Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 362

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Architectural and Environmental Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

362 Analysis of the Fire Hazard Posed by Petrol Stations in Stellenbosch and the Degree of Risk Acknowledgement in Land-Use Planning

Authors: K. Qonono


Despite the significance and economic benefits of petrol stations in South Africa, these still pose a huge risk of fire and explosion threatening public safety. This research paper examines the extent to which land-use planning in Stellenbosch, South Africa, considers the fire risk posed by petrol stations and the implications for public safety as well as preparedness for large fires or explosions. To achieve this, the research identified the land-use types around petrol stations in Stellenbosch and determined the extent to which their locations comply with the local, national, and international land-use planning regulations. A mixed research method consisting of the collection and analysis of geospatial data and qualitative data was applied, where petrol stations within a six-kilometre radius of Stellenbosch’s town centre were utilised as study sites. The research examined the risk of fires/explosions at these petrol stations. The research investigated Stellenbosch Municipality’s institutional preparedness to respond in the event of a fire/explosion at these petrol stations. The research observed that siting of petrol stations does not comply with local, national, and international good practices, thus exposing the surrounding developments to fires and explosions. Land-use planning practice does not consider hazards created by petrol stations. Despite the potential for major fires at petrol stations, Stellenbosch Municipality’s level of preparedness to respond to petrol station fires appears low due to the prioritisation of more frequent events.

Keywords: Petrol stations, technological hazard, DRR, land-use planning, risk analysis.

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361 The Discovery and Application of Perspective Representation in Modern Italy

Authors: Matthias Stange


In the early modern period, a different image of man began to prevail in Europe. The focus was on the self-determined human being and his abilities. At first, these developments could be seen in Italian painting and architecture, which again oriented itself to the concepts and forms of antiquity. For example, through the discovery of perspective representation by Brunelleschi or later the orthogonal projection by Alberti, after the ancient knowledge of optics had been forgotten in the Middle Ages. The understanding of reality in the Middle Ages was not focused on the sensually perceptible world, but was determined by ecclesiastical dogmas. The empirical part of this study examines the rediscovery and development of perspective. With the paradigm of antiquity, the figure of the architect was also recognised again - the cultural man trained theoretically and practically in numerous subjects, as Vitruvius describes him. In this context, the role of the architect, the influence on the painting of the Quattrocento as well as the influence on architectural representation in the Baroque period are examined. Baroque is commonly associated with the idea of illusionistic appearance as opposed to the tangible reality presented in the Renaissance. The study has shown that the central perspective projection developed by Filippo Brunelleschi enabled another understanding of seeing and the dissemination of painted images. Brunelleschi's development made it possible to understand the sight of nature as a reflection of what is presented to the viewer's eye. Alberti later shortened Brunelleschi's central perspective representation for practical use in painting. In early modern Italian architecture and painting, these developments apparently supported each other. The pictorial representation of architecture initially served the development of an art form before it became established in building practice itself.

Keywords: Alberti, Brunelleschi, Central perspective projection, Orthogonal projection, Quattrocento, Baroque.

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360 Accuracy of Peak Demand Estimates for Office Buildings Using eQUEST

Authors: Mahdiyeh Zafaranchi, Ethan S. Cantor, William T. Riddell, Jess W. Everett


The New Jersey Department of Military and Veteran’s Affairs (NJ DMAVA) operates over 50 facilities throughout the state of New Jersey, US. NJ DMAVA is under a mandate to move toward decarbonization, which will eventually include eliminating the use of natural gas and other fossil fuels for heating. At the same time, the organization requires increased resiliency regarding electric grid disruption. These competing goals necessitate adopting the use of on-site renewables such as photovoltaic and geothermal power, as well as implementing power control strategies through microgrids. Planning for these changes requires a detailed understanding of current and future electricity use on yearly, monthly, and shorter time scales, as well as a breakdown of consumption by heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment. This paper discusses case studies of two buildings that were simulated using the QUick Energy Simulation Tool (eQUEST). Both buildings use electricity from the grid and photovoltaics. One building also uses natural gas. While electricity use data are available in hourly intervals and natural gas data are available in monthly intervals, the simulations were developed using monthly and yearly totals. This approach was chosen to reflect the information available for most NJ DMAVA facilities. Once completed, simulation results are compared to metrics recommended by several organizations to validate energy use simulations. In addition to yearly and monthly totals, the simulated peak demands are compared to actual monthly peak demand values. The simulations resulted in monthly peak demand values that were within 30% of the measured values. These benchmarks will help to assess future energy planning efforts for NJ DMAVA.

Keywords: Building Energy Modeling, eQUEST, peak demand, smart meters.

