Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4297

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Computer and Information Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

4297 Identifying Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Optimization-Based Clustering

Authors: Sharifah Mousli, Sona Taheri, Jiayuan He

Abstract:

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex developmental condition involving persistent difficulties with social communication, restricted interests, and repetitive behavior. The challenges associated with ASD can interfere with an affected individual’s ability to function in social, academic, and employment settings. Although there is no effective medication known to treat ASD, to our best knowledge, early intervention can significantly improve an affected individual’s overall development. Hence, an accurate diagnosis of ASD at an early phase is essential. The use of machine learning approaches improves and speeds up the diagnosis of ASD. In this paper, we focus on the application of unsupervised clustering methods in ASD, as a large volume of ASD data generated through hospitals, therapy centers, and mobile applications has no pre-existing labels. We conduct a comparative analysis using seven clustering approaches, such as K-means, agglomerative hierarchical, model-based, fuzzy-C-means, affinity propagation, self organizing maps, linear vector quantisation – as well as the recently developed optimization-based clustering (COMSEP-Clust) approach. We evaluate the performances of the clustering methods extensively on real-world ASD datasets encompassing different age groups: toddlers, children, adolescents, and adults. Our experimental results suggest that the COMSEP-Clust approach outperforms the other seven methods in recognizing ASD with well-separated clusters.

Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder, clustering, optimization, unsupervised machine learning.

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4296 The Effects of Mobile Phones in Mitigating Cultural Shock Amongst Refugees: Case of South Africa

Authors: Sarah Vuningoma, Maria Rosa Lorini, Wallace Chigona

Abstract:

The potential of mobile phones is evident in their ability to address isolation and loneliness, support the improvement of interpersonal relations, and contribute to the facilitation of assimilation processes. Mobile phones can play a role in facilitating the integration of refugees into a new environment. This study aims to evaluate the impact of mobile phone use on helping refugees navigate the challenges posed by cultural differences in the host country. Semi-structured interviews were employed to collect data for the study, involving a sample size of 27 participants. Participants in the study were refugees based in South Africa, and thematic analysis was the chosen method for data analysis. The research highlights the numerous challenges faced by refugees in their host nation, including a lack of local cultural skills, the separation of family and friends from their countries of origin, hurdles in acquiring legal documentation, and the complexities of assimilating into the unfamiliar community. The use of mobile phones by refugees comes with several advantages, such as the advancement of language and cultural understanding, seamless integration into the host country, streamlined communication, and the exploration of diverse opportunities. Concurrently, mobile phones allow refugees in South Africa to manage the impact of culture shock.

Keywords: Mobile phones, culture shock, refugees, South Africa.

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4295 Evolution of Web Development Techniques in Modern Technology

Authors: Abdul Basit Kiani, Maryam Kiani

Abstract:

The art of web development in new technologies is a dynamic journey, shaped by the constant evolution of tools and platforms. With the emergence of JavaScript frameworks and APIs, web developers are empowered to craft web applications that are not only robust but also highly interactive. The aim is to provide an overview of the developments in the field. The integration of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) has opened new horizons in web development. Chatbots, intelligent recommendation systems, and personalization algorithms have become integral components of modern websites. These AI-powered features enhance user engagement, provide personalized experiences, and streamline customer support processes, revolutionizing the way businesses interact with their audiences. Lastly, the emphasis on web security and privacy has been a pivotal area of progress. With the increasing incidents of cyber threats, web developers have implemented robust security measures to safeguard user data and ensure secure transactions. Innovations such as HTTPS protocol, two-factor authentication, and advanced encryption techniques have bolstered the overall security of web applications, fostering trust and confidence among users. Hence, recent progress in web development has propelled the industry forward, enabling developers to craft innovative and immersive digital experiences. From responsive design to AI integration and enhanced security, the landscape of web development continues to evolve, promising a future filled with endless possibilities.

Keywords: Web development, software testing, progressive web apps, web and mobile native application.

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4294 Impact of Similarity Ratings on Human Judgement

Authors: Ian A. McCulloh, Madelaine Zinser, Jesse Patsolic, Michael Ramos

Abstract:

Recommender systems are a common artificial intelligence (AI) application. For any given input, a search system will return a rank-ordered list of similar items. As users review returned items, they must decide when to halt the search and either revise search terms or conclude their requirement is novel with no similar items in the database. We present a statistically designed experiment that investigates the impact of similarity ratings on human judgement to conclude a search item is novel and halt the search. In the study, 450 participants were recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk to render judgement across 12 decision tasks. We find the inclusion of ratings increases the human perception that items are novel. Percent similarity increases novelty discernment when compared with star-rated similarity or the absence of a rating. Ratings reduce the time to decide and improve decision confidence. This suggests that the inclusion of similarity ratings can aid human decision-makers in knowledge search tasks.

