Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 63

Search results for: Pooja Sengupta

63 Regression for Doubly Inflated Multivariate Poisson Distributions

Authors: Ishapathik Das, Sumen Sen, N. Rao Chaganty, Pooja Sengupta

Abstract:

Dependent multivariate count data occur in several research studies. These data can be modeled by a multivariate Poisson or Negative binomial distribution constructed using copulas. However, when some of the counts are inflated, that is, the number of observations in some cells are much larger than other cells, then the copula based multivariate Poisson (or Negative binomial) distribution may not fit well and it is not an appropriate statistical model for the data. There is a need to modify or adjust the multivariate distribution to account for the inflated frequencies. In this article, we consider the situation where the frequencies of two cells are higher compared to the other cells, and develop a doubly inflated multivariate Poisson distribution function using multivariate Gaussian copula. We also discuss procedures for regression on covariates for the doubly inflated multivariate count data. For illustrating the proposed methodologies, we present a real data containing bivariate count observations with inflations in two cells. Several models and linear predictors with log link functions are considered, and we discuss maximum likelihood estimation to estimate unknown parameters of the models.

Keywords: copula, Gaussian copula, multivariate distributions, inflated distributios

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62 Microbial Fuel Cells in Waste Water Treatment and Electricity Generation

Authors: Rajalaxmi N., Padma Bhat, Pooja Garag, Pooja N. M., V. S. Hombalimath

Abstract:

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is the advancement of science that aims at utilizing the oxidizing potential of bacteria for wastewater treatment and production of bio-hydrogen and bio-electricity. Salt-bridge is the economic alternative to highly priced proton-exchange membrane in the construction of a microbial fuel cell. This paper studies the electricity generating capacity of E.coli and Clostridium sporogenes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Unlike most of MFC research, this targets the long term goals of renewable energy production and wastewater treatment. In present study the feasibility and potential of bioelectricity production from different wastewater was observed. Different wastewater was primarily treated which were confirmed by the COD tests which showed reduction of COD. We observe that the electricity production of MFCs decreases almost linearly after 120 hrs. The sewage wastewater containing Clostridium sporogenes showed bioelectricity production up to 188mV with COD removal of 60.52%. Sewage wastewater efficiently produces bioelectricity and this also helpful to reduce wastewater pollution load.

Keywords: microbial fuel cell, bioelectricity, wastewater, salt bridge, COD

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61 Gestalt in Music and Brain: A Non-Linear Chaos Based Study with Detrended/Adaptive Fractal Analysis

Authors: Shankha Sanyal, Archi Banerjee, Sayan Biswas, Sourya Sengupta, Sayan Nag, Ranjan Sengupta, Dipak Ghosh

Abstract:

The term ‘gestalt’ has been widely used in the field of psychology which defined the perception of human mind to group any object not in part but as a 'unified' whole. Music, in general, is polyphonic - i.e. a combination of a number of pure tones (frequencies) mixed together in a manner that sounds harmonious. The study of human brain response due to different frequency groups of the acoustic signal can give us an excellent insight regarding the neural and functional architecture of brain functions. Hence, the study of music cognition using neuro-biosensors is becoming a rapidly emerging field of research. In this work, we have tried to analyze the effect of different frequency bands of music on the various frequency rhythms of human brain obtained from EEG data. Four widely popular Rabindrasangeet clips were subjected to Wavelet Transform method for extracting five resonant frequency bands from the original music signal. These frequency bands were initially analyzed with Detrended/Adaptive Fractal analysis (DFA/AFA) methods. A listening test was conducted on a pool of 100 respondents to assess the frequency band in which the music becomes non-recognizable. Next, these resonant frequency bands were presented to 20 subjects as auditory stimulus and EEG signals recorded simultaneously in 19 different locations of the brain. The recorded EEG signals were noise cleaned and subjected again to DFA/AFA technique on the alpha, theta and gamma frequency range. Thus, we obtained the scaling exponents from the two methods in alpha, theta and gamma EEG rhythms corresponding to different frequency bands of music. From the analysis of music signal, it is seen that loss of recognition is proportional to the loss of long range correlation in the signal. From the EEG signal analysis, we obtain frequency specific arousal based response in different lobes of brain as well as in specific EEG bands corresponding to musical stimuli. In this way, we look to identify a specific frequency band beyond which the music becomes non-recognizable and below which in spite of the absence of other bands the music is perceivable to the audience. This revelation can be of immense importance when it comes to the field of cognitive music therapy and researchers of creativity.