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359 Digital Twins: Towards an Overarching Framework for the Built Environment

Authors: Astrid Bagireanu, Julio Bros-Williamson, Mila Duncheva, John Currie


Digital Twins (DTs) have entered the built environment from more established industries like aviation and manufacturing, although there has never been a common goal for utilising DTs at scale. Their assimilation into the built environment lacked its very own handover documentation: how should DTs be implemented into a project and what responsibilities should each project stakeholder hold in the realisation of a DT vision. What is needed is an approach to translate these requirements into actionable DT dimensions. This paper presents a foundation for an overarching framework specific to the built environment. For the purposes of this research, the project timeline is established by referencing the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) Plan of Work from 2020, providing a foundation for delineating project stages. The RIBA Plan of Work consists of eight stages designed to inform on the definition, briefing, design, coordination, construction, handover, and use of a built asset. Similar project stages are utilised in other countries; therefore, the recommendations from the interviews presented in this paper are applicable internationally. Simultaneously, there is not a single mainstream software resource that leverages DT abilities. This ambiguity meets an unparalleled ambition from governments and industries worldwide to achieve a national grid of interconnected DTs. For the construction industry to access these benefits, it necessitates a defined starting point. This research aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the potential applications and ramifications of DT in the context of the built environment. This paper is an integral part of a larger research aimed at developing a conceptual framework for the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) sector following a conventional project timeline. Therefore, this paper plays a pivotal role in providing practical insights and a tangible foundation for developing a stage-by-stage approach to assimilate the potential of DT within the built environment. First, the research focuses on a review of relevant literature, albeit acknowledging the inherent constraint of limited sources available. Secondly, a qualitative study compiling the views of 14 DT experts is presented, concluding with an inductive analysis of the interview findings - ultimately highlighting the barriers and strengths of DT in the context of framework development. As parallel developments aim to progress net-zero-centred design and improve project efficiencies across the built environment, the limited resources available to support DTs should be leveraged to propel the industry to reach its digitalisation era, in which AEC stakeholders have a fundamental role in understanding this, from the earliest stages of a project.

Keywords: Digital twins, decision making, design, net-zero, built environment.

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358 Factors Influencing the Use of Green Building Practices in the South African Residential Apartment Construction

Authors: Mongezi Nene, Emma Ayesu-Koranteng, Christopher Amoah, Ayo Adeniran


Although its use has been criticised over the years as being unencouraging, the green building concept is quickly overtaking other concepts, particularly in the construction of commercial properties. The goal of the study is to identify the variables influencing the use of green building practices when developing residential structures. A qualitative methodology, using interviews with semi-structured open-ended questions to 35 property practitioners operating residential apartments in Bloemfontein, South Africa, was used to collect primary data which were analysed using thematic content analysis. The findings show that while respondents have a good understanding of green building principles, they are not being used in the construction of residential buildings in South Africa due to issues with green building approval procedures, the potential for tenant rent increases, the cost of materials, technical issues, contractual issues, and a lack of awareness, among others. This paper recommends among others an urgent need to implement measures by stakeholders towards enhancing the adoption of green building concepts in the construction of residential buildings as well as incentivising its construction through lowered property rates.

Keywords: Green building, residential apartments, construction, South Africa.

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357 Investigation of the Space in Response to the Conditions Caused by the Pandemics and Presenting Five-Scale Design Guidelines to Adapt and Prepare to Face the Pandemics

Authors: Sara Ramezanzadeh, Nashid Nabian


Historically, pandemics in different periods have caused compulsory changes in human life. In the case of COVID-19, according to the limitations and established care instructions, spatial alignment with the conditions is important. Following the outbreak of COVID-19, the question raised in this study is how to do spatial design in five scales, namely object, space, architecture, city, and infrastructure, in response to the consequences created in the realms under study. From the beginning of the pandemic until now, some changes in the spatial realm have been created spontaneously or by space users. These transformations have been mostly applied in modifiable parts such as furniture arrangement, especially in work-related spaces. To implement other comprehensive requirements, flexibility and adaptation of space design to the conditions resulting from the pandemics are needed during and after the outbreak. Studying the effects of pandemics from the past to the present, this research covers eight major realms, including three categories of ramifications, solutions, and paradigm shifts, and analytical conclusions about the solutions that have been created in response to them. Finally, by the consideration of epidemiology as a modern discipline influencing the design, spatial solutions in the five scales mentioned (in response to the effects of the eight realms for spatial adaptation in the face of pandemics and their following conditions) are presented as a series of guidelines. Due to the unpredictability of possible pandemics in the future, the possibility of changing and updating the provided guidelines is considered.

Keywords: Pandemics, COVID-19, spatial design, ramifications, paradigm shifts, guidelines.