Keywords: Ratings, rankings, crowdsourcing, empirical studies, user studies, similarity measures, human-centered computing, novelty in information retrieval.

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4293 Using Historical Data for Stock Prediction of a Tech Company

Authors: Sofia Stoica

Abstract:

In this paper, we use historical data to predict the stock price of a tech company. To this end, we use a dataset consisting of the stock prices over the past five years of 10 major tech companies: Adobe, Amazon, Apple, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, Netflix, Oracle, Salesforce, and Tesla. We implemented and tested three models – a linear regressor model, a k-nearest neighbor model (KNN), and a sequential neural network – and two algorithms – Multiplicative Weight Update and AdaBoost. We found that the sequential neural network performed the best, with a testing error of 0.18%. Interestingly, the linear model performed the second best with a testing error of 0.73%. These results show that using historical data is enough to obtain high accuracies, and a simple algorithm like linear regression has a performance similar to more sophisticated models while taking less time and resources to implement.

Keywords: Finance, machine learning, opening price, stock market.

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4292 Static Analysis of Security Issues of the Python Packages Ecosystem

Authors: Adam Gorine, Faten Spondon

Abstract:

Python is considered the most popular programming language and offers its own ecosystem for archiving and maintaining open-source software packages. This system is called the Python Package Index (PyPI), the repository of this programming language. Unfortunately, one-third of these software packages have vulnerabilities that allow attackers to execute code automatically when a vulnerable or malicious package is installed. This paper contributes to large-scale empirical studies investigating security issues in the Python ecosystem by evaluating package vulnerabilities. These provide a series of implications that can help the security of software ecosystems by improving the process of discovering, fixing, and managing package vulnerabilities. The vulnerable dataset is generated using the NVD, the National Vulnerability Database, and the Snyk vulnerability dataset. In addition, we evaluated 807 vulnerability reports in the NVD and 3900 publicly known security vulnerabilities in Python Package Manager (Pip) from the Snyk database from 2002 to 2022. As a result, many Python vulnerabilities appear in high severity, followed by medium severity. The most problematic areas have been improper input validation and denial of service attacks. A hybrid scanning tool that combines the three scanners, Bandit, Snyk and Dlint, which provide a clear report of the code vulnerability, is also described.

Keywords: Python vulnerabilities, Bandit, Snyk, Dlint, Python Package Index, ecosystem, static analysis, malicious attacks.

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4291 Assisted Prediction of Hypertension Based on Heart Rate Variability and Improved Residual Networks

Authors: Yong Zhao, Jian He, Cheng Zhang

Abstract:

Cardiovascular disease resulting from hypertension poses a significant threat to human health, and early detection of hypertension can potentially save numerous lives. Traditional methods for detecting hypertension require specialized equipment and are often incapable of capturing continuous blood pressure fluctuations. To address this issue, this study starts by analyzing the principle of heart rate variability (HRV) and introduces the utilization of sliding window and power spectral density (PSD) techniques to analyze both temporal and frequency domain features of HRV. Subsequently, a hypertension prediction network that relies on HRV is proposed, combining Resnet, attention mechanisms, and a multi-layer perceptron. The network leverages a modified ResNet18 to extract frequency domain features, while employing an attention mechanism to integrate temporal domain features, thus enabling auxiliary hypertension prediction through the multi-layer perceptron. The proposed network is trained and tested using the publicly available SHAREE dataset from PhysioNet. The results demonstrate that the network achieves a high prediction accuracy of 92.06% for hypertension, surpassing traditional models such as K Near Neighbor (KNN), Bayes, Logistic regression, and traditional Convolutional Neural Network (CNN).

Keywords: Feature extraction, heart rate variability, hypertension, residual networks.

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4290 On-Road Text Detection Platform for Driver Assistance Systems

Authors: Guezouli Larbi, Belkacem Soundes

Abstract:

The automation of the text detection process can help the human in his driving task. Its application can be very useful to help drivers to have more information about their environment by facilitating the reading of road signs such as directional signs, events, stores, etc. In this paper, a system consisting of two stages has been proposed. In the first one, we used pseudo-Zernike moments to pinpoint areas of the image that may contain text. The architecture of this part is based on three main steps, region of interest (ROI) detection, text localization, and non-text region filtering. Then, in the second step, we present a convolutional neural network architecture (On-Road Text Detection Network - ORTDN) which is considered as a classification phase. The results show that the proposed framework achieved ≈ 35 fps and an mAP of ≈ 90%, thus a low computational time with competitive accuracy.

