices and their performance on them, focusing on full-reference metrics. To carry out this research, we created a custom dataset containing a total of 90 videos that have been taken from three most commonly used devices, and Android smartphone, an iOS smartphone and a Digital Single-Lens Reflex (DSLR) camera. On the videos taken on each of these devices, the six most common types of distortions that users face have been applied in addition to already existing H.264 compression based on four reference videos. These six applied distortions have three levels of degradation each. A total of the five most popular VQA metrics have been evaluated on this dataset and the highest values and the lowest values of each of the metrics on the distortions have been recorded. Finally, it is found that blur is the artifact on which most of the metrics did not perform well. Thus, in order to understand the results better the amount of blur in the data set has been calculated and an additional evaluation of the metrics was done using High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) codec, which is the next version of H.264 compression, on the camera that proved to be the sharpest among the devices. The results have shown that as the resolution increases, the performance of the metrics tends to become more accurate and the best performing metric among them is VQM with very few inconsistencies and inaccurate results when the compression applied is H.264, but when the compression is applied is HEVC, Structural Similarity (SSIM) metric and Video Multimethod Assessment Fusion (VMAF) have performed significantly better.

Keywords: Distortion, metrics, recording, frame rate, video quality assessment.

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4241 The Influence of Audio on Perceived Quality of Segmentation

Authors: Silvio R. R. Sanches, Bianca C. Barbosa, Beatriz R. Brum, Cléber G.Corrêa

Abstract:

In order to evaluate the quality of a segmentation algorithm, the researchers use subjective or objective metrics. Although subjective metrics are more accurate than objective ones, objective metrics do not require user feedback to test an algorithm. Objective metrics require subjective experiments only during their development. Subjective experiments typically display to users some videos (generated from frames with segmentation errors) that simulate the environment of an application domain. This user feedback is crucial information for metric definition. In the subjective experiments applied to develop some state-of-the-art metrics used to test segmentation algorithms, the videos displayed during the experiments did not contain audio. Audio is an essential component in applications such as videoconference and augmented reality. If the audio influences the user’s perception, using only videos without audio in subjective experiments can compromise the efficiency of an objective metric generated using data from these experiments. This work aims to identify if the audio influences the user’s perception of segmentation quality in background substitution applications with audio. The proposed approach used a subjective method based on formal video quality assessment methods. The results showed that audio influences the quality of segmentation perceived by a user.

Keywords: Background substitution, influence of audio, segmentation evaluation, segmentation quality.

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4240 Traffic Forecasting for Open Radio Access Networks Virtualized Network Functions in 5G Networks

Authors: Khalid Ali, Manar Jammal

Abstract:

In order to meet the stringent latency and reliability requirements of the upcoming 5G networks, Open Radio Access Networks (O-RAN) have been proposed. The virtualization of O-RAN has allowed it to be treated as a Network Function Virtualization (NFV) architecture, while its components are considered Virtualized Network Functions (VNFs). Hence, intelligent Machine Learning (ML) based solutions can be utilized to apply different resource management and allocation techniques on O-RAN. However, intelligently allocating resources for O-RAN VNFs can prove challenging due to the dynamicity of traffic in mobile networks. Network providers need to dynamically scale the allocated resources in response to the incoming traffic. Elastically allocating resources can provide a higher level of flexibility in the network in addition to reducing the OPerational EXpenditure (OPEX) and increasing the resources utilization. Most of the existing elastic solutions are reactive in nature, despite the fact that proactive approaches are more agile since they scale instances ahead of time by predicting the incoming traffic. In this work, we propose and evaluate traffic forecasting models based on the ML algorithm. The algorithms aim at predicting future O-RAN traffic by using previous traffic data. Detailed analysis of the traffic data was carried out to validate the quality and applicability of the traffic dataset. Hence, two ML models were proposed and evaluated based on their prediction capabilities.

Keywords: O-RAN, traffic forecasting, NFV, ARIMA, LSTM, elasticity.