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356 The Emergence of Construction Mafia in South Africa: The Implication on the Construction Industry

Authors: Thandokazi Nyangiwe, Christopher Amoah, Charles P. Mukumba


The South African construction sector is threatened by emerging black business forums called construction mafias. The emergence of the construction mafia has culminated in the disruptions and abandonment of construction sites resulting in the loss of jobs for construction workers. The paper examines the origin of construction mafias and their impact on the construction sector, including the potential ways to cope with their operations. A qualitative research approach was adopted for this study using open-ended interview questions to gather information from 30 key construction industry stakeholders, including contractors, subcontractors, consultants, and the construction project communities. Content and thematic analyses were used to analyses the data collected. The findings suggest that most participants do not fully understand the existence and operations of construction mafias in the construction industry. Construction mafias claim to be part of the local business forums. They disrupt construction projects and demand a certain amount, usually 30% of the construction value. Construction mafias frequently resort to intimidation and violence if their demands are unmet. Their operations have resulted in delayed completion of construction projects, abandonment of projects, and loss of income for the contractor and jobs for the construction workers. The interviews were limited to construction stakeholders. Because of the nature of the mafias’ operations, they could not be accessed for interviews for fear of being identified because of the connotation attached to their role as construction mafias. Construction project owners face disruptions of projects resulting in loss of equipment, materials, and income. Therefore, there is a need to sensitize the construction stakeholders in the construction industry regarding the existence and operations of the construction mafia and the implications on construction project performance and delivery. The findings will give insight into the operations of the construction mafias in the South African construction industry, which has caused disruptions in construction project sites. Stakeholders must find solutions to address the construction mafias’ disruptive actions on construction projects. The study presents an initial inquiry that will come up with how to manage and cope with the growing operations of construction mafias in the South African construction industry.

Keywords: Black business forums, construction mafia, South African construction industry.

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355 A Methodology for Creating Energy Sustainability in an Enterprise

Authors: John Lamb, Robert Epstein, Vasundhara L. Bhupathi, Sanjeev Kumar Marimekala


As we enter the new era of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and cloud computing, we mostly rely on the machine and natural language processing capabilities of AI, and energy efficient hardware and software devices in almost every industry sector. In these industry sectors, much emphasis is on developing new and innovative methods for producing and conserving energy and to sustain the depletion of natural resources. The core pillars of sustainability are Economic, Environmental, and Social, which are also informally referred to as 3 P's (People, Planet and Profits). The 3 P's play a vital role in creating a core sustainability model in the enterprise. Natural resources are continually being depleted, so there is more focus and growing demand for renewable energy. With this growing demand there is also a growing concern in many industries on how to reduce carbon emission and conserve natural resources while adopting sustainability in the corporate business models and policies. In our paper, we would like to discuss the driving forces such as climate changes, natural disasters, pandemic, disruptive technologies, corporate policies, scaled business models and emerging social media and AI platforms that influence the 3 main pillars of sustainability (3P’s). Through this paper, we would like to bring an overall perspective on enterprise strategies and the primary focus on bringing cultural shifts in adapting energy efficient operational models. Overall, many industries across the globe are incorporating core sustainability principles such as reducing energy costs, reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, reducing waste and increase recycling, adopting advanced monitoring and metering infrastructure, reducing server footprint and compute resources (shared IT services, cloud computing and application modernization) with the vision for a sustainable environment.

Keywords: AI, cloud computing, machine learning, social media platform.

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354 Optimal Construction Using Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Methods

Authors: Masood Karamoozian, Zhang Hong


The necessity and complexity of the decision-making process and the interference of the various factors to make decisions and consider all the relevant factors in a problem are very obvious nowadays. Hence, researchers show their interest in multi-criteria decision-making methods. In this research, the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Simple Additive Weighting (SAW), and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) methods of multi-criteria decision-making have been used to solve the problem of optimal construction systems. Systems being evaluated in this problem include; Light Steel Frames (LSF), a case study of designs by Zhang Hong studio in the Southeast University of Nanjing, Insulating Concrete Form (ICF), Ordinary Construction System (OCS), and Precast Concrete System (PRCS) as another case study designs in Zhang Hong studio in the Southeast University of Nanjing. Crowdsourcing was done by using a questionnaire at the sample level (200 people). Questionnaires were distributed among experts in university centers and conferences. According to the results of the research, the use of different methods of decision-making led to relatively the same results. In this way, with the use of all three multi-criteria decision-making methods mentioned above, the PRCS was in the first rank, and the LSF system ranked second. Also, the PRCS, in terms of performance standards and economics, was ranked first, and the LSF system was allocated the first rank in terms of environmental standards.

Keywords: Multi-criteria decision making, AHP, SAW, TOPSIS.

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353 Culture Sustainability in Contemporary Vernacular Architecture: Case Study of Muscat International Airport

