Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4194

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Computer and Information Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

4194 Comparative Analysis of Classical and Parallel Inpainting Algorithms Based on Affine Combinations of Projections on Convex Sets

Authors: Irina Maria Artinescu, Costin Radu Boldea, Eduard-Ionut Matei

Abstract:

The paper is a comparative study of two classical vari-ants of parallel projection methods for solving the convex feasibility problem with their equivalents that involve variable weights in the construction of the solutions. We used a graphical representation of these methods for inpainting a convex area of an image in order to investigate their effectiveness in image reconstruction applications. We also presented a numerical analysis of the convergence of these four algorithms in terms of the average number of steps and execution time, in classical CPU and, alternativaly, in parallel GPU implementation.

Keywords: convex feasibility problem, convergence analysis, ınpainting, parallel projection methods

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4193 Twitter Sentiment Analysis during the Lockdown on New Zealand

Authors: Smah Doeban Almotiri

Abstract:

One of the most common fields of natural language processing (NLP) is sentimental analysis. The inferred feeling in the text can be successfully mined for various events using sentiment analysis. Twitter is viewed as a reliable data point for sentimental analytics studies since people are using social media to receive and exchange different types of data on a broad scale during the COVID-19 epidemic. The processing of such data may aid in making critical decisions on how to keep the situation under control. The aim of this research is to look at how sentimental states differed in a single geographic region during the lockdown at two different times.1162 tweets were analyzed related to the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown using keywords hashtags (lockdown, COVID-19) for the first sample tweets were from March 23, 2020, until April 23, 2020, and the second sample for the following year was from March 1, 2021, until April 4, 2021. Natural language processing (NLP), which is a form of Artificial intelligent was used for this research to calculate the sentiment value of all of the tweets by using AFINN Lexicon sentiment analysis method. The findings revealed that the sentimental condition in both different times during the region's lockdown was positive in the samples of this study, which are unique to the specific geographical area of New Zealand. This research suggests applied machine learning sentimental method such as Crystal Feel and extended the size of the sample tweet by using multiple tweets over a longer period of time.

Keywords: sentiment analysis, Twitter analysis, lockdown, Covid-19, AFINN, NodeJS

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4192 Military Combat Aircraft Selection Using Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers with the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS)

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

This article presents a new approach to uncertainty, vagueness, and imprecision analysis for ranking alternatives with fuzzy data for decision making using the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). In the proposed approach, fuzzy decision information related to the aircraft selection problem is taken into account in ranking the alternatives and selecting the best one. The basic procedural step is to transform the fuzzy decision matrices into matrices of alternatives evaluated according to all decision criteria. A numerical example illustrates the proposed approach for the military combat aircraft selection problem.

Keywords: trapezoidal fuzzy numbers, multiple criteria decision making analysis, decision making, aircraft selection, MCDMA, fuzzy TOPSIS

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4191 Software Product Quality Evaluation Model with Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

This paper presents a software product quality evaluation model based on the ISO/IEC 25010 quality model. The evaluation characteristics and sub characteristics were identified from the ISO/IEC 25010 quality model. The multidimensional structure of the quality model is based on characteristics such as functional suitability, performance efficiency, compatibility, usability, reliability, security, maintainability, and portability, and associated sub characteristics. Random numbers are generated to establish the decision maker’s importance weights for each sub characteristics. Also, random numbers are generated to establish the decision matrix of the decision maker’s final scores for each software product against each sub characteristics. Thus, objective criteria importance weights and index scores for datasets were obtained from the random numbers. In the proposed model, five different software product quality evaluation datasets under three different weight vectors were applied to multiple criteria decision analysis method, preference analysis for reference ideal solution (PARIS) for comparison, and sensitivity analysis procedure. This study contributes to provide a better understanding of the application of MCDMA methods and ISO/IEC 25010 quality model guidelines in software product quality evaluation process.