Keywords: AFA, DFA, EEG, gestalt in music, Hurst exponent

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60 Pin Count Aware Volumetric Error Detection in Arbitrary Microfluidic Bio-Chip

Authors: Kunal Das, Priya Sengupta, Abhishek K. Singh

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Pin assignment, scheduling, routing and error detection for arbitrary biochemical protocols in Digital Microfluidic Biochip have been reported in this paper. The research work is concentrating on pin assignment for 2 or 3 droplets routing in the arbitrary biochemical protocol, scheduling and routing in m × n biochip. The volumetric error arises due to droplet split in the biochip. The volumetric error detection is also addressed using biochip AND logic gate which is known as microfluidic AND or mAND gate. The algorithm for pin assignment for m × n biochip required m+n-1 numbers of pins. The basic principle of this algorithm is that no same pin will be allowed to be placed in the same column, same row and diagonal and adjacent cells. The same pin should be placed a distance apart such that interference becomes less. A case study also reported in this paper.

Keywords: digital microfludic biochip, cross-contamination, pin assignment, microfluidic AND gate

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59 Bayesian Optimization for Reaction Parameter Tuning: An Exploratory Study of Parameter Optimization in Oxidative Desulfurization of Thiophene

Authors: Aman Sharma, Sonali Sengupta

Abstract:

The study explores the utility of Bayesian optimization in tuning the physical and chemical parameters of reactions in an offline experimental setup. A comparative analysis of the influence of the acquisition function on the optimization performance is also studied. For proxy first and second-order reactions, the results are indifferent to the acquisition function used, whereas, while studying the parameters for oxidative desulphurization of thiophene in an offline setup, upper confidence bound (UCB) provides faster convergence along with a marginal trade-off in the maximum conversion achieved. The work also demarcates the critical number of independent parameters and input observations required for both sequential and offline reaction setups to yield tangible results.

Keywords: acquisition function, Bayesian optimization, desulfurization, kinetics, thiophene

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58 Inclusive Education in Higher Education: Looking from the Lenses of Prospective Teachers

Authors: Kiran, Pooja Bhagat

Abstract:

Inclusion of diversities is much talked and discussed for school education, mainly at the elementary level. However, not enough discourse has taken place as far as the promulgation of diversities from school education to higher education in terms of guarantee of access, retention and success of students belonging to the diverse groups is concerned. In view of this, the present paper attempts to look at the phenomenon of inclusion of diversities in higher education from the perspective of the people, who themselves are the part of the present system of higher education and aspiring to take up teaching at higher education level as profession. The paper focuses on exploring the awareness of the group under study about the inclusion of diversities at higher education, their perception of diversities, and the mechanism which they consider effective to facilitate inclusion.

Keywords: inclusion, higher education, perception, belief, attitude

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57 Analysis of Structural Phase Stability of Strontium Sulphide under High Pressure

Authors: Shilpa Kapoor, Namrata Yaduvanshi, Pooja Pawar, Sadhna Singh

Abstract:

A Three Body Interaction Potential (TBIP) model is developed to study the high pressure phase transition of SrS having NaCl (B1) structure at room temperature. This model includes the long range Columbic, three body interaction forces, short range overlap forces operative up to next nearest neighbors and zero point energy effects. We have investigated the phase transition with pressure, volume collapse and second order elastic constants and found results well suited with available experimental data.

Keywords: phase transition, second order elastic constants, three body interaction forces, volume collapses

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56 Wisdom Can Be the Expression of the Self

Authors: Jaypraksh Show, Pooja Rawat

Abstract:

Experiences are the fundamental aspects of understanding of ourslves and the world around, leading to wisdom. In the path of wisdom, explorative reflection is the process through which we integrate our experiences, weave them into autobiographical narratives. Further, Neisser, a psychologist, and philosopher, thinks ‘ourselves’ is the wide web of different concepts which help us to understand the world, he called it the conceptual self. The conceptual self, as the storehouse of experiences and different concepts, develops a wiser individual narrative. Thus, Wisdom can be conceived as the expression of the Self. Drawing from this, the current work explores the autobiographies of young adults, focusing on their narrative self and foundations of wisdom through narrative analysis. Using the corresponding interview data, we will shed light on the way they exploratively reflect on challenging situations and use their narrative experiences and conceptual understanding. The aim of this study is to understand the ‘conceptual wiser-self’.