Keywords: Text detection, CNN, PZM, deep learning.

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4289 Current Drainage Attack Correction via Adjusting the Attacking Saw Function Asymmetry

Authors: Yuri Boiko, Iluju Kiringa, Tet Yeap

Abstract:

Current drainage attack suggested previously is further studied in regular settings of closed-loop controlled Brushless DC (BLDC) motor with Kalman filter in the feedback loop. Modeling and simulation experiments are conducted in a MATLAB environment, implementing the closed-loop control model of BLDC motor operation in position sensorless mode under Kalman filter drive. The current increase in the motor windings is caused by the controller (p-controller in our case) affected by false data injection of substitution of the angular velocity estimates with distorted values. Operation of multiplication to distortion coefficient, values of which are taken from the distortion function synchronized in its periodicity with the rotor’s position change. A saw function with a triangular tooth shape is studied herewith for the purpose of carrying out the bias injection with current drainage consequences. The specific focus here is on how the asymmetry of the tooth in the saw function affects the flow of current drainage. The purpose is two-fold: (i) to produce and collect the signature of an asymmetric saw in the attack for further pattern recognition process, and (ii) to determine conditions of improving stealthiness of such attack via regulating asymmetry in saw function used. It is found that modification of the symmetry in the saw tooth affects the periodicity of current drainage modulation. Specifically, the modulation frequency of the drained current for a fully asymmetric tooth shape coincides with the saw function modulation frequency itself. Increasing the symmetry parameter for the triangle tooth shape leads to an increase in the modulation frequency for the drained current. Moreover, such frequency reaches the switching frequency of the motor windings for fully symmetric triangular shapes, thus becoming undetectable and improving the stealthiness of the attack. Therefore, the collected signatures of the attack can serve for attack parameter identification via the pattern recognition route.

Keywords: Bias injection attack, Kalman filter, BLDC motor, control system, closed loop, P-controller, PID-controller, current drainage, saw-function, asymmetry.

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4288 Performance Analysis and Optimization for Diagonal Sparse Matrix-Vector Multiplication on Machine Learning Unit

Authors: Qiuyu Dai, Haochong Zhang, Xiangrong Liu

Abstract:

Efficient matrix-vector multiplication with diagonal sparse matrices is pivotal in a multitude of computational domains, ranging from scientific simulations to machine learning workloads. When encoded in the conventional Diagonal (DIA) format, these matrices often induce computational overheads due to extensive zero-padding and non-linear memory accesses, which can hamper the computational throughput, and elevate the usage of precious compute and memory resources beyond necessity. The ’DIA-Adaptive’ approach, a methodological enhancement introduced in this paper, confronts these challenges head-on by leveraging the advanced parallel instruction sets embedded within Machine Learning Units (MLUs). This research presents a thorough analysis of the DIA-Adaptive scheme’s efficacy in optimizing Sparse Matrix-Vector Multiplication (SpMV) operations. The scope of the evaluation extends to a variety of hardware architectures, examining the repercussions of distinct thread allocation strategies and cluster configurations across multiple storage formats. A dedicated computational kernel, intrinsic to the DIA-Adaptive approach, has been meticulously developed to synchronize with the nuanced performance characteristics of MLUs. Empirical results, derived from rigorous experimentation, reveal that the DIA-Adaptive methodology not only diminishes the performance bottlenecks associated with the DIA format but also exhibits pronounced enhancements in execution speed and resource utilization. The analysis delineates a marked improvement in parallelism, showcasing the DIA-Adaptive scheme’s ability to adeptly manage the interplay between storage formats, hardware capabilities, and algorithmic design. The findings suggest that this approach could set a precedent for accelerating SpMV tasks, thereby contributing significantly to the broader domain of high-performance computing and data-intensive applications.

Keywords: Adaptive method, DIA, diagonal sparse matrices, MLU, sparse matrix-vector multiplication.

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4287 Continual Learning Using Data Generation for Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Scene Classification

Authors: Samiah Alammari, Nassim Ammour

Abstract:

When providing a massive number of tasks successively to a deep learning process, a good performance of the model requires preserving the previous tasks data to retrain the model for each upcoming classification. Otherwise, the model performs poorly due to the catastrophic forgetting phenomenon. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed a successful continual learning deep model for remote sensing hyperspectral image regions classification. The proposed neural network architecture encapsulates two trainable subnetworks. The first module adapts its weights by minimizing the discrimination error between the land-cover classes during the new task learning, and the second module tries to learn how to replicate the data of the previous tasks by discovering the latent data structure of the new task dataset. We conduct experiments on hyperspectral image (HSI) dataset on Indian Pines. The results confirm the capability of the proposed method.