Keywords: ISO/IEC 25010 quality model, multiple criteria decisions making, multiple criteria decision making analysis, MCDMA, PARIS, Software Product Quality Evaluation Model, Software Product Quality Evaluation, Software Evaluation, Software Selection, Software

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4190 Graph Codes-2D Projections of Multimedia Feature Graphs for Fast and Effective Retrieval

Authors: Stefan Wagenpfeil, Felix Engel, Paul McKevitt, Matthias Hemmje

Abstract:

Multimedia Indexing and Retrieval is generally de-signed and implemented by employing feature graphs. These graphs typically contain a significant number of nodes and edges to reflect the level of detail in feature detection. A higher level of detail increases the effectiveness of the results but also leads to more complex graph structures. However, graph-traversal-based algorithms for similarity are quite inefficient and computation intensive, espe-cially for large data structures. To deliver fast and effective retrieval, an efficient similarity algorithm, particularly for large graphs, is mandatory. Hence, in this paper, we define a graph-projection into a 2D space (Graph Code) as well as the corresponding algorithms for indexing and retrieval. We show that calculations in this space can be performed more efficiently than graph-traversals due to a simpler processing model and a high level of parallelisation. In consequence, we prove that the effectiveness of retrieval also increases substantially, as Graph Codes facilitate more levels of detail in feature fusion. Thus, Graph Codes provide a significant increase in efficiency and effectiveness (especially for Multimedia indexing and retrieval) and can be applied to images, videos, audio, and text information.

Keywords: indexing, retrieval, multimedia, graph code, graph algorithm

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4189 Hardware Error Analysis and Severity Characterization in Linux-Based Server Systems

Authors: N. Georgoulopoulos, A. Hatzopoulos, K. Karamitsios, K. Kotrotsios, A. I. Metsai

Abstract:

Current server systems are responsible for critical applications that run in different infrastructures, such as the cloud, physical machines, and virtual machines. A common challenge that these systems face are the various hardware faults that may occur due to the high load, among other reasons, which translates to errors resulting in malfunctions or even server downtime. The most important hardware parts, that are causing most of the errors, are the CPU, RAM, and the hard drive - HDD. In this work, we investigate selected CPU, RAM, and HDD errors, observed or simulated in kernel ring buffer log files from GNU/Linux servers. Moreover, a severity characterization is given for each error type. Understanding these errors is crucial for the efficient analysis of kernel logs that are usually utilized for monitoring servers and diagnosing faults. In addition, to support the previous analysis, we present possible ways of simulating hardware errors in RAM and HDD, aiming to facilitate the testing of methods for detecting and tackling the above issues in a server running on GNU/Linux.

Keywords: hardware errors, Kernel logs, GNU/Linux servers, RAM, HDD, CPU

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4188 A Comprehensive Survey on Machine Learning Techniques and User Authentication Approaches for Credit Card Fraud Detection

Authors: Niloofar Yousefi, Marie Alaghband, Ivan Garibay

Abstract:

With the increase of credit card usage, the volume of credit card misuse also has significantly increased, which may cause appreciable financial losses for both credit card holders and financial organizations issuing credit cards. As a result, financial organizations are working hard on developing and deploying credit card fraud detection methods, in order to adapt to ever-evolving, increasingly sophisticated defrauding strategies and identifying illicit transactions as quickly as possible to protect themselves and their customers. Compounding on the complex nature of such adverse strategies, credit card fraudulent activities are rare events compared to the number of legitimate transactions. Hence, the challenge to develop fraud detection that are accurate and efficient is substantially intensified and, as a consequence, credit card fraud detection has lately become a very active area of research. In this work, we provide a survey of current techniques most relevant to the problem of credit card fraud detection. We carry out our survey in two main parts. In the first part, we focus on studies utilizing classical machine learning models, which mostly employ traditional transnational features to make fraud predictions. These models typically rely on some static physical characteristics, such as what the user knows (knowledge-based method), or what he/she has access to (object-based method). In the second part of our survey, we review more advanced techniques of user authentication, which use behavioral biometrics to identify an individual based on his/her unique behavior while he/she is interacting with his/her electronic devices. These approaches rely on how people behave (instead of what they do), which cannot be easily forged. By providing an overview of current approaches and the results reported in the literature, this survey aims to drive the future research agenda for the community in order to develop more accurate, reliable and scalable models of credit card fraud detection.

Keywords: credit card fraud detection, user authentication, behavioral biometrics, machine learning, literature survey

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4187 Maximum Distance Separable b-Symbol Repeated-Root γ-Constacylic Codes over a Finite Chain Ring of Length 2

Authors: Jamal Laaouine, Mohammed Elhassani Charkani

Abstract:

Let p be a prime and let b be an integer. MDS b-symbol codes are a direct generalization of MDS codes. The γ-constacyclic codes of length pˢ over the finite commutative chain ring Fₚm [u]/ < u² > had been classified into four distinct types, where is a nonzero element of the field Fₚm. Let C₃ be a code of Type 3. In this paper, we obtain the b-symbol distance db(C₃) of the code C₃. Using this result, necessary and sufficient conditions under which C₃ is an MDS b-symbol code are given.