Authors: S. Hegazy


Culture sustainability, which reflects a deep respect for people and history, is a cause of concern in contemporary architecture. Adopting ultramodern architecture styles was initiated in the 20th century by a plurality of states worldwide. Only a few countries, including Oman, realized that fashionable architectural designs ignore cultural values, identity, the context of its environment, economic perspective, and social performance. Stirring the Sultanate of Oman from being a listless and closed community to a modern country started in the year 1970. Despite unprecedented development in all aspects of Omani people's life, the leadership and the public had the capability to adjust to the changing global challenges without compromising social values and identity. This research provides a close analysis of one of the recent examples of contemporary vernacular architecture in the Sultanate of Oman, as a case study, Oman International Airport. The airport gained an international appreciation for its Omani-themed architecture, distinguished traveler experience, and advanced technology. Accordingly, it was selected by the World Travel Awards as the Best Tourism Development Project in the Middle East only four weeks afterward after starting its operation. This paper aims to transfer this successful design approach of integrating the latest trends in technology, systems, eco-friendly aspects, and materials with the traditional Omani architectural features, which reflects symbiotic harmony of the community, individuals, and environment to other countries, designers, researchers, and students. In addition, the paper aims to encourage architects and teachers to take responsibility for valorizing-built heritage as a source of inspiration for modern architecture, which could be considered as an added value. The work depends on reviewing the relevant literature, a case study, interviews with two architects who were involved in the project’s site work, and one current high-ranking employee in the airport besides data analysis and conclusion.

Keywords: Contemporary vernacular architecture, culture sustainability, Oman international airport, current Omani architecture type.

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352 Crowdfunding for Saudi Arabia Green Projects

Authors: Saleh Komies, Mona Alharbi, Razan Alhayyani, Mozah Almulhim, Roseanne Khawaja, Ahmed Alradhi


One of the proposed solutions that face some challenges is encouraging sustainable energy consumption across Saudi Arabia through crowdfunding platforms. To address these challenges, we need to determine the level of awareness of crowdfunding and green projects, as well as the preferences and willingness of Saudis to utilize crowdfunding as an alternative funding source for green projects in Saudi Arabia. In this study, we aim to determine the influence of environmental awareness and concern on the propensity to crowdfund green projects. The survey is being conducted as part of environmental initiatives to assess public perceptions and opinions on crowdfunding green projects in Saudi Arabia. A total of 450 responses to an online questionnaire distributed via convenience and snowball sampling were utilized for data analysis. The survey reveals that Saudis have a low understanding of crowdfunding concepts and a relatively high understanding of implementing green projects. The public is interested in crowdfunding green projects if there is a return on investment.

Keywords: Crowdfunding, green projects, renewable energy, Saudi Arabia, solar farms, wind resources.

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351 Defining a Pathway to Zero Energy Building: A Case Study on Retrofitting an Old Office Building into a Net Zero Energy Building for Hot-Humid Climate

Authors: Kwame B. O. Amoah


This paper focuses on retrofitting an old existing office building to a net-zero energy building (NZEB). An existing small office building in Melbourne, Florida, was chosen as a case study to integrate state-of-the-art design strategies and energy-efficient building systems to improve building performance and reduce energy consumption. The study aimed to explore possible ways to maximize energy savings and renewable energy generation sources to cover the building's remaining energy needs necessary to achieve net-zero energy goals. A series of retrofit options were reviewed and adopted with some significant additional decision considerations. Detailed processes and considerations leading to zero energy are well documented in this study, with lessons learned adequately outlined. Based on building energy simulations, multiple design considerations were investigated, such as emerging state-of-the-art technologies, material selection, improvements to the building envelope, optimization of the HVAC, lighting systems, and occupancy loads analysis, as well as the application of renewable energy sources. The comparative analysis of simulation results was used to determine how specific techniques led to energy saving and cost reductions. The research results indicate that this small office building can meet net-zero energy use after appropriate design manipulations and renewable energy sources.

Keywords: Energy consumption, building energy analysis, energy retrofits, energy-efficiency.

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350 The Future of Hospitals: A Systematic Review in the Field of Architectural Design with a Disruptive Research and Development Approach

Authors: María Araya Léon, Ainoa Abella, Aura Murillo, Ricardo Guasch, Laura Clèries


This article aims to examine scientific theory framed within the term hospitals of the future from a multidisciplinary and cross-sectional perspective. To understand the connection that the various cross-sectional areas, we studied have with architectural spaces and to determine the future outlook of the works examined and how they can be classified into the categories of need/solution, evolution/revolution, collective/individual, and preventive/corrective. The changes currently taking place within the context of healthcare demonstrate how important these projects are and the need for companies to face future changes. A systematic review has been carried out focused on what will the hospitals of the future be like in relation to the elements that form part of their use, design, and architectural space experience, using the WOS database from 2016 to 2019. The large number of works about sensoring & big data and the scarce amount related to the area of materials is worth highlighting. Furthermore, no growth concerning future issues is envisaged over time. Regarding classifications, the articles we reviewed address evolutionary and collective solutions more, and in terms of preventive and corrective solutions, they were found at a similar level. Although our research focused on the future of hospitals, there is little evidence representing this approach. We also detected that, given the relevance of the research on how the built environment influences human health and well-being, these studies should be promoted within the context of healthcare. This article allows to find evidence on the future perspective from within the domain of hospital architecture, in order to create bridges between the productive sector of architecture and scientific theory. This will make it possible to detect R&D opportunities in each analyzed cross-section.

Keywords: Hospitals, trends, architectural space, disruptive approach.