Keywords: wisdom, self, conceptual self, narrative self, autobiography, narrative analysis

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55 Pressure Induced Phase Transition and Elastic Properties of Cerium Mononitride

Authors: Namrata Yaduvanshi, Shilpa Kapoor, Pooja Pawar, Sadhna Singh

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In the present paper, we have investigated the high-pressure structural phase transition and elastic properties of cerium mononitride. We studied theoretically the structural properties of this compound (CeN) by using the Improved Interaction Potential Model (IIPM) approach. This compound exhibits first order crystallographic phase transition from NaCl (B1) to tetragonal (BCT) phase at 37 GPa. The phase transition pressures and associated volume collapse obtained from present potential model (IIPM) show a good agreement with available theoretical data.

Keywords: phase transition, volume collapse, elastic constants, three body interaction

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54 The Effect of Radiation on Unsteady MHD Flow past a Vertical Porous Plate in the Presence of Heat Flux

Authors: Pooja Sharma

Abstract:

In the present paper the effects of radiation is studied on unsteady flow of viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid past a vertical porous plate embedded in the porous medium in the presence of constant heat flux. A uniform Transverse Magnetic field is considered and induced magnetic field is supposed as negligible. The non-linear governing equations are solved numerically. Numerical results of the velocity and temperature fields are shown through graphs. The results illustrates that the appropriator combination of regulated values of thermo-physical parameters is expedient for controlling the flow system.

Keywords: heat transfer, radiation, MHD flow, porous medium

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53 Aircraft Line Maintenance Equipped with Decision Support System

Authors: B. Sudarsan Baskar, S. Pooja Pragati, S. Raj Kumar

Abstract:

The cost effectiveness in aircraft maintenance is of high privilege in the recent days. The cost effectiveness can be effectively made when line maintenance activities are incorporated at airports during Turn around time (TAT). The present work outcomes the shortcomings that affect the dispatching of the aircrafts, aiming at high fleet operability and low maintenance cost. The operational and cost constraints have been discussed and a suggestive alternative mechanism is proposed. The possible allocation of all deferred maintenance tasks to a set of all deferred maintenance tasks to a set of suitable airport resources have termed as alternative and is discussed in this paper from the data’s collected from the kingfisher airlines.

Keywords: decision support system, aircraft maintenance planning, maintenance-cost, RUL(remaining useful life), logistics, supply chain management

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52 Aerodynamic Analysis of Multiple Winglets for Aircrafts

Authors: S. Pooja Pragati, B. Sudarsan, S. Raj Kumar

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This paper provides a practical design of a new concept of massive Induced Drag reductions of stream vise staggered multiple winglets. It is designed to provide an optimum performance of a winglet from conventional designs. In preparing for a mechanical design, aspects such as shape, dimensions are analyzed to yield a huge amount of reduction in fuel consumption and increased performance. Owing to its simplicity of application and effectiveness we believe that it will enable us to consider its enhanced version for the grid effect of the staggered multiple winglets on the deflected mass flow of the wing system. The objective of the analysis were to compare the aerodynamic characteristics of two winglet configuration and to investigate the performance of two winglets shape simulated at selected cant angle of 0,45,60 degree.

Keywords: multiple winglets, induced drag, aerodynamics analysis, low speed aircrafts

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51 Building Capacity and Personnel Flow Modeling for Operating amid COVID-19

Authors: Samuel Fernandes, Dylan Kato, Emin Burak Onat, Patrick Keyantuo, Raja Sengupta, Amine Bouzaghrane

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic has spread across the United States, forcing cities to impose stay-at-home and shelter-in-place orders. Building operations had to adjust as non-essential personnel worked from home. But as buildings prepare for personnel to return, they need to plan for safe operations amid new COVID-19 guidelines. In this paper we propose a methodology for capacity and flow modeling of personnel within buildings to safely operate under COVID-19 guidelines. We model personnel flow within buildings by network flows with queuing constraints. We study maximum flow, minimum cost, and minimax objectives. We compare our network flow approach with a simulation model through a case study and present the results. Our results showcase various scenarios of how buildings could be operated under new COVID-19 guidelines and provide a framework for building operators to plan and operate buildings in this new paradigm.