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4239 On Musical Information Geometry with Applications to Sonified Image Analysis

Authors: Shannon Steinmetz, Ellen Gethner

Abstract:

In this paper a theoretical foundation is developed to segment, analyze and associate patterns within audio. We explore this on imagery via sonified audio applied to our segmentation framework. The approach involves a geodesic estimator within the statistical manifold, parameterized by musical centricity. We demonstrate viability by processing a database of random imagery to produce statistically significant clusters of similar imagery content.

Keywords: Sonification, musical information geometry, image content extraction, automated quantification, audio segmentation, pattern recognition.

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4238 A Framework to Support Reuse in Object-Oriented Software Development

Authors: Fathi Taibi

Abstract:

Reusability is a quality desired attribute in software products. Generally, it could be achieved through adopting development methods that promote it and achieving software qualities that have been linked with high reusability proneness. With the exponential growth in mobile application development, software reuse became an integral part in a substantial number of projects. Similarly, software reuse has become widely practiced in start-up companies. However, this has led to new emerging problems. Firstly, the reused code does not meet the required quality and secondly, the reuse intentions are dubious. This work aims to propose a framework to support reuse in Object-Oriented (OO) software development. The framework comprises a process that uses a proposed reusability assessment metric and a formal foundation to specify the elements of the reused code and the relationships between them. The framework is empirically evaluated using a wide range of open-source projects and mobile applications. The results are analyzed to help understand the reusability proneness of OO software and the possible means to improve it.

Keywords: Software reusability, software metrics, object-oriented software, modularity, low complexity, understandability.

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4237 Machine Learning Techniques for COVID-19 Detection: A Comparative Analysis

Authors: Abeer Aljohani

Abstract:

The COVID-19 virus spread has been one of the extreme pandemics across the globe. It is also referred as corona virus which is a contagious disease that continuously mutates into numerous variants. Currently, the B.1.1.529 variant labeled as Omicron is detected in South Africa. The huge spread of COVID-19 disease has affected several lives and has surged exceptional pressure on the healthcare systems worldwide. Also, everyday life and the global economy have been at stake. Numerous COVID-19 cases have produced a huge burden on hospitals as well as health workers. To reduce this burden, this paper predicts COVID-19 disease based on the symptoms and medical history of the patient. As machine learning is a widely accepted area and gives promising results for healthcare, this research presents an architecture for COVID-19 detection using ML techniques integrated with feature dimensionality reduction. This paper uses a standard University of California Irvine (UCI) dataset for predicting COVID-19 disease. This dataset comprises symptoms of 5434 patients. This paper also compares several supervised ML techniques on the presented architecture. The architecture has also utilized 10-fold cross validation process for generalization and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique for feature reduction. Standard parameters are used to evaluate the proposed architecture including F1-Score, precision, accuracy, recall, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Area under Curve (AUC). The results depict that Decision tree, Random Forest and neural networks outperform all other state-of-the-art ML techniques. This result can be used to effectively identify COVID-19 infection cases.

Keywords: Supervised machine learning, COVID-19 prediction, healthcare analytics, Random Forest, Neural Network.

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4236 Outage Capacity Analysis for Next Generation Wireless Communication Using Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access

Authors: Md. Sohidul Islam, Ahmad Fartheen Khan

Abstract:

In recent times, Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) has received significant attention as an upcoming candidate in the world of 5G systems. The main reason for getting NOMA in 5G is because of its capacity to provide services to many users who have the same time and frequency resources. It is best used as "multiple-input, multiple-output" (MIMO) technology. In this paper, we are going to investigate outage probability as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and target rate user. These methods will be implemented using cooperative communication and fair power allocation, respectively.

Keywords: Non-orthogonal Multiple Access, Fair Power Allocation, Outage Probability, Target Rate User, Cooperative Communication, massive multiple input multiple output, MIMO, Successive Interference Cancellation.