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349 Strategic Redesign of Public Spaces with a Sustainable Approach: Case Study of Parque Huancavilca, Guayaquil

Authors: Juan Carlos Briones Macias


Currently, the Huancavilca City Park in Guayaquil is an abandoned public space that is discovering a growing problem of insecurity, where various problems have been perceived, such as the lack of green areas, deteriorating furniture, insufficient lighting, the use of inadequate cladding materials and very sunny areas due to the lack of planning in the design of green areas. The objective of this scientific article is to redesign Huancavilca Park through public space design strategies for more attractive and comfortable areas, becoming a point of interaction in a safe and accessible way. A mixed methodology (qualitative and quantitative) was applied, obtaining information based on surveys, interviews, field observations, and systematizing the data in the traditional weighting of the structuring aspects of the park. The results were obtained from the methodological design scheme of iterative analysis of public spaces by Jan Güell. It is concluded that the use of urban strategies in the structuring elements of the park, such as vegetation, furniture, generating new activities, and security interventions, will specifically solve all the problems of the Huancavilca Park tested in a Pareto 80/20 Diagram.

Keywords: Public space, green areas, vegetation, street furniture, urban analysis.

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348 An Investigation on Climate Responsive Design Strategies of Apartment Buildings in Athens of the Period 1920-1960s

Authors: E. Alexandrou, A. Chronopoulou


This paper thoroughly investigates residential buildings of the period 1920-1960 in Athens and evaluates their bioclimatic response and energy performance. A methodology adapted to the specific context of the city is proposed and applied in order to assess and extract results related to the climate analysis of the city of Athens, the general/architectural design and construction characteristics of the apartment buildings constructed during the period 1920-1960, the bioclimatic strategies applied on them, and the achieved thermal comfort based on questionnaires answered by their users. The results of the current study indicate that the residential architecture of that period in the city of Athens is adapted to an extent to the local climate with various climate responsive strategies. As an outcome of the analysis, the most frequently applied strategies depending on the period of construction are presented. For this reason, the examined period is divided into 3 sub – periods: 1st period, 1920s-1930s (late neoclassicism & eclecticism), 2nd period, 1930s-1940s (modernism), 3rd period, 1940s-1960s (postwar modernism).

Keywords: Athens, climatic design strategies, residential buildings, middle war and post war architecture, thermal comfort.

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347 The Shifting Urban Role of Buildings’ Facades: A Diachronic Analysis of El Korba

Authors: Virginia Bassily, Sherif Goubran


In heritage conservation and revival, much of the focus is placed on the techniques and methods to preserve, restore, and revive heritage structures and locations. However, more attention needs to be drawn to how deterioration happens and its effect on the area’s character and socio-economic status. To this end, this research aims to examine the decline and its effect in the El Korba area in Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt. El Korba was designed with a unique architectural character to stimulate social and economic life. However, the area has been on a path of physical deterioration that is corroding the social life on its streets. This research uses diachronic analysis in Ibrahim El-Lakkani Boulevard of El Korba based on a previously developed framework that connects buildings’ architectural features to the degree of social interaction in the street to document the changes that the building deterioration could have caused. Architectural features of the street level during both the original state (1906) and the current state (2021) are broken down and categorized in those six parameters to understand their decline or improvement over time. We find that the parameters that have decreased over the years and caused the deterioration are complexity and architectural character, permeability, territoriality and personalization, and physical comfort.  Based on these findings, revival projects can focus on physical parameters that create synergistic benefits by preserving and renewing heritage locations and revitalizing their socio-economic potential.

Keywords: Architectural character, heritage building conservation, enclosure, ground-floor use, El Korba, visual and physical permeability, personalization, physical comfort, social life, territoriality.

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346 A Quantitative Model for Determining the Area of the “Core and Structural System Elements” of Tall Office Buildings

Authors: Görkem Arslan Kılınç


Due to the high construction, operation, and maintenance costs of tall buildings, quantification of the area in the plan layout which provides a financial return is an important design criterion. The area of the “core and the structural system elements” does not provide financial return but must exist in the plan layout. Some characteristic items of tall office buildings affect the size of these areas. From this point of view, 15 tall office buildings were systematically investigated. The typical office floor plans of these buildings were re-produced digitally. The area of the “core and the structural system elements” in each building and the characteristic items of each building were calculated. These characteristic items are the size of the long and short plan edge, plan length/width ratio, size of the core long and short edge, core length/width ratio, core area, slenderness, building height, number of floors, and floor height. These items were analyzed by correlation and regression analyses. Results of this paper put forward that; characteristic items which affect the area of "core and structural system elements" are plan long and short edge size, core short edge size, building height, and the number of floors. A one-unit increase in plan short side size increases the area of the "core and structural system elements" in the plan by 12,378 m2. An increase in core short edge size increases the area of the core and structural system elements in the plan by 25,650 m2. Subsequent studies can be conducted by expanding the sample of the study and considering the geographical location of the building.