Keywords: Continual learning, data reconstruction, remote sensing, hyperspectral image segmentation.

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4286 Utilizing 5G Mobile Connection as a Node in Layer 1 Proof of Authority Blockchain Used for Microtransaction

Authors: Frode van der Laak

Abstract:

The paper contributes to the feasibility of using a 5G mobile connection as a node for a Proof of Authority (PoA) blockchain, which is used for microtransactions at the same time. It uses the phone number identity of the users that are linked to the crypto wallet address. It also proposed a consensus protocol based on PoA blockchain; PoA is a permission blockchain where consensus is achieved through a set of designated authority rather than through mining, as is the case with a Proof of Work (PoW) blockchain. This report will first explain the concept of a PoA blockchain and how it works. It will then discuss the potential benefits and challenges of using a 5G mobile connection as a node in such a blockchain, and finally, the main open problem statement and proposed solutions with the requirements.

Keywords: 5G, mobile, connection, node, PoA, blockchain, microtransaction.

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4285 QR Technology to Automate Health Condition Detection Payment System: A Case Study in Schools of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Amjad Alsulami, Farah Albishri, Kholod Alzubidi, Lama Almehemadi, Salma Elhag

Abstract:

Food allergy is a common and rising problem among children. Many students have their first allergic reaction at school, one of these is anaphylaxis, which can be fatal. This study discovered that several schools' processes lacked safety regulations and information on how to handle allergy issues and chronic diseases like diabetes where students were not supervised or monitored during the cafeteria purchasing process. Academic institutions have no obvious prevention or effort when purchasing food containing allergens or negatively impacting the health status of students who suffer from chronic diseases. The stability of students' health must be maintained because it greatly affects their performance and educational achievement. To address this issue, this paper uses a business reengineering process to propose the automation of the whole food-purchasing process, which will aid in detecting and avoiding allergic occurrences and preventing any side effects from eating foods that are conflicting with students' health. This may be achieved by designing a smart card with an embedded QR code that reveals which foods cause an allergic reaction in a student. A survey was distributed to determine and examine how the cafeteria will handle allergic children and whether any management or policy is applied in the school. Also, the survey findings indicate that the integration of QR technology into the food purchasing process would improve health condition detection. The family supported that the suggested solution would be advantageous because it ensured their children avoided eating not allowed food. Moreover, by analyzing and simulating the as-is process and the suggested process, the results demonstrate that there is an improvement in quality and time.

Keywords: QR code, smart card, food allergies, Business Process reengineering, health condition detection.

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4284 A Guide to the Implementation of Ambisonics Super Stereo

Authors: Alessio Mastrorillo, Giuseppe Silvi, Francesco Scagliola

Abstract:

This paper explores the decoding of Ambisonics material into 2-channel mixing formats, addressing challenges related to stereo speakers and headphones. We present the Universal HJ (UHJ) format as a solution, enabling the preservation of the entire horizontal plane and offering versatile spatial audio experiences. Our paper presents a UHJ format decoder, explaining its design, computational aspects, and empirical optimization. We discuss the advantages of UHJ decoding, potential applications, and its significance in music composition. Additionally, we highlight the integration of this decoder within the Envelop for Live (E4L) suite.

Keywords: Ambisonics, UHJ, quadrature filter, virtual reality, Gerzon, decoder, stereo, binaural, biquad.

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4283 Human Digital Twin for Personal Conversation Automation Using Supervised Machine Learning Approaches

Authors: Aya Salama

Abstract:

Digital Twin has emerged as a compelling research area, capturing the attention of scholars over the past decade. It finds applications across diverse fields, including smart manufacturing and healthcare, offering significant time and cost savings. Notably, it often intersects with other cutting-edge technologies such as Data Mining, Artificial Intelligence, and Machine Learning. However, the concept of a Human Digital Twin (HDT) is still in its infancy and requires further demonstration of its practicality. HDT takes the notion of Digital Twin a step further by extending it to living entities, notably humans, who are vastly different from inanimate physical objects. The primary objective of this research was to create an HDT capable of automating real-time human responses by simulating human behavior. To achieve this, the study delved into various areas, including clustering, supervised classification, topic extraction, and sentiment analysis. The paper successfully demonstrated the feasibility of HDT for generating personalized responses in social messaging applications. Notably, the proposed approach achieved an overall accuracy of 63%, a highly promising result that could pave the way for further exploration of the HDT concept. The methodology employed Random Forest for clustering the question database and matching new questions, while K-nearest neighbor was utilized for sentiment analysis.