Keywords: network analysis, building simulation, COVID-19

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50 Structural Analysis of Hydro-Turbine Spiral Casing and Stay Ring Using Ansys

Authors: Surjit Angra, Pooja Rani, Vinod Kumar

Abstract:

In hydro power plant spiral casing and Stay ring is meant to guide the water flow to guide vane and runner. Spiral casing and Stay ring is subjected to static i.e. pressure load as well as fluctuating load acting on the structure due to water hammer effect in water conductor system. Finite element method has been used to calculate stresses on spiral casing and stay ring. These calculations were done for the maximum possible loading under operating condition "LC1 Quick Shut Down”. The design load is reached for the spiral casing and stay ring during the emergency closure of the guide apparatus "LC1 Quick Shut Down”. During this operation the forces from the head cover to the stay ring also reach their maximum.

Keywords: hydro-turbine, spiral casing, stay ring, structural analysis

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49 Engaging with Security and State from a Gendered Lens in the South Asian Context: Indian State’s Construction of Internal Security and State Responses

Authors: Pooja Bakshi

Abstract:

In the following paper, an attempt would be made to engage with the relationship between the state and the imperatives of security from a gendered lens. This will be juxtaposed with the feminist engagement with International Law. Theorizations from the literature on South Asian politics and Global politics would be applied to the manner in which the Indian state has defined and proposed to deal with concerns of internal security pertaining to the ‘Left Wing Extremism’ in 2010-2011. It would be argued that the state needs to be disaggregated into the legislature, executive and the judiciary; since there are times when some institutional parts of the state provide space for progressive democratic engagement whilst other institutions don’t. The specific contours of violence faced by women and children at the hands of the state, in the above-mentioned discourse would also be examined. In the end, implications of the security state discourse on debates in International Law would be elaborated.

Keywords: feminist engagement, human rights, state response to left extremism, security studies in South Asia

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48 Gendered Effects on Productivity Gap Due to Information Asymmetry

Authors: Shruti Sengupta

Abstract:

According to the nationally representative data, about 73% of India's rural workforce is engaged in agriculture. While women make significant contributions to total agriculture production, they contribute to about one-third in India. In terms of gender composition, about 80% of the female and 69% of the male workforce is engaged in agriculture in rural India. Still, it is common to find gender differences in plot management within the household. In the last two and half years, India's agri-food system has undergone several changes due to this pandemic, both the demand and supply side, making agriculture more information and knowledge-intensive. Therefore, this paper investigates, using a nationally representative sample, how information asymmetry affects the net returns per hectare of land between female and male farm managers. Empirical results show that information intensity has a significant positive effect on net farm returns per hectare. Results suggest that if females have the same access to technical information as their male counterparts, their farm income can go up by .96 pp compared to male-headed farms. Results also indicate that literate females have higher farm incomes than non-literate females. The study contributes to the literature by employing gender differentials in farm income due to the information gap.

Keywords: agriculture, gender, information asymmetry, farm income, social bias

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47 Gendered Effects on Productivity Gap Due to Information Asymmetry in India

Authors: Shruti Sengupta

Abstract:

According to the nationally representative data, about 73% of India's rural workforce is engaged in agriculture. While women make significant contributions to total agriculture production, they contribute to about one-third in India. In terms of gender composition, about 80% of the female and 69% of the male workforce is engaged in agriculture in rural India. Still, it is common to find gender differences in plot management within the household. In the last two and half years, India's agri-food system has undergone several changes due to this pandemic, both the demand and supply side, making agriculture more information and knowledge-intensive. Therefore, this paper investigates, using a nationally representative sample, how information asymmetry affects the net returns per hectare of land between female and male farm managers. Empirical results show that information intensity has a significant positive effect on net farm returns per hectare. Results suggest that if females have the same access to technical information as their male counterparts, their farm income can go up by .96 pp compared to male-headed farms. Results also indicate that literate females have higher farm incomes than non-literate females. The study contributes to the literature by employing gender differentials in farm income due to the information gap.