Keywords: Core area, correlation analysis, floor area, regression analysis, space efficiency, tall office buildings.

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345 Producing Outdoor Design Conditions Based on the Dependency between Meteorological Elements: Copula Approach

Authors: Zhichao Jiao, Craig Farnham, Jihui Yuan, Kazuo Emura


It is common to use the outdoor design weather data to select the air-conditioning capacity in the building design stage. The meteorological elements of outdoor design weather data are usually selected based on their excess frequency separately while the dependency between the elements is not well considered. It means that the simultaneous occurrence probability of these elements is smaller than the original excess frequency which may cause an overestimation of selecting air-conditioning capacity. Therefore, the copula approach which can capture the dependency between multivariate data was used to model the joint distributions of the meteorological elements, like air temperature and global solar radiation. We suggest a method based on the specific simultaneous occurrence probability of these two elements of selecting more credible outdoor design conditions. The hourly weather data at 12 noon from 2001 to 2010 in Tokyo, Japan are used to analyze the dependency structure and joint distribution, the Gaussian copula represents the dependence of data best. According to calculating the air temperature and global solar radiation in specific simultaneous occurrence probability and the common exceeding, the results show that both the air temperature and global solar radiation based on simultaneous occurrence probability are lower than these based on the conventional method in the same probability.

Keywords: Copula approach, Design weather database, energy conservation, HVAC.

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344 Research on Traditional Rammed Earth Houses in Southern Zhejiang, China: Based on the Theory of Embeddedness

Authors: Han Wu, Jie Wang


Zhejiang’s special geographical environment has created characteristic mountain dwellings with climate adaptability. Among them, the terrain of southern Zhejiang is dominated by mountainous and hilly landforms, and its traditional dwellings have distinctive characteristics. They are often adapted to local conditions and laid out in accordance with the mountains. In order to block the severe winter weather conditions, local traditional building materials such as rammed earth are mostly used. However, with the development of urbanization, traditional villages have undergone large-scale changes, gradually losing their original uniqueness. In order to solve this problem, this paper takes traditional villages around Baishanzu National Park in Zhejiang as an example and selects nine typical villages in Jingning County and Longquan, respectively. Based on field investigations, this paper extracts the environmental adaptability of local traditional rammed earth houses from the perspective of “geographical embeddedness”. And then combined with case analysis, the paper discusses the translation and development of its traditional architectural methods in contemporary rammed earth buildings in southern Zhejiang.

Keywords: Rammed earth building, lighting, ventilation, geographical embeddedness, modernization translation.

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343 Factors in a Sustainability Assessment of New Types of Closed Cavity Façades

Authors: Zoran Veršić, Josip Galić, Marin Binički, Lucija Stepinac


With the current increase in CO2 emissions and global warming, the sustainability of both existing and new solutions must be assessed on a wide scale. As the implementation of closed cavity façades (CCF) is on the rise, various factors must be included in the analysis of new types of CCF. This paper aims to cover the relevant factors included in the sustainability assessment of new types of CCF. Several mathematical models are being used to describe the physical behavior of CCF. Depending on the type of CCF, they cover the main factors which affect the durability of the façade: thermal behavior of various elements in the façade, stress and deflection of the glass panels, pressure and the moisture control in the cavity. CCF itself represents a complex system in which all mentioned factors must be considered mutually. Still, the façade is only an envelope of a more complex system, the building. Choice of the façade dictates the heat loss and the heat gain, thermal comfort of inner space, natural lighting, and ventilation. Annual energy consumption for heating, cooling, lighting, and maintenance costs will present the operational advantages or disadvantages of the chosen façade system in economic and environmental aspects. Still, the only operational viewpoint is not all-inclusive. As the building codes constantly demand higher energy efficiency as well as transfer to renewable energy sources, the ratio of embodied and lifetime operational energy footprint of buildings is changing. With the drop in operational energy CO2 emissions, embodied energy emissions present a larger and larger share in the lifecycle emissions of the building. Taking all into account, the sustainability assessment of a façade, as well as other major building elements, should include all mentioned factors during the lifecycle of an element. The challenge of such an approach is a timescale. Depending on the climatic conditions on the building site, the expected lifetime of a glazed façade can exceed 25 years. In such a timespan, some of the factors can be estimated more precisely than the others. However, the ones depending on the socio-economic conditions are more likely to be harder to predict than the natural ones like the climatic load. This work recognizes and summarizes the relevant factors needed for the assessment of a new type of CCF, considering the entire lifetime of a façade element in an environmental aspect.

Keywords: Assessment, closed cavity façade, life cycle, sustainability.