Keywords: constacyclic code, repeated-root code, maximum distance separable, MDS codes, b-symbol distance, finite chain rings

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4186 Automatic Classification of the Stand-to-Sit Phase in the TUG Test Using Machine Learning

Authors: Y. A. Adla, R. Soubra, M. Kasab, M. O. Diab, A. Chkeir

Abstract:

Over the past several years, researchers have shown a great interest in assessing the mobility of elderly people to measure their functional status. Usually, such an assessment is done by conducting tests that require the subject to walk a certain distance, turn around, and finally sit back down. Consequently, this study aims to provide an at home monitoring system to assess the patient’s status continuously. Thus, we proposed a technique to automatically detect when a subject sits down while walking at home. In this study, we utilized a Doppler radar system to capture the motion of the subjects. More than 20 features were extracted from the radar signals out of which 11 were chosen based on their Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC > 0.75). Accordingly, the sequential floating forward selection wrapper was applied to further narrow down the final feature vector. Finally, five features were introduced to the Linear Discriminant Analysis classifier and an accuracy of 93.75% was achieved as well as a precision and recall of 95% and 90% respectively.

Keywords: Doppler radar system, stand-to-sit phase, TUG test, machine learning, classification

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4185 Emotion Detection in Twitter Messages Using Combination of Long Short-Term Memory and Convolutional Deep Neural Networks

Authors: B. Golchin, N. Riahi

Abstract:

One of the most significant issues as attended a lot in recent years is that of recognizing the sentiments and emotions in social media texts. The analysis of sentiments and emotions is intended to recognize the conceptual information such as the opinions, feelings, attitudes and emotions of people towards the products, services, organizations, people, topics, events and features in the written text. These indicate the greatness of the problem space. In the real world, businesses and organizations are always looking for tools to gather ideas, emotions, and directions of people about their products, services, or events related to their own. This article uses the Twitter social network, one of the most popular social networks with about 420 million active users, to extract data. Using this social network, users can share their information and opinions about personal issues, policies, products, events, etc. It can be used with appropriate classification of emotional states due to the availability of its data. In this study, supervised learning and deep neural network algorithms are used to classify the emotional states of Twitter users. The use of deep learning methods to increase the learning capacity of the model is an advantage due to the large amount of available data. Tweets collected on various topics are classified into four classes using a combination of two Bidirectional Long Short Term Memory network and a Convolutional network. The results obtained from this study with an average accuracy of 93%, show good results extracted from the proposed framework and improved accuracy compared to previous work.

Keywords: emotion classification, sentiment analysis, social networks, deep neural networks

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4184 Design Systems and the Need for a Usability Method: Assessing the Fitness of Components and Interaction Patterns in Design Systems Using Atmosphere Methodology

Authors: P. Johansson, S. Mardh

Abstract:

The present study proposes a usability test method, Atmosphere, to assess the fitness of components and interaction patterns of design systems. The method covers the user’s perception of the components of the system, the efficiency of the logic of the interaction patterns, perceived ease of use as well as the user’s understanding of the intended outcome of interactions. These aspects are assessed by combining measures of first impression, visual affordance and expectancy. The method was applied to a design system developed for the design of an electronic health record system. The study was conducted involving 15 healthcare personnel. It could be concluded that the Atmosphere method provides tangible data that enable human-computer interaction practitioners to analyze and categorize components and patterns based on perceived usability, success rate of identifying interactive components and success rate of understanding components and interaction patterns intended outcome.

Keywords: atomic design, atmosphere methodology, design system, expectancy testing, first impression testing, usability testing, visual affordance testing

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4183 OILU Tag: A Projective Invariant Fiducial System

Authors: Youssef Chahir, Messaoud Mostefai, Salah Khodja

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of a 2D visual marker, derived from a recent patented work in the field of numbering systems. The proposed fiducial uses a group of projective invariant straight-line patterns, easily detectable and remotely recognizable. Based on an efficient data coding scheme, the developed marker enables producing a large panel of unique real time identifiers with highly distinguishable patterns. The proposed marker Incorporates simultaneously decimal and binary information, making it readable by both humans and machines. This important feature opens up new opportunities for the development of efficient visual human-machine communication and monitoring protocols. Extensive experiment tests validate the robustness of the marker against acquisition and geometric distortions.