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4235 AI-Based Techniques for Online Social Media Network Sentiment Analysis: A Methodical Review

Authors: A. M. John-Otumu, M. M. Rahman, O. C. Nwokonkwo, M. C. Onuoha

Abstract:

Online social media networks have long served as a primary arena for group conversations, gossip, text-based information sharing and distribution. The use of natural language processing techniques for text classification and unbiased decision making has not been far-fetched. Proper classification of these textual information in a given context has also been very difficult. As a result, a systematic review was conducted from previous literature on sentiment classification and AI-based techniques. The study was done in order to gain a better understanding of the process of designing and developing a robust and more accurate sentiment classifier that could correctly classify social media textual information of a given context between hate speech and inverted compliments with a high level of accuracy using the knowledge gain from the evaluation of different artificial intelligence techniques reviewed. The study evaluated over 250 articles from digital sources like ACM digital library, Google Scholar, and IEEE Xplore; and whittled down the number of research to 52 articles. Findings revealed that deep learning approaches such as Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Recurrent Neural Network (RNN), Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformer (BERT), and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) outperformed various machine learning techniques in terms of performance accuracy. A large dataset is also required to develop a robust sentiment classifier. Results also revealed that data can be obtained from places like Twitter, movie reviews, Kaggle, Stanford Sentiment Treebank (SST), and SemEval Task4 based on the required domain. The hybrid deep learning techniques like CNN+LSTM, CNN+ Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU), CNN+BERT outperformed single deep learning techniques and machine learning techniques. Python programming language outperformed Java programming language in terms of development simplicity and AI-based library functionalities. Finally, the study recommended the findings obtained for building robust sentiment classifier in the future.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Natural Language Processing, Sentiment Analysis, Social Network, Text.

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4234 Hybrid Multipath Congestion Control

Authors: Akshit Singhal, Xuan Wang, Zhijun Wang, Hao Che, Hong Jiang

Abstract:

Multiple Path Transmission Control Protocols (MPTCPs) allow flows to explore path diversity to improve the throughput, reliability and network resource utilization. However, the existing solutions may discourage users to adopt the solutions in the face of multipath scenario where different paths are charged based on different pricing structures, e.g., WiFi vs. cellular connections, widely available for mobile phones. In this paper, we propose a Hybrid MPTCP (H-MPTCP) with a built-in mechanism to incentivize users to use multiple paths with different pricing structures. In the meantime, H-MPTCP preserves the nice properties enjoyed by the state-of-the-art MPTCP solutions. Extensive real Linux implementation results verify that H-MPTCP can indeed achieve the design objectives.

Keywords: Congestion control, Network Utility Maximization, Multipath TCP, network.

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4233 NDENet: End-to-End Nighttime Dehazing and Enhancement

Authors: H. Baskar, A. S. Chakravarthy, P. Garg, D. Goel, A. S. Raj, K. Kumar, Lakshya, R. Parvatham, V. Sushant, B. Kumar Rout

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a computer vision task called nighttime dehaze-enhancement. This task aims to jointly perform dehazing and lightness enhancement. Our task fundamentally differs from nighttime dehazing – our goal is to jointly dehaze and enhance scenes, while nighttime dehazing aims to dehaze scenes under a nighttime setting. In order to facilitate further research on this task, we release a benchmark dataset called Reside-β Night dataset, consisting of 4122 nighttime hazed images from 2061 scenes and 2061 ground truth images. Moreover, we also propose a network called NDENet (Nighttime Dehaze-Enhancement Network), which jointly performs dehazing and low-light enhancement in an end-to-end manner. We evaluate our method on the proposed benchmark and achieve Structural Index Similarity (SSIM) of 0.8962 and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) of 26.25. We also compare our network with other baseline networks on our benchmark to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. We believe that nighttime dehaze-enhancement is an essential task particularly for autonomous navigation applications, and hope that our work will open up new frontiers in research. The code for our network is made publicly available.

Keywords: Dehazing, image enhancement, nighttime, computer vision.