Keywords: Human Digital twin, sentiment analysis, topic extraction, supervised machine learning, unsupervised machine learning, classification and clustering.

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4282 Phishing Attacks Facilitated by Open-Source Intelligence

Authors: Urva Maryam

Abstract:

Private data are more often breached by clever social engineering rather than exploiting technical vulnerabilities in the systems. Complete information security requires good data safety practices to go along with technical solutions. Hackers often begin their operation by simply sending spoofed emails or fraudulent URLs to their targets and trick them into providing sensitive information such as passwords or bank account details. This technique is called phishing. Phishing attacks can be launched on email addresses, open ports and unsecured web browsers. This study uses quantitative method of research to execute phishing experiments on the participants to test their response to the phishing emails. These experiments were run on Kali Linux distribution which came bundled with multiple open-source intelligence (OSINT) tools that were used in the study. The aim of this research is to see how successful phishing attacks can be launched using OSINT and to test the response of people to spoofed emails.

Keywords: OSINT, phishing, spear phishing, email spoofing, theHarvester, Maltego.

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4281 Analysis of Histogram Asymmetry for Waste Recognition

Authors: Janusz Bobulski, Kamila Pasternak

Abstract:

Despite many years of effort and research, the problem of waste management is still current. There is a lack of fast and effective algorithms for classifying individual waste fractions. Many programs and projects improve statistics on the percentage of waste recycled every year. In these efforts, it is worth using modern Computer Vision techniques supported by artificial intelligence. In the article, we present a method of identifying plastic waste based on the asymmetry analysis of the histogram of the image containing the waste. The method is simple but effective (94%), which allows it to be implemented on devices with low computing power, in particular on microcomputers. Such de-vices will be used both at home and in waste sorting plants.

Keywords: Computer vision, environmental protection, image processing, waste management.

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4280 TheAnalyzer: Clustering-Based System for Improving Business Productivity by Analyzing User Profiles to Enhance Human-Computer Interaction

Authors: D. S. A. Nanayakkara, K. J. P. G. Perera

Abstract:

E-commerce platforms have revolutionized the shopping experience, offering convenient ways for consumers to make purchases. To improve interactions with customers and optimize marketing strategies, it is essential for businesses to understand user behavior, preferences, and needs on these platforms. This paper focuses on recommending businesses to customize interactions with users based on their behavioral patterns, leveraging data-driven analysis and machine learning techniques. Businesses can improve engagement and boost the adoption of e-commerce platforms by aligning behavioral patterns with user goals of usability and satisfaction. We propose TheAnalyzer, a clustering-based system designed to enhance business productivity by analyzing user-profiles and improving human-computer interaction. TheAnalyzer seamlessly integrates with business applications, collecting relevant data points based on users' natural interactions without additional burdens such as questionnaires or surveys. It defines five key user analytics as features for its dataset, which are easily captured through users' interactions with e-commerce platforms. This research presents a study demonstrating the successful distinction of users into specific groups based on the five key analytics considered by TheAnalyzer. With the assistance of domain experts, customized business rules can be attached to each group, enabling TheAnalyzer to influence business applications and provide an enhanced personalized user experience. The outcomes are evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively, demonstrating that utilizing TheAnalyzer’s capabilities can optimize business outcomes, enhance customer satisfaction, and drive sustainable growth. The findings of this research contribute to the advancement of personalized interactions in e-commerce platforms. By leveraging user behavioral patterns and analyzing both new and existing users, businesses can effectively tailor their interactions to improve customer satisfaction, loyalty and ultimately drive sales.

Keywords: Data clustering, data standardization, dimensionality reduction, human-computer interaction, user profiling.