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342 Revolution of IoT Development in Smartest City: Review of Smart City Development in Singapore and Hong Kong

Authors: Kwok Tak Kit


A smart city is an urban setting which effectively applies technology to enhance the benefits and provides solution to the shortcoming of urbanization for its citizens while the internet of things (loT) is to connect everything embedded with electronics, software, and sensors to the internet so as to enable them to collect and exchange data. Smart city development encompasses the development and application of IoT technology and prepares for the next generation of connectivity. The governments in the major developed cities and countries across the world already started the race to adopt the IoT technology to transform their cities into smart cities in coming few years. The development of smart city definitely can assist to tackle the problems which impede the quality of life of their citizens and the hindrance of the long-term challenges of sustainability and impacts from pollution. This paper is aims to outline the adoption of IoT in different key sectors in the Singapore and describe the revolution of IoT and its adoption in the smart city.

Keywords: Smart city, internet of things, sustainability, innovation.

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341 Sustainable Ecosystem of Regional Development, Infrastructure and Tourism in Major Countries and Cities in Asia

Authors: Kwok Tak Kit


In view of the global population is increasing; it is the prime concern of government and community to diversify the dense population to regional area and maintain a healthy and sustained economic growth. This paper is to outline the interaction of different attributes which critically affect regional development, infrastructure and tourism. This research not only focused on the relation and interaction of regional development and associated infrastructure but also provides a holistic study and review of the ecosystem of regional development, infrastructure and tourism development. In this study, we will review the three aspects development and their interaction in different cities in Asia. The finding will demonstrate how those factors affect the ecosystem and sustainability and provide some insight and material for further review and discussion.

Keywords: Regional development, infrastructure, sustainability, tourism.

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340 Study on the Influence of Cladding and Finishing Materials of Apartment Buildings on the Architectural Identity of Amman, Jordan

Authors: Asil Y. Zureigat, Ayat A. Oudat


Analyzing the old and bringing in the new is an ever-ongoing process in driving innovations in architecture. This paper looks at the excessive use of stone in apartment buildings in Amman and speculates on the existing possibilities of changing the cladding material. By looking at architectural exceptions present in Amman, the paper seeks to make the exception the rule, by adding new materials to the architectural library of Amman and in turn, project a series of possible new identities to the existing stone scape. Through distributing a survey, conducting a photographic study on exceptional buildings and shedding light on the historical narrative of stone, the paper highlights the ways in which new finishing materials such as plaster, paint and stone variations could be introduced in an attempt to project a new architectural identity to Amman.

Keywords: Architectural city identity, cladding materials, façade architecture, image of the city.

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339 Challenge of Net-Zero Carbon Construction and Measurement of Energy Consumption and Carbon Emission Reduction to Climate Change, Economy and Job Growths in Hong Kong and Australia

Authors: Kwok Tak Kit


Under the Paris Agreement 2015, the countries committed to address and combat the climate change and its negative impacts and agree to the target of reducing the global greenhouse gas (GHG) emission substantially by limiting the global temperature to 2 0C above the pre-industrial level in this century. An international submit named “26th United Nations Climate Conference” (COP26) was held in Glasgow in 2021 with all committed countries agreed to finalize the outstanding element in Paris Agreement and Glasgow Climate Pact to keep 1.5 0C. In this paper, we will focus on the basic approach of waste strategy, recycling policy, circular economy strategy, net-zero strategy and sustainability strategy and the importance of the elements which affect the carbon emission, waste generation and energy conservation will be further reviewed with recommendation for future study.

Keywords: Net-zero carbon, climate change, carbon emission, energy consumption.

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338 Effects of Asphalt Modification with Nanomaterials on Fresh and Stored Bitumen

Authors: Ahmed W. Oda, Ahmed El-Desouky, Hassan Mahdy, Osama M. Moussa


Nanomaterials have many applications in the field of asphalt paving. Two locally produced nanomaterials were used in the asphalt binder modification. The nanomaterials used are Nanosilica (NS), and Nanoclay (NC). The virgin asphalt binder was characterized by the conventional tests. The bitumen was modified by 3%, 5% and 7% of NS and NC. The penetration index (PI), and the retaining penetration (RP) was calculated based on the results of the penetration and the softening point tests. The results show that the RP becomes 95.35% at 5% NS modified bitumen and reaches 97.56% when bitumen is modified with 3% NC. The results show significant improvement in the bitumen stiffness when modified by the two types of nanomaterials, either fresh or aged (stored).

Keywords: Bitumen, modified bitumen, aged, stored, nanomaterials.

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337 Supplementary Cementitious Materials as Sustainable Partial Replacement for Cement in the Building Industry

Authors: Nwakaego C. Onyenokporo


Cement is the most extensively used construction material due to its strength and versatility of use. However, the production of Portland cement has become unsustainable because of high energy usage, reduction of natural non-renewable resources and emissions of greenhouse gases. Production of cement contributes to anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions annually. The growing concerns for the environment resulting from this constant and excessive use of cement has therefore raised the need for more green materials and technology. The use of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) is considered as one of the many alternatives suited to address this issue and serve as a sustainable partial replacement for cement in construction. This paper will examine the reuse of these waste materials to partially replace Portland cement. It provides a critical review of literature analysing various supplementary cementitious materials which are applicable in the building industry as either partial replacement for cement or aggregates. These materials have been grouped based on source into industrial wastes, domestic/general wastes, and agricultural wastes. The reuse of these waste materials could potentially reduce the negative effects of cement production and reduce landfills which constitute an environmental nuisance. This paper seeks to inform building industry professionals and researchers in the field on the applicability of these waste materials in construction.