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4232 Using Social Network Analysis for Cyber Threat Intelligence

Authors: Vasileios Anastopoulos

Abstract:

Cyber threat intelligence assists organisations in understanding the threats they face and helps them make educated decisions on preparing their defences. Sharing of threat intelligence and threat information is increasingly leveraged by organisations and enterprises, and various software solutions are already available, with the open-source malware information sharing platform (MISP) being a popular one. In this work, a methodology for the production of cyber threat intelligence using the threat information stored in MISP is proposed. The methodology leverages the discipline of social network analysis and the diamond model, a model used for intrusion analysis, to produce cyber threat intelligence. The workings of the proposed methodology are demonstrated with a case study on a production MISP instance of a real organisation. The paper concludes with a discussion on the proposed methodology and possible directions for further research.

Keywords: Cyber threat intelligence, diamond model, malware information sharing platform, social network analysis.

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4231 Automatic Detection of Suicidal Behaviors Using an RGB-D Camera: Azure Kinect

Authors: Maha Jazouli

Abstract:

Suicide is one of the leading causes of death among prisoners, both in Canada and internationally. In recent years, rates of attempts of suicide and self-harm suicide have increased, with hangings being the most frequently used method. The objective of this article is to propose a method to automatically detect suicidal behaviors in real time. We present a gesture recognition system that consists of three modules: model-based movement tracking, feature extraction, and gesture recognition using machine learning algorithms (MLA). Tests show that the proposed system gives satisfactory results. This smart video surveillance system can help assist staff responsible for the safety and health of inmates by alerting them when suicidal behavior is detected, which helps reduce mortality rates and save lives.

Keywords: Suicide detection, Kinect Azure, RGB-D camera, SVM, gesture recognition.

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4230 Machine Learning-Enabled Classification of Climbing Using Small Data

Authors: Nicholas Milburn, Yu Liang, Dalei Wu

Abstract:

Athlete performance scoring within the climbing domain presents interesting challenges as the sport does not have an objective way to assign skill. Assessing skill levels within any sport is valuable as it can be used to mark progress while training, and it can help an athlete choose appropriate climbs to attempt. Machine learning-based methods are popular for complex problems like this. The dataset available was composed of dynamic force data recorded during climbing; however, this dataset came with challenges such as data scarcity, imbalance, and it was temporally heterogeneous. Investigated solutions to these challenges include data augmentation, temporal normalization, conversion of time series to the spectral domain, and cross validation strategies. The investigated solutions to the classification problem included light weight machine classifiers KNN and SVM as well as the deep learning with CNN. The best performing model had an 80% accuracy. In conclusion, there seems to be enough information within climbing force data to accurately categorize climbers by skill.

Keywords: Classification, climbing, data imbalance, data scarcity, machine learning, time sequence.

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4229 Underwater Wireless Sensor Network Layer Design for Reef Restoration

Authors: T. T. Manikandan, Rajeev Sukumaran

Abstract:

Coral Reefs are very important for the majority of marine ecosystems. But, such vital species are under major threat due to the factors such as ocean acidification, overfishing, and coral bleaching. To conserve the coral reefs, reef restoration activities are carried out across the world. After reef restoration, various parameters have to be monitored in order to ensure the overall effectiveness of the reef restoration. Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN) based  monitoring is widely adopted for such long monitoring activities. Since monitoring of coral reef restoration activities is time sensitive, the QoS guarantee offered by the network with respect to delay is vital. So this research focuses on the analytical modeling of network layer delay using Stochastic Network Calculus (SNC). The core focus of the proposed model will be on the analysis of stochastic dependencies between the network flow and deriving the stochastic delay bounds for the flows that traverse in tandem in UWSNs. The derived analytical bounds are evaluated for their effectiveness using discrete event simulations.

Keywords: Coral Reef Restoration, SNC, SFA, PMOO, Tandem of Queues, Delay Bound.