Keywords: visual marker, projective invariants, distance map, level set

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4182 User’s Susceptibility Factors to Malware Attacks: A Systemic Literature Review

Authors: Awad A. Younis, Elise Stronberg, Shifa Noor

Abstract:

Users’ susceptibility to malware attacks have been noticed in the past few years. Investigating the factors that make a user vulnerable to those attacks is critical because they can be utilized to set up proactive strategies such as awareness and education to mitigate the impacts of those attacks. Demographic, behavioral, and cultural vulnerabilities are the main factors that make users susceptible to malware attacks. It is challenging, however, to draw more general conclusions based on those factors due to the varieties in the type of users and different types of malware. Therefore, we conducted a systematic literature review (SLR) of the existing research for user susceptibility factors to malware attacks. The results showed that all demographic factors are consistently associated with malware infection regardless of the users' type except for age and gender. Besides, the association of culture and personality factors with malware infection is consistent in most of the selected studies and for all types of users. Moreover, malware infection varies based on age, geographic location, and host types. We propose that future studies should carefully take into consideration the type of users because different users may be exposed to different threats or targeted based on their user domains’ characteristics. Additionally, as different types of malware use different tactics to trick users, taking the malware types into consideration is important.

Keywords: cybersecurity, malware, users, demographics, personality, culture, systematic literature review

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4181 A Simulation Tool for Projection Mapping Based on Mapbox and Unity

Authors: Noriko Hanakawa, Masaki Obana

Abstract:

A simulation tool is proposed for big-scale projection mapping events. The tool has four main functions based on Mapbox and Unity utilities. The first function is building three-dimensional models of real cities using Mapbox. The second function is movie projections to some buildings in real cities using Unity. The third is a movie sending function from a PC to a virtual projector. The fourth function is mapping movies with fitting buildings. The simulation tool was adapted to a real projection mapping event held in 2019. The event completed, but it faced a severe problem in the movie projection to the target building. Extra tents were set in front of the target building, and the tents became obstacles to the movie projection. The simulation tool developed herein could reconstruct the problems of the event. Therefore, if the simulation tool was developed before the 2019 projection mapping event, the problem of the tents being obstacles could have been avoided using the tool. Moreover, we confirmed that the simulation tool is useful for planning future projection mapping events to avoid various extra equipment obstacles, such as utility poles, planting trees, and monument towers.

Keywords: avoiding obstacles, projection mapping, projector position, real 3D map

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4180 An Image Processing Based Approach for Assessing Wheelchair Cushions

Authors: B. Farahani, R. Fadil, A. Aboonabi, B. Hoffmann, J. Loscheider, K. Tavakolian, S. Arzanpour

Abstract:

Wheelchair users spend long hours in a sitting position, and selecting the right cushion is highly critical in preventing pressure ulcers in that demographic. Pressure Mapping Systems (PMS) are typically used in clinical settings by therapists to identify the sitting profile and pressure points in the sitting area to select the cushion that fits the best for the users. A PMS is a flexible mat composed of arrays of distributed networks of pressure sensors. The output of the PMS systems is a color-coded image that shows the intensity of the pressure concentration. Therapists use the PMS images to compare different cushions fit for each user. This process is highly subjective and requires good visual memory for the best outcome. This paper aims to develop an image processing technique to analyze the images of PMS and provide an objective measure to assess the cushions based on their pressure distribution mappings. In this paper, we first reviewed the skeletal anatomy of the human sitting area and its relation to the PMS image. This knowledge is then used to identify the important features that must be considered in image processing. We then developed an algorithm based on those features to analyze the images and rank them according to their fit to the user's needs. 

Keywords: cushion, image processing, pressure mapping system, wheelchair

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4179 6D Posture Estimation of Road Vehicles from Color Images

Authors: Yoshimoto Kurihara, Tad Gonsalves

Abstract:

Currently, in the field of object posture estimation, there is research on estimating the position and angle of an object by storing a 3D model of the object to be estimated in advance in a computer and matching it with the model. However, in this research, we have succeeded in creating a module that is much simpler, smaller in scale, and faster in operation. Our 6D pose estimation model consists of two different networks – a classification network and a regression network. From a single RGB image, the trained model estimates the class of the object in the image, the coordinates of the object, and its rotation angle in 3D space. In addition, we compared the estimation accuracy of each camera position, i.e., the angle from which the object was captured. The highest accuracy was recorded when the camera position was 75°, the accuracy of the classification was about 87.3%, and that of regression was about 98.9%.

Keywords: AlexNet, Deep learning, image recognition, 6D posture estimation.