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4279 An Extended Domain-Specific Modeling Language for Marine Observatory Relying on Enterprise Architecture

Authors: Charbel Geryes Aoun, Loic Lagadec

Abstract:

A Sensor Network (SN) is considered as an operation of two phases: (1) the observation/measuring, which means the accumulation of the gathered data at each sensor node; (2) transferring the collected data to some processing center (e.g. Fusion Servers) within the SN. Therefore, an underwater sensor network can be defined as a sensor network deployed underwater that monitors underwater activity. The deployed sensors, such as hydrophones, are responsible for registering underwater activity and transferring it to more advanced components. The process of data exchange between the aforementioned components perfectly defines the Marine Observatory (MO) concept which provides information on ocean state, phenomena and processes. The first step towards the implementation of this concept is defining the environmental constraints and the required tools and components (Marine Cables, Smart Sensors, Data Fusion Server, etc). The logical and physical components that are used in these observatories perform some critical functions such as the localization of underwater moving objects. These functions can be orchestrated with other services (e.g. military or civilian reaction). In this paper, we present an extension to our MO meta-model that is used to generate a design tool (ArchiMO). We propose constraints to be taken into consideration at design time. We illustrate our proposal with an example from the MO domain. Additionally, we generate the corresponding simulation code using our self-developed domain-specific model compiler. On the one hand, this illustrates our approach in relying on Enterprise Architecture (EA) framework that respects: multiple-views, perspectives of stakeholders, and domain specificity. On the other hand, it helps reducing both complexity and time spent in design activity, while preventing from design modeling errors during porting this activity in the MO domain. As conclusion, this work aims to demonstrate that we can improve the design activity of complex system based on the use of MDE technologies and a domain-specific modeling language with the associated tooling. The major improvement is to provide an early validation step via models and simulation approach to consolidate the system design.

Keywords: Smart sensors, data fusion, distributed fusion architecture, sensor networks, domain specific modeling language, enterprise architecture, underwater moving object, localization, marine observatory, NS-3, IMS.

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4278 An Authentic Algorithm for Ciphering and Deciphering Called Latin Djokovic

Authors: Diogen Babuc

Abstract:

The question that is a motivation of writing is how many devote themselves to discovering something in the world of science where much is discerned and revealed, but at the same time, much is unknown. The insightful elements of this algorithm are the ciphering and deciphering algorithms of Playfair, Caesar, and Vigen`ere. Only a few of their main properties are taken and modified, with the aim of forming a specific functionality of the algorithm called Latin Djokovic. Specifically, a string is entered as input data. A key k is given, with a random value between the values a and b = a+3. The obtained value is stored in a variable with the aim of being constant during the run of the algorithm. In correlation to the given key, the string is divided into several groups of substrings, and each substring has a length of k characters. The next step involves encoding each substring from the list of existing substrings. Encoding is performed using the basis of Caesar algorithm, i.e. shifting with k characters. However, that k is incremented by 1 when moving to the next substring in that list. When the value of k becomes greater than b + 1, it will return to its initial value. The algorithm is executed, following the same procedure, until the last substring in the list is traversed. Using this polyalphabetic method, ciphering and deciphering of strings are achieved. The algorithm also works for a 100-character string. The x character is not used when the number of characters in a substring is incompatible with the expected length. The algorithm is simple to implement, but it is questionable if it works better than the other methods, from the point of view of execution time and storage space.

Keywords: Ciphering and deciphering, Authentic Algorithm, Polyalphabetic Cipher, Random Key, methods comparison.

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4277 Developing a Smart Card Using Internet of Things: Uni-C

Authors: Shatha S. Alshehri, Enji E. Alzamzami, Roaa H. Alansari, Rahaf J. Alwafi, Kholod A. Almwallad, Aeshah A. Alsiyami

Abstract:

This paper demonstrates a system that helps solve the congestion problem at the entrance gates and limits the spread of viruses among people in crowded environments, such as COVID-19, using the IoT (Internet of Things). Uni-C system may assist in organizing the campus entry process efficiently by developing a smart card application supported by NFC (Near Field Communication) technology through which users' information could be sent to a reader to share it with the server and allow the server to perform its tasks and send a confirmation response for the request either by acceptance or rejection.

Keywords: COVID-19, IoT, NFC technology, Uni-C.

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4276 Low-Latency and Low-Overhead Path Planning for In-band Network-Wide Telemetry

Authors: Penghui Zhang, Hua Zhang, Jun-Bo Wang, Cheng Zeng, Zijian Cao

Abstract:

With the development of software-defined networks and programmable data planes, in-band network telemetry (INT) has become an emerging technology in communications because it can get accurate and real-time network information. However, due to the expansion of the network scale, existing telemetry systems, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, have difficulty in meeting the common requirements of low overhead, low latency and full coverage for traffic measurement. This paper proposes a network-wide telemetry system with a low-latency low-overhead path planning (INT-LLPP). This paper builds a mathematical model to analyze the telemetry overhead and latency of INT systems. Then, we adopt a greedy-based path planning algorithm to reduce the overhead and latency of the network telemetry with the full network coverage. The simulation results show that network-wide telemetry is achieved and the telemetry overhead can be reduced significantly compared with existing INT systems. INT-LLPP can control the system latency to get real-time network information.