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4228 Overview of Adaptive Spline Interpolation

Authors: Rongli Gai, Zhiyuan Chang, Xiaohong Wang, Jingyu Liu

Abstract:

In view of various situations in the interpolation process, most researchers use self-adaptation to adjust the interpolation process, which is also one of the current and future research hotspots in the field of CNC (Computerized Numerical Control) machining. In the interpolation process, according to the overview of the spline curve interpolation algorithm, the adaptive analysis is carried out from the factors affecting the interpolation process. The adaptive operation is reflected in various aspects, such as speed, parameters, errors, nodes, feed rates, random period, sensitive point, step size, curvature, adaptive segmentation, adaptive optimization, etc. This paper will analyze and summarize the research of adaptive imputation in the direction of the above factors affecting imputation.

Keywords: Adaptive algorithm, CNC machining, interpolation constraints, spline curve interpolation.

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4227 Deep Reinforcement Learning Approach for Trading Automation in the Stock Market

Authors: Taylan Kabbani, Ekrem Duman

Abstract:

Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) algorithms can scale to previously intractable problems. The automation of profit generation in the stock market is possible using DRL, by combining  the financial assets price ”prediction” step and the ”allocation” step of the portfolio in one unified process to produce fully autonomous systems capable of interacting with its environment to make optimal decisions through trial and error. This work represents a DRL model to generate profitable trades in the stock market, effectively overcoming the limitations of supervised learning approaches. We formulate the trading problem as a Partially observed Markov Decision Process (POMDP) model, considering the constraints imposed by the stock market, such as liquidity and transaction costs. We then solved the formulated POMDP problem using the Twin Delayed Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (TD3) algorithm and achieved a 2.68 Sharpe ratio on the test dataset. From the point of view of stock market forecasting and the intelligent decision-making mechanism, this paper demonstrates the superiority of DRL in financial markets over other types of machine learning and proves its credibility and advantages of strategic decision-making.

Keywords: Autonomous agent, deep reinforcement learning, MDP, sentiment analysis, stock market, technical indicators, twin delayed deep deterministic policy gradient.

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4226 Parallel Pipelined Conjugate Gradient Algorithm on Heterogeneous Platforms

Authors: Sergey Kopysov, Nikita Nedozhogin, Leonid Tonkov

Abstract:

The article presents a parallel iterative solver for large sparse linear systems which can be used on a heterogeneous platform. Traditionally, the problem of solving linear systems do not scale well on cluster containing multiple Central Processing Units (multi-CPUs cluster) or cluster containing multiple Graphics Processing Units (multi-GPUs cluster). For example, most of the attempts to implement the classical conjugate gradient method were at best counted in the same amount of time as the problem was enlarged. The paper proposes the pipelined variant of the conjugate gradient method (PCG), a formulation that is potentially better suited for hybrid CPU/GPU computing since it requires only one synchronization point per one iteration, instead of two for standard CG (Conjugate Gradient). The standard and pipelined CG methods need the vector entries generated by current GPU and other GPUs for matrix-vector product. So the communication between GPUs becomes a major performance bottleneck on miltiGPU cluster. The article presents an approach to minimize the communications between parallel parts of algorithms. Additionally, computation and communication can be overlapped to reduce the impact of data exchange. Using pipelined version of the CG method with one synchronization point, the possibility of asynchronous calculations and communications, load balancing between the CPU and GPU for solving the large linear systems allows for scalability. The algorithm is implemented with the combined use of technologies: MPI, OpenMP and CUDA. We show that almost optimum speed up on 8-CPU/2GPU may be reached (relatively to a one GPU execution). The parallelized solver achieves a speedup of up to 5.49 times on 16 NVIDIA Tesla GPUs, as compared to one GPU.

Keywords: Conjugate Gradient, GPU, parallel programming, pipelined algorithm.