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4178 Dimensionality Reduction in Modal Analysis for Structural Health Monitoring

Authors: Elia Favarelli, Enrico Testi, Andrea Giorgetti

Abstract:

Autonomous structural health monitoring (SHM) of many structures and bridges became a topic of paramount importance for maintenance purposes and safety reasons. This paper proposes a set of machine learning (ML) tools to perform automatic feature selection and detection of anomalies in a bridge from vibrational data and compare different feature extraction schemes to increase the accuracy and reduce the amount of data collected. As a case study, the Z-24 bridge is considered because of the extensive database of accelerometric data in both standard and damaged conditions. The proposed framework starts from the first four fundamental frequencies extracted through operational modal analysis (OMA) and clustering, followed by time-domain filtering (tracking). The fundamental frequencies extracted are then fed to a dimensionality reduction block implemented through two different approaches: feature selection (intelligent multiplexer) that tries to estimate the most reliable frequencies based on the evaluation of some statistical features (i.e., entropy, variance, kurtosis), and feature extraction (auto-associative neural network (ANN)) that combine the fundamental frequencies to extract new damage sensitive features in a low dimensional feature space. Finally, one-class classification (OCC) algorithms perform anomaly detection, trained with standard condition points, and tested with normal and anomaly ones. In particular, principal component analysis (PCA), kernel principal component analysis (KPCA), and autoassociative neural network (ANN) are presented and their performance are compared. It is also shown that, by evaluating the correct features, the anomaly can be detected with accuracy and an F1 score greater than 95%.

Keywords: Anomaly detection, dimensionality reduction, frequencies selection, modal analysis, neural network, structural health monitoring, vibration measurement.

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4177 A Medical Vulnerability Scoring System Incorporating Health and Data Sensitivity Metrics

Authors: Nadir A. Carreón, Christa Sonderer, Aakarsh Rao, Roman Lysecky

Abstract:

With the advent of complex software and increased connectivity, security of life-critical medical devices is becoming an increasing concern, particularly with their direct impact to human safety. Security is essential, but it is impossible to develop completely secure and impenetrable systems at design time. Therefore, it is important to assess the potential impact on security and safety of exploiting a vulnerability in such critical medical systems. The common vulnerability scoring system (CVSS) calculates the severity of exploitable vulnerabilities. However, for medical devices, it does not consider the unique challenges of impacts to human health and privacy. Thus, the scoring of a medical device on which a human life depends (e.g., pacemakers, insulin pumps) can score very low, while a system on which a human life does not depend (e.g., hospital archiving systems) might score very high. In this paper, we present a Medical Vulnerability Scoring System (MVSS) that extends CVSS to address the health and privacy concerns of medical devices. We propose incorporating two new parameters, namely health impact and sensitivity impact. Sensitivity refers to the type of information that can be stolen from the device, and health represents the impact to the safety of the patient if the vulnerability is exploited (e.g., potential harm, life threatening). We evaluate 15 different known vulnerabilities in medical devices and compare MVSS against two state-of-the-art medical device-oriented vulnerability scoring system and the foundational CVSS.

Keywords: Common vulnerability system, medical devices, medical device security, vulnerabilities.

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4176 The Application of Fuzzy Set Theory to Mobile Internet Advertisement Fraud Detection

Authors: Jinming Ma, Tianbing Xia, Janusz R. Getta

Abstract:

This paper presents the application of fuzzy set theory to implement of mobile advertisement anti-fraud systems. Mobile anti-fraud is a method aiming to identify mobile advertisement fraudsters. One of the main problems of mobile anti-fraud is the lack of evidence to prove a user to be a fraudster. In this paper, we implement an application by using fuzzy set theory to demonstrate how to detect cheaters. The advantage of our method is that the hardship in detecting fraudsters in small data samples has been avoided. We achieved this by giving each user a suspicious degree showing how likely the user is cheating and decide whether a group of users (like all users of a certain APP) together to be fraudsters according to the average suspicious degree. This makes the process more accurate as the data of a single user is too small to be predictable.

Keywords: Mobile internet, advertisement, anti-fraud, fuzzy set theory.

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4175 Speedup Breadth-First Search by Graph Ordering

Authors: Qiuyi Lyu, Bin Gong

Abstract:

Breadth-First Search (BFS) is a core graph algorithm that is widely used for graph analysis. As it is frequently used in many graph applications, improving the BFS performance is essential. In this paper, we present a graph ordering method that could reorder the graph nodes to achieve better data locality, thus, improving the BFS performance. Our method is based on an observation that the sibling relationships will dominate the cache access pattern during the BFS traversal. Therefore, we propose a frequency-based model to construct the graph order. First, we optimize the graph order according to the nodes’ visit frequency. Nodes with high visit frequency will be processed in priority. Second, we try to maximize the child nodes’ overlap layer by layer. As it is proved to be NP-hard, we propose a heuristic method that could greatly reduce the preprocessing overheads.We conduct extensive experiments on 16 real-world datasets. The result shows that our method could achieve comparable performance with the state-of-the-art methods while the graph ordering overheads are only about 1/15.