Keywords: Network telemetry, network monitoring, path planning, low latency.

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4275 Merging and Comparing Ontologies Generically

Authors: Xiuzhan Guo, Arthur Berrill, Ajinkya Kulkarni, Kostya Belezko, Min Luo

Abstract:

Ontology operations, e.g., aligning and merging, were studied and implemented extensively in different settings, such as, categorical operations, relation algebras, typed graph grammars, with different concerns. However, aligning and merging operations in the settings share some generic properties, e.g., idempotence, commutativity, associativity, and representativity, which are defined on an ontology merging system, given by a nonempty set of the ontologies concerned, a binary relation on the set of the ontologies modeling ontology aligning, and a partial binary operation on the set of the ontologies modeling ontology merging. Given an ontology repository, a finite subset of the set of the ontologies, its merging closure is the smallest subset of the set of the ontologies, which contains the repository and is closed with respect to merging. If idempotence, commutativity, associativity, and representativity properties are satisfied, then both the set of the ontologies and the merging closure of the ontology repository are partially ordered naturally by merging, the merging closure of the ontology repository is finite and can be computed, compared, and sorted efficiently, including sorting, selecting, and querying some specific elements, e.g., maximal ontologies and minimal ontologies. An ontology Valignment pair is a pair of ontology homomorphisms with a common domain. We also show that the ontology merging system, given by ontology V-alignment pairs and pushouts, satisfies idempotence, commutativity, associativity, and representativity properties so that the merging system is partially ordered and the merging closure of a given repository with respect to pushouts can be computed efficiently.

Keywords: Ontology aligning, ontology merging, merging system, poset, merging closure, ontology V-alignment pair, ontology homomorphism, ontology V-alignment pair homomorphism, pushout.

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4274 Shifted Window Based Self-Attention via Swin Transformer for Zero-Shot Learning

Authors: Yasaswi Palagummi, Sareh Rowlands

Abstract:

Generalised Zero-Shot Learning, often known as GZSL, is an advanced variant of zero-shot learning in which the samples in the unseen category may be either seen or unseen. GZSL methods typically have a bias towards the seen classes because they learn a model to perform recognition for both the seen and unseen classes using data samples from the seen classes. This frequently leads to the misclassification of data from the unseen classes into the seen classes, making the task of GZSL more challenging. In this work, we propose an approach leveraging the Shifted Window based Self-Attention in the Swin Transformer (Swin-GZSL) to work in the inductive GZSL problem setting. We run experiments on three popular benchmark datasets: CUB, SUN, and AWA2, which are specifically used for ZSL and its other variants. The results show that our model based on Swin Transformer has achieved state-of-the-art harmonic mean for two datasets - AWA2 and SUN and near-state-of-the-art for the other dataset - CUB. More importantly, this technique has a linear computational complexity, which reduces training time significantly. We have also observed less bias than most of the existing GZSL models.

Keywords: Generalised Zero-shot Learning, Inductive Learning, Shifted-Window Attention, Swin Transformer, Vision Transformer.

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4273 Image Classification and Accuracy Assessment Using the Confusion Matrix, Contingency Matrix, and Kappa Coefficient

Authors: F. F. Howard, C. B. Boye, I. Yakubu, J. S. Y. Kuma

Abstract:

One of the ways that could be used for the production of land use and land cover maps by a procedure known as image classification is the use of the remote sensing technique. Numerous elements ought to be taken into consideration, including the availability of highly satisfactory Landsat imagery, secondary data and a precise classification process. The goal of this study was to classify and map the land use and land cover of the study area using remote sensing and Geospatial Information System (GIS) analysis. The classification was done using Landsat 8 satellite images acquired in December 2020 covering the study area. The Landsat image was downloaded from the USGS. The Landsat image with 30 m resolution was geo-referenced to the WGS_84 datum and Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Zone 30N coordinate projection system. A radiometric correction was applied to the image to reduce the noise in the image. This study consists of two sections: the Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) and Accuracy Assessments using the confusion and contingency matrix and the Kappa coefficient. The LULC classifications were vegetation (agriculture) (67.87%), water bodies (0.01%), mining areas (5.24%), forest (26.02%), and settlement (0.88%). The overall accuracy of 97.87% and the kappa coefficient (K) of 97.3% were obtained for the confusion matrix. While an overall accuracy of 95.7% and a Kappa coefficient of 0.947 were obtained for the contingency matrix, the kappa coefficients were rated as substantial; hence, the classified image is fit for further research.