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4225 SNC Based Network Layer Design for Underwater Wireless Communication Used in Coral Farms

Authors: T. T. Manikandan, Rajeev Sukumaran

Abstract:

For maintaining the biodiversity of many ecosystems the existence of coral reefs play a vital role. But due to many factors such as pollution and coral mining, coral reefs are dying day by day. One way to protect the coral reefs is to farm them in a carefully monitored underwater environment and restore it in place of dead corals. For successful farming of corals in coral farms, different parameters of the water in the farming area need to be monitored and maintained at optimal level. Sensing underwater parameters using wireless sensor nodes is an effective way for precise and continuous monitoring in a highly dynamic environment like oceans. Here the sensed information is of varying importance and it needs to be provided with desired Quality of Service(QoS) guarantees in delivering the information to offshore monitoring centers. The main interest of this research is Stochastic Network Calculus (SNC) based modeling of network layer design for underwater wireless sensor communication. The model proposed in this research enforces differentiation of service in underwater wireless sensor communication with the help of buffer sizing and link scheduling. The delay and backlog bounds for such differentiated services are analytically derived using stochastic network calculus.

Keywords: Underwater Coral Farms, SNC, differentiated service, delay bound, backlog bound.

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4224 Extending the Aspect Oriented Programming Joinpoint Model for Memory and Type Safety

Authors: Amjad Nusayr

Abstract:

Software security is a general term used to any type of software architecture or model in which security aspects are incorporated in this architecture. These aspects are not part of the main logic of the underlying program. Software security can be achieved using a combination of approaches including but not limited to secure software designs, third part component validation, and secure coding practices. Memory safety is one feature in software security where we ensure that any object in memory is have a valid pointer or a reference with a valid type. Aspect Oriented Programming (AOP) is a paradigm that is concerned with capturing the cross-cutting concerns in code development. AOP is generally used for common cross-cutting concerns like logging and Database transaction managing. In this paper we introduce the concepts that enable AOP to be used for the purpose of memory and type safety. We also present ideas for extending AOP in software security practices.

Keywords: Aspect oriented programming, programming languages, software security, memory and type safety.

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4223 Proposal of a Virtual Reality Dynamism Augmentation Method for Sports Spectating

Authors: Clara Hertzog, Sho Sakurai, Koichi Hirota, Takuya Nojima

Abstract:

It is common to see graphics appearing on television while watching a sports game to provide information, but it is less common to see graphics specifically aiming to boost spectators’ dynamism perception. It is even less common to see such graphics designed especially for virtual reality (VR). However, it appears that even with simple dynamic graphics, it would be possible to improve VR sports spectators’ experience. So, in this research, we explain how graphics can be used in VR to improve the dynamism of a broadcasted sports game and we provide a simple example. This example consists in a white halo displayed around the video and blinking according to the game speed. We hope to increase people’s awareness about VR sports spectating and the possibilities this display offers through dynamic graphics.

Keywords: Broadcasting, graphics, sports spectating, virtual reality.

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4222 A Multigranular Linguistic Additive Ratio Assessment Model in Group Decision Making

Authors: Wiem Daoud Ben Amor, Luis Martínez López, Jr., Hela Moalla Frikha

Abstract:

Most of the multi-criteria group decision making (MCGDM) problems dealing with qualitative criteria require consideration of the large background of expert information. It is common that experts have different degrees of knowledge for giving their alternative assessments according to criteria. So, it seems logical that they use different evaluation scales to express their judgment, i.e., multi granular linguistic scales. In this context, we propose the extension of the classical additive ratio assessment (ARAS) method to the case of a hierarchical linguistics term for managing multi granular linguistic scales in uncertain context where uncertainty is modeled by means in linguistic information. The proposed approach is called the extended hierarchical linguistics-ARAS method (ELH-ARAS). Within the ELH-ARAS approach, the decision maker (DMs) can diagnose the results (the ranking of the alternatives) in a decomposed style i.e., not only at one level of the hierarchy but also at the intermediate ones. Also, the developed approach allows a feedback transformation i.e., the collective final results of all experts are able to be transformed at any level of the extended linguistic hierarchy that each expert has previously used. Therefore, the ELH-ARAS technique makes it easier for decision-makers to understand the results. Finally, an MCGDM case study is given to illustrate the proposed approach.