Keywords: Breadth-first search, BFS, graph ordering, graph algorithm.

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4174 1/Sigma Term Weighting Scheme for Sentiment Analysis

Authors: Hanan Alshaher, Jinsheng Xu

Abstract:

Large amounts of data on the web can provide valuable information. For example, product reviews help business owners measure customer satisfaction. Sentiment analysis classifies texts into two polarities: positive and negative. This paper examines movie reviews and tweets using a new term weighting scheme, called one-over-sigma (1/sigma), on benchmark datasets for sentiment classification. The proposed method aims to improve the performance of sentiment classification. The results show that 1/sigma is more accurate than the popular term weighting schemes. In order to verify if the entropy reflects the discriminating power of terms, we report a comparison of entropy values for different term weighting schemes.

Keywords: Sentiment analysis, term weighting scheme, 1/sigma.

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4173 Reference Architecture for Intelligent Enterprise Solutions

Authors: Shankar Kambhampaty, Harish Rohan Kambhampaty

Abstract:

Data in IT systems in enterprises have been growing at phenomenal pace. This has provided opportunities to run analytics to gather intelligence on key business parameters that enable them to provide better products and services to customers. While there are several Artificial Intelligence/Machine Learning (AI/ML) and Business Intelligence (BI) tools and technologies available in marketplace to run analytics, there is a need for an integrated view when developing intelligent solutions in enterprises. This paper progressively elaborates a reference model for enterprise solutions, builds an integrated view of data, information and intelligence components and presents a reference architecture for intelligent enterprise solutions. Finally, it applies the reference architecture to an insurance organization. The reference architecture is the outcome of experience and insights gathered from developing intelligent solutions for several organizations.

Keywords: Architecture, model, intelligence, artificial intelligence, business intelligence, AI, BI, ML, analytics, enterprise.

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4172 Machine Learning for Music Aesthetic Annotation Using MIDI Format: A Harmony-Based Classification Approach

Authors: Lin Yang, Zhian Mi, Jiacheng Xiao, Rong Li

Abstract:

Swimming with the tide of deep learning, the field of music information retrieval (MIR) experiences parallel development and a sheer variety of feature-learning models has been applied to music classification and tagging tasks. Among those learning techniques, the deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been widespreadly used with better performance than the traditional approach especially in music genre classification and prediction. However, regarding the music recommendation, there is a large semantic gap between the corresponding audio genres and the various aspects of a song that influence user preference. In our study, aiming to bridge the gap, we strive to construct an automatic music aesthetic annotation model with MIDI format for better comparison and measurement of the similarity between music pieces in the way of harmonic analysis. We use the matrix of qualification converted from MIDI files as input to train two different classifiers, support vector machine (SVM) and Decision Tree (DT). Experimental results in performance of a tag prediction task have shown that both learning algorithms are capable of extracting high-level properties in an end-to end manner from music information. The proposed model is helpful to learn the audience taste and then the resulting recommendations are likely to appeal to a niche consumer.

Keywords: Harmonic analysis, machine learning, music classification and tagging, MIDI.

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4171 Image Processing Approach for Detection of Three-Dimensional Tree-Rings from X-Ray Computed Tomography

Authors: Jorge Martinez-Garcia, Ingrid Stelzner, Joerg Stelzner, Damian Gwerder, Philipp Schuetz

Abstract:

Tree-ring analysis is an important part of the quality assessment and the dating of (archaeological) wood samples. It provides quantitative data about the whole anatomical ring structure, which can be used, for example, to measure the impact of the fluctuating environment on the tree growth, for the dendrochronological analysis of archaeological wooden artefacts and to estimate the wood mechanical properties. Despite advances in computer vision and edge recognition algorithms, detection and counting of annual rings are still limited to 2D datasets and performed in most cases manually, which is a time consuming, tedious task and depends strongly on the operator’s experience. This work presents an image processing approach to detect the whole 3D tree-ring structure directly from X-ray computed tomography imaging data. The approach relies on a modified Canny edge detection algorithm, which captures fully connected tree-ring edges throughout the measured image stack and is validated on X-ray computed tomography data taken from six wood species.

Keywords: Ring recognition, edge detection, X-ray computed tomography, dendrochronology.