Keywords: Confusion Matrix, contingency matrix, kappa coefficient, land used/ land cover, accuracy assessment.

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4272 Exploring DeFi Through Three Case Studies: Transparency, Social Impact and Regulation

Authors: Dhaksha Vivekanandan

Abstract:

DeFi is a network that avoids reliance on financial intermediaries through its peer-to-peer financial network. DeFi operates outside of government control; hence, it is important for us to understand its impacts. This study employs a literature review to understand DeFi and its emergence, as well as its implications on transparency, social impact, and regulation. Further, three case studies are analysed within the context of these categories. DeFi’s provision of increased transparency poses environmental and storage costs and can lead to user privacy being endangered. DeFi allows for the provision of entrepreneurial incentives and protection against monetary censorship and capital control. Despite DeFi's transparency issues and volatility costs, it has huge potential to reduce poverty; however, regulation surrounding DeFi still requires further tightening by governments.

Keywords: DeFi, transparency, regulation, social impact.

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4271 The Study of Game Interface Improvement due to the Game Operation Dilemma of Player in the Side-Scrolling Shooting Game

Authors: Shih-Chieh Liao, Cheng-Yan Shuai

Abstract:

The feature of a side-scrolling shooting game is facing the surrounding enemy and barraging in an entire screen. The player will be in trouble when they are trying to do complicated operations because of the physical and system limitations of the joystick in the games. This study designed the prototype of a type of arcade stick by focus group and assessed by the expert. We selected the most representative joystick prototype and built the control system for the joystick. We conducted two experimental tests using time and bullet consumption as objective indicators, aiming to demonstrate its efficiency in the game. Finally, the prototype of L-1 solves the dilemma of scroll shooting games when the player uses the arcade stick and improves the function of the arcade stick.

Keywords: Joystick, user interface, side-scrolling shooting game, improved user experience.

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4270 Chinese Event Detection Technique Based on Dependency Parsing and Rule Matching

Authors: Weitao Lin

Abstract:

To quickly extract adequate information from large-scale unstructured text data, this paper studies the representation of events in Chinese scenarios and performs the regularized abstraction. It proposes a Chinese event detection technique based on dependency parsing and rule matching. The method first performs dependency parsing on the original utterance, then performs pattern matching at the word or phrase granularity based on the results of dependent syntactic analysis, filters out the utterances with prominent non-event characteristics, and obtains the final results. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the method.

Keywords: Natural Language Processing, Chinese event detection, rules matching, dependency parsing.

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4269 Demystifying Full-Stack Observability: Mastering Visibility, Insight, and Action in the Modern Digital Landscape

Authors: Ashly Joseph

Abstract:

In the era of digital transformation, full-stack observability has emerged as a crucial aspect of administering modern application stacks. This research paper presents the concept of full-stack observability, its significance in the context of contemporary application stacks, and the challenges posed by swiftly evolving digital environments. In addition, it describes how full-stack observability intends to provide complete visibility and actionable insights by correlating telemetry across multiple domains.

Keywords: Actionable insights, digital transformation, full-stack observability, performance metrics.

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4268 Barriers to the Uptake of Technology in the Quantity Surveying Industry

Authors: Mnisi Blessing, Christopher Amoah

Abstract:

The usage of modern technology is widespread in industrialised nations. The issue still pertains to developing countries since they struggle to use technology in the building sector. The study aims to identify the barriers to technology usage in quantity surveying firms. Quantity Surveyors were interviewed via Microsoft teams due to the dispersed nature of the participants. However, where the interview was not possible, the interview guide was emailed to the participants to fill in. In all, 12 participants were interviewed out of the 25 participants contacted. The data received were analysed using the content analysis process. The study's findings demonstrate that quantity surveyors have access to a wide range of technology that significantly enhances their project activities. However, quantity surveying companies are hesitant to use technology for several reasons, including the cost and maintenance associated with it. Other obstacles include a lack of knowledge, poor market acceptance, legal obstacles, and budgetary constraints. Despite the advantages associated with modern technology applications, quantity surveying firms are not using them, which may ultimately affect their work output. Therefore, firms need to re-examine these obstacles, inhibiting their adoption of technology in the work process to enhance their production. The study reveals the main hindrances to technology usage, which may help firms institute measures to address them.

Keywords: Technology usage barriers, technology implementation, technology acceptance, quantity surveying.

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