Keywords: agriculture, gender, information asymmetry, farm income, social bias

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46 Stochastic Prioritization of Dependent Actuarial Risks: Preferences among Prospects

Authors: Ezgi Nevruz, Kasirga Yildirak, Ashis SenGupta

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Comparing or ranking risks is the main motivating factor behind the human trait of making choices. Cumulative prospect theory (CPT) is a preference theory approach that evaluates perception and bias in decision making under risk and uncertainty. We aim to investigate the aggregate claims of different risk classes in terms of their comparability and amenability to ordering when the impact of risk perception is considered. For this aim, we prioritize the aggregate claims taken as actuarial risks by using various stochastic ordering relations. In order to prioritize actuarial risks, we use stochastic relations such as stochastic dominance and stop-loss dominance that are proposed in the frame of partial order theory. We take into account the dependency of the individual claims exposed to similar environmental risks. At first, we modify the zero-utility premium principle in order to obtain a solution for the stop-loss premium under CPT. Then, we propose a stochastic stop-loss dominance of the aggregate claims and find a relation between the stop-loss dominance and the first-order stochastic dominance under the dependence assumption by using properties of the familiar as well as some emerging multivariate claim distributions.

Keywords: cumulative prospect theory, partial order theory, risk perception, stochastic dominance, stop-loss dominance

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45 The Impact of ‘Nitaqat’ on Indian High-Skilled Migration to Saudi Arabia

Authors: Basant Potnuru, Pooja Arora

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Nitaqat’ – the labour market nationalisation policy of Saudi Arabia, aimed to increase Saudis’ employment by restricting foreign workers in the country. Using a sample survey of Indian professionals working in Riyadh and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) Wilks’ Lamda and Tukey HSD tests, the paper found that the Indian professionals’ jobs laid off due to the policy are statistically significant between the sectors but not between the ‘Nitaqat’ zones and the size of enterprises. The policy impact on new recruitments of Indian professionals is statistically significant between the ‘Nitaqat’ zones but not between the sectors and the size of enterprises. The findings indicate that the opportunities for Indian high-skilled migration to Saudi Arabia are constrained in the construction sector and in yellow zone companies, while they continued to remain in the banking and finance, education, IT, and telecom sectors and in the blue zone firms.

Keywords: Nitaqat, Indian migrants, high-skilled migrants, Gulf, Saudi Arabia

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44 Synthesis of Polyvinyl Alcohol Encapsulated Ag Nanoparticle Film by Microwave Irradiation for Reduction of P-Nitrophenol

Authors: Supriya, J. K. Basu, S. Sengupta

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Silver nanoparticles have caught a lot of attention because of its unique physical and chemical properties. Silver nanoparticles embedded in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/Ag) free-standing film have been prepared by microwave irradiation in few minutes. PVA performed as a reducing agent, stabilizing agents as well as support for silver nanoparticles. UV-Vis spectrometry, scanning transmission electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques affirmed the reduction of silver ion to silver nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. Effect of irradiation time, the concentration of PVA and concentration of silver precursor on the synthesis of silver nanoparticle has been studied. Particles size of silver nanoparticles decreases with increase in irradiation time. Concentration of silver nanoparticles increases with increase in concentration of silver precursor. Good dispersion of silver nanoparticles in the film has been confirmed by TEM analysis. Particle size of silver nanoparticle has been found to be in the range of 2-10nm. Catalytic property of prepared silver nanoparticles as a heterogeneous catalyst has been studied in the reduction of p-Nitrophenol (a water pollutant) with >98% conversion. From the experimental results, it can be concluded that PVA encapsulated Ag nanoparticles film as a catalyst shows better efficiency and reusability in the reduction of p-Nitrophenol.

Keywords: biopolymer, microwave irradiation, silver nanoparticles, water pollutant

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43 A Scalable Media Job Framework for an Open Source Search Engine

Authors: Pooja Mishra, Chris Pollett

Abstract:

This paper explores efficient ways to implement various media-updating features like news aggregation, video conversion, and bulk email handling. All of these jobs share the property that they are periodic in nature, and they all benefit from being handled in a distributed fashion. The data for these jobs also often comes from a social or collaborative source. We isolate the class of periodic, one round map reduce jobs as a useful setting to describe and handle media updating tasks. As such tasks are simpler than general map reduce jobs, programming them in a general map reduce platform could easily become tedious. This paper presents a MediaUpdater module of the Yioop Open Source