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4170 Fast and Robust Long-term Tracking with Effective Searching Model

Authors: Thang V. Kieu, Long P. Nguyen

Abstract:

Kernelized Correlation Filter (KCF) based trackers have gained a lot of attention recently because of their accuracy and fast calculation speed. However, this algorithm is not robust in cases where the object is lost by a sudden change of direction, being obscured or going out of view. In order to improve KCF performance in long-term tracking, this paper proposes an anomaly detection method for target loss warning by analyzing the response map of each frame, and a classification algorithm for reliable target re-locating mechanism by using Random fern. Being tested with Visual Tracker Benchmark and Visual Object Tracking datasets, the experimental results indicated that the precision and success rate of the proposed algorithm were 2.92 and 2.61 times higher than that of the original KCF algorithm, respectively. Moreover, the proposed tracker handles occlusion better than many state-of-the-art long-term tracking methods while running at 60 frames per second.

Keywords: Correlation filter, long-term tracking, random fern, real-time tracking.

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4169 Loss Function Optimization for CNN-Based Fingerprint Anti-Spoofing

Authors: Yehjune Heo

Abstract:

As biometric systems become widely deployed, the security of identification systems can be easily attacked by various spoof materials. This paper contributes to finding a reliable and practical anti-spoofing method using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) based on the types of loss functions and optimizers. The types of CNNs used in this paper include AlexNet, VGGNet, and ResNet. By using various loss functions including Cross-Entropy, Center Loss, Cosine Proximity, and Hinge Loss, and various loss optimizers which include Adam, SGD, RMSProp, Adadelta, Adagrad, and Nadam, we obtained significant performance changes. We realize that choosing the correct loss function for each model is crucial since different loss functions lead to different errors on the same evaluation. By using a subset of the Livdet 2017 database, we validate our approach to compare the generalization power. It is important to note that we use a subset of LiveDet and the database is the same across all training and testing for each model. This way, we can compare the performance, in terms of generalization, for the unseen data across all different models. The best CNN (AlexNet) with the appropriate loss function and optimizers result in more than 3% of performance gain over the other CNN models with the default loss function and optimizer. In addition to the highest generalization performance, this paper also contains the models with high accuracy associated with parameters and mean average error rates to find the model that consumes the least memory and computation time for training and testing. Although AlexNet has less complexity over other CNN models, it is proven to be very efficient. For practical anti-spoofing systems, the deployed version should use a small amount of memory and should run very fast with high anti-spoofing performance. For our deployed version on smartphones, additional processing steps, such as quantization and pruning algorithms, have been applied in our final model.

Keywords: Anti-spoofing, CNN, fingerprint recognition, loss function, optimizer.

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4168 Generative Adversarial Network Based Fingerprint Anti-Spoofing Limitations

Authors: Yehjune Heo

Abstract:

Fingerprint Anti-Spoofing approaches have been actively developed and applied in real-world applications. One of the main problems for Fingerprint Anti-Spoofing is not robust to unseen samples, especially in real-world scenarios. A possible solution will be to generate artificial, but realistic fingerprint samples and use them for training in order to achieve good generalization. This paper contains experimental and comparative results with currently popular GAN based methods and uses realistic synthesis of fingerprints in training in order to increase the performance. Among various GAN models, the most popular StyleGAN is used for the experiments. The CNN models were first trained with the dataset that did not contain generated fake images and the accuracy along with the mean average error rate were recorded. Then, the fake generated images (fake images of live fingerprints and fake images of spoof fingerprints) were each combined with the original images (real images of live fingerprints and real images of spoof fingerprints), and various CNN models were trained. The best performances for each CNN model, trained with the dataset of generated fake images and each time the accuracy and the mean average error rate, were recorded. We observe that current GAN based approaches need significant improvements for the Anti-Spoofing performance, although the overall quality of the synthesized fingerprints seems to be reasonable. We include the analysis of this performance degradation, especially with a small number of samples. In addition, we suggest several approaches towards improved generalization with a small number of samples, by focusing on what GAN based approaches should learn and should not learn.

Keywords: Anti-spoofing, CNN, fingerprint recognition, GAN.