Keywords: Cement, greenhouse gases, landfills, sustainable, waste materials.

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336 Identifying Chaotic Architecture: Origins of Nonlinear Design Theory

Authors: Mohammadsadegh Zanganehfar


Through the emergence of modern architecture, an aggressive desire for new design theories appeared through the works of architects and critics. The discourse of complexity and volumetric composition happened to be an important and controversial issue in the discipline of architecture which was discussed through a general point of view in Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown's book “Complexity and contradiction in architecture” in 1966, this paper attempts to identify chaos theory as a scientific model of complexity and its relation to architecture design theory by conducting a qualitative analysis and multidisciplinary critical approach through architecture and basic sciences resources. Accordingly, we identify chaotic architecture as the correlation between chaos theory and the discipline of architecture, and as an independent nonlinear design theory with specific characteristics and properties.

Keywords: Architecture complexity, chaos theory, fractals, nonlinear dynamic systems, nonlinear ontology.

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335 Spatial Indeterminacy: Destabilization of Dichotomies in Modern and Contemporary Architecture

Authors: Adrian Lo


Since the advent of modern architecture, notions of free plan and transparency have proliferated well into current trends. The movement’s notion of a spatially homogeneous, open and limitless ‘free plan’ contrasts with the spatially heterogeneous ‘series of rooms’ defined by load bearing walls, which in turn triggered new notions of transparency created by vast expanses of glazed walls. Similarly, transparency was also dichotomized as something that was physical or optical, as well as something conceptual, akin to spatial organization. As opposed to merely accepting the duality and possible incompatibility of these dichotomies, this paper seeks to ask how can space be both literally and phenomenally transparent, as well as exhibit both homogeneous and heterogeneous qualities? This paper explores this potential destabilization or blurring of spatial phenomena by dissecting the transparent layers and volumes of a series of selected case studies to investigate how different architects have devised strategies of spatial ambiguity and interpenetration. Projects by Peter Eisenman, Sou Fujimoto, and SANAA will be discussed and analyzed to show how the superimposition of geometries and spaces achieve different conditions of layering, transparency, and interstitiality. Their particular buildings will be explored to reveal various innovative kinds of spatial interpenetration produced through the articulate relations of the elements of architecture, which challenge conventional perceptions of interior and exterior whereby visual homogeneity blurs with spatial heterogeneity. The results show how spatial conceptions such as interpenetration and transparency have the ability to subvert not only inside-outside dialectics, but could also produce multiple degrees of interiority within complex and indeterminate spatial dimensions in constant flux as well as present alternative forms of social interaction.

Keywords: interpenetration, literal and phenomenal transparency, spatial heterogeneity, visual homogeneity

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334 Architectural Acoustic Modeling for Predicting Reverberation Time in Room Acoustic Design Using Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis

Authors: C. Ardil


This paper presents architectural acoustic modeling to estimate reverberation time in room acoustic design using multiple criteria decision making analysis. First, fundamental decision criteria were determined to evaluate the reverberation time in the room acoustic design problem. Then, the proposed model was applied to a practical decision problem to evaluate and select the optimal room acoustic design model. Finally, the optimal acoustic design of the rooms was analyzed and ranked using a multiple criteria decision making analysis method.

Keywords: Architectural acoustics, room acoustics, architectural acoustic modeling, reverberation time, room acoustic design, multiple criteria decision making analysis, decision analysis, MCDMA

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333 Proposals for the Thermal Regulation of Buildings in Algeria: An Energy Label for Social Housing

Authors: Marco Morini, Nicolandrea Calabrese, Dario Chello


Despite the international commitment of Algeria towards the development of energy efficiency and renewable energy in the country, the internal energy demand has been continuously growing during the last decade due to the substantial increase of population and of living conditions, which in turn has led to an unprecedented expansion of the residential building sector. The RTB (Thermal Building Regulation) is the technical document that establishes the calculation framework for the thermal performance of buildings in Algeria, setting up minimum obligatory targets for the thermal performance of new buildings. An update of this regulation is due in the coming years and this paper discusses some proposals in this regard, with the aim to improve the energy efficiency of the building sector, particularly with regard to social housing. In particular, it proposes a methodology for drafting an energy performance label of new Algerian residential buildings, moving from the results of the thermal compliance verification and sizing of technical systems as defined in the RTB. Such an energy performance label – whose calculation method is briefly described in the paper – aims to raise citizens' awareness of the benefits of energy efficiency. It can represent the first step in a process of integrating technical installations into the calculation of the energy performance of buildings in Algeria.

Keywords: building, energy certification, energy efficiency, social housing, international cooperation, Mediterranean Region

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