Keywords: Additive ratio assessment, extended hierarchical linguistic, multi-criteria group decision making problems, multi granular linguistic contexts.

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4221 Topic Modeling Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation and Latent Semantic Indexing on South African Telco Twitter Data

Authors: Phumelele P. Kubheka, Pius A. Owolawi, Gbolahan Aiyetoro

Abstract:

Twitter is one of the most popular social media platforms where users share their opinions on different subjects. Twitter can be considered a great source for mining text due to the high volumes of data generated through the platform daily. Many industries such as telecommunication companies can leverage the availability of Twitter data to better understand their markets and make an appropriate business decision. This study performs topic modeling on Twitter data using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). The obtained results are benchmarked with another topic modeling technique, Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI). The study aims to retrieve topics on a Twitter dataset containing user tweets on South African Telcos. Results from this study show that LSI is much faster than LDA. However, LDA yields better results with higher topic coherence by 8% for the best-performing model in this experiment. A higher topic coherence score indicates better performance of the model.

Keywords: Big data, latent Dirichlet allocation, latent semantic indexing, Telco, topic modeling, Twitter.

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4220 A Multi-Feature Deep Learning Algorithm for Urban Traffic Classification with Limited Labeled Data

Authors: Rohan Putatunda, Aryya Gangopadhyay

Abstract:

Acoustic sensors, if embedded in smart street lights, can help in capturing the activities (car honking, sirens, events, traffic, etc.) in cities. Needless to say, the acoustic data from such scenarios are complex due to multiple audio streams originating from different events, and when decomposed to independent signals, the amount of retrieved data volume is small in quantity which is inadequate to train deep neural networks. So, in this paper, we address the two challenges: a) separating the mixed signals, and b) developing an efficient acoustic classifier under data paucity. So, to address these challenges, we propose an architecture with supervised deep learning, where the initial captured mixed acoustics data are analyzed with Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT), followed by filtering the noise from the signal, and then decomposed to independent signals by fast independent component analysis (Fast ICA). To address the challenge of data paucity, we propose a multi feature-based deep neural network with high performance that is reflected in our experiments when compared to the conventional convolutional neural network (CNN) and multi-layer perceptron (MLP).

Keywords: FFT, ICA, vehicle classification, multi-feature DNN, CNN, MLP.

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4219 Multi-Sensor Image Fusion for Visible and Infrared Thermal Images

Authors: Amit Kr. Happy

Abstract:

This paper is motivated by the importance of multi-sensor image fusion with specific focus on Infrared (IR) and Visible image (VI) fusion for various applications including military reconnaissance. Image fusion can be defined as the process of combining two or more source images into a single composite image with extended information content that improves visual perception or feature extraction. These images can be from different modalities like Visible camera & IR Thermal Imager. While visible images are captured by reflected radiations in the visible spectrum, the thermal images are formed from thermal radiation (IR) that may be reflected or self-emitted. A digital color camera captures the visible source image and a thermal IR camera acquires the thermal source image. In this paper, some image fusion algorithms based upon Multi-Scale Transform (MST) and region-based selection rule with consistency verification have been proposed and presented. This research includes implementation of the proposed image fusion algorithm in MATLAB along with a comparative analysis to decide the optimum number of levels for MST and the coefficient fusion rule. The results are presented, and several commonly used evaluation metrics are used to assess the suggested method's validity. Experiments show that the proposed approach is capable of producing good fusion results. While deploying our image fusion algorithm approaches, we observe several challenges from the popular image fusion methods. While high computational cost and complex processing steps of image fusion algorithms provide accurate fused results, but they also make it hard to become deployed in system and applications that require real-time operation, high flexibility and low computation ability. So, the methods presented in this paper offer good results with minimum time complexity.