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4167 A Review and Comparative Analysis on Cluster Ensemble Methods

Authors: S. Sarumathi, P. Ranjetha, C. Saraswathy, M. Vaishnavi, S. Geetha

Abstract:

Clustering is an unsupervised learning technique for aggregating data objects into meaningful classes so that intra cluster similarity is maximized and inter cluster similarity is minimized in data mining. However, no single clustering algorithm proves to be the most effective in producing the best result. As a result, a new challenging technique known as the cluster ensemble approach has blossomed in order to determine the solution to this problem. For the cluster analysis issue, this new technique is a successful approach. The cluster ensemble's main goal is to combine similar clustering solutions in a way that achieves the precision while also improving the quality of individual data clustering. Because of the massive and rapid creation of new approaches in the field of data mining, the ongoing interest in inventing novel algorithms necessitates a thorough examination of current techniques and future innovation. This paper presents a comparative analysis of various cluster ensemble approaches, including their methodologies, formal working process, and standard accuracy and error rates. As a result, the society of clustering practitioners will benefit from this exploratory and clear research, which will aid in determining the most appropriate solution to the problem at hand.

Keywords: Clustering, cluster ensemble methods, consensus function, data mining, unsupervised learning.

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4166 Comparative Analysis of Machine Learning Tools: A Review

Authors: S. Sarumathi, M. Vaishnavi, S. Geetha, P. Ranjetha

Abstract:

Machine learning is a new and exciting area of artificial intelligence nowadays. Machine learning is the most valuable, time, supervised, and cost-effective approach. It is not a narrow learning approach; it also includes a wide range of methods and techniques that can be applied to a wide range of complex realworld problems and time domains. Biological image classification, adaptive testing, computer vision, natural language processing, object detection, cancer detection, face recognition, handwriting recognition, speech recognition, and many other applications of machine learning are widely used in research, industry, and government. Every day, more data are generated, and conventional machine learning techniques are becoming obsolete as users move to distributed and real-time operations. By providing fundamental knowledge of machine learning tools and research opportunities in the field, the aim of this article is to serve as both a comprehensive overview and a guide. A diverse set of machine learning resources is demonstrated and contrasted with the key features in this survey.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, machine learning, deep learning, machine learning algorithms, machine learning tools.

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4165 A Real-Time Bayesian Decision-Support System for Predicting Suspect Vehicle’s Intended Target Using a Sparse Camera Network

Authors: Payam Mousavi, Andrew L. Stewart, Huiwen You, Aryeh F. G. Fayerman

Abstract:

We present a decision-support tool to assist an operator in the detection and tracking of a suspect vehicle traveling to an unknown target destination. Multiple data sources, such as traffic cameras, traffic information, weather, etc., are integrated and processed in real-time to infer a suspect’s intended destination chosen from a list of pre-determined high-value targets. Previously, we presented our work in the detection and tracking of vehicles using traffic and airborne cameras. Here, we focus on the fusion and processing of that information to predict a suspect’s behavior. The network of cameras is represented by a directional graph, where the edges correspond to direct road connections between the nodes and the edge weights are proportional to the average time it takes to travel from one node to another. For our experiments, we construct our graph based on the greater Los Angeles subset of the Caltrans’s “Performance Measurement System” (PeMS) dataset. We propose a Bayesian approach where a posterior probability for each target is continuously updated based on detections of the suspect in the live video feeds. Additionally, we introduce the concept of ‘soft interventions’, inspired by the field of Causal Inference. Soft interventions are herein defined as interventions that do not immediately interfere with the suspect’s movements; rather, a soft intervention may induce the suspect into making a new decision, ultimately making their intent more transparent. For example, a soft intervention could be temporarily closing a road a few blocks from the suspect’s current location, which may require the suspect to change their current course. The objective of these interventions is to gain the maximum amount of information about the suspect’s intent in the shortest possible time. Our system currently operates in a human-on-the-loop mode where at each step, a set of recommendations are presented to the operator to aid in decision-making. In principle, the system could operate autonomously, only prompting the operator for critical decisions, allowing the system to significantly scale up to larger areas and multiple suspects. Once the intended target is identified with sufficient confidence, the vehicle is reported to the authorities to take further action. Other recommendations include a selection of road closures, i.e., soft interventions, or to continue monitoring. We evaluate the performance of the proposed system using simulated scenarios where the suspect, starting at random locations, takes a noisy shortest path to their intended target. In all scenarios, the suspect’s intended target is unknown to our system. The decision thresholds are selected to maximize the chances of determining the suspect’s intended target in the minimum amount of time and with the smallest number of interventions. We conclude by discussing the limitations of our current approach to motivate a machine learning approach, based on reinforcement learning in order to relax some of the current limiting assumptions.

Keywords: Autonomous surveillance, Bayesian reasoning, decision-support, interventions, patterns-of-life, predictive analytics, predictive insights.

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