Keywords: Image fusion, IR thermal imager, multi-sensor, Multi-Scale Transform.

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4218 WebAppShield: An Approach Exploiting Machine Learning to Detect SQLi Attacks in an Application Layer in Run-Time

Authors: Ahmed Abdulla Ashlam, Atta Badii, Frederic Stahl

Abstract:

In recent years, SQL injection attacks have been identified as being prevalent against web applications. They affect network security and user data, which leads to a considerable loss of money and data every year. This paper presents the use of classification algorithms in machine learning using a method to classify the login data filtering inputs into "SQLi" or "Non-SQLi,” thus increasing the reliability and accuracy of results in terms of deciding whether an operation is an attack or a valid operation. A method as a Web-App is developed for auto-generated data replication to provide a twin of the targeted data structure. Shielding against SQLi attacks (WebAppShield) that verifies all users and prevents attackers (SQLi attacks) from entering and or accessing the database, which the machine learning module predicts as "Non-SQLi", has been developed. A special login form has been developed with a special instance of the data validation; this verification process secures the web application from its early stages. The system has been tested and validated, and up to 99% of SQLi attacks have been prevented.

Keywords: SQL injection, attacks, web application, accuracy, database, WebAppShield.

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4217 Controlled Vocabularies and Information Retrieval: 1918 Pandemic’s Scientific Literature as an Example

Authors: M. Garcia-Alsina, J. Cobarsí

Abstract:

The role of controlled vocabularies in information retrieval is broadly recognized as a relevant feature. Besides, there is a standing demand that editors and databases should consider the effective introduction of controlled vocabularies in their procedures to index scientific literature. That is especially important because information retrieval is pointed out as a significant point to drive systematic literature review. Hence, a first question emerges: Are the controlled vocabularies at this moment considered? On the other hand, subject searching in the catalogs is complex mainly due to the dichotomy between keywords from authors versus keywords based on controlled vocabularies. Finally, there is some demand to unify the terminology related to health to make easier the medical history exploitation and research. Considering these features, this paper focuses on controlled vocabularies related to the health field and their role for storing, classifying, and retrieving relevant literature. The objective is knowing which role plays the controlled vocabularies related to the health field to index and retrieve research literature in data bases such as Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus. So, this exploratory research is grounded over two research questions: 1) Which are the terms considered in specific controlled vocabularies of the health field; and 2) How papers are indexed in relevant databases to be easily retrieved, considering keywords vs specific health’ controlled vocabularies? This research takes as fieldwork the controlled vocabularies related to health and the scientific interest for 1918 flu pandemic, also known equivocally as ‘Spanish flu’. This interest has been fostered by the emergence in the early 21st of epidemics of pneumonic diseases caused by virus. Searches about and with controlled vocabularies on WoS and Scopus databases are conducted. First results of this work in progress are surprising. There are different controlled vocabularies for the health field, into which the terms collected and preferred related to ‘1918 pandemic’ are identified. To summarize, ‘Spanish influenza epidemic’ or ‘Spanish flu’ are collected as not preferred terms. The preferred terms are: ‘influenza’ or ‘influenza pandemic, 1918-1919’. Although the controlled vocabularies are clear in their election, most of the literature about ‘1918 pandemic’ is retrievable either by ‘Spanish’ or by ‘1918’ disjunct, and the dominant word to retrieve literature is ‘Spanish’ rather than ‘1918’. This is surprising considering the existence of suitable controlled vocabularies related to health topics, and the modern guidelines of World Health Organization concerning naming of diseases that point out to other preferred terms. A first conclusion is the failure of using controlled vocabularies for a field such as health, and in consequence for WoS and Scopus. This research opens further research questions about which is the role that controlled vocabularies play in the instructions to authors that journals deliver to documents’ authors.

Keywords: Controlled vocabularies, indexing, 1918 influenza, information retrieval, keywords, 1918 pandemic, scientific databases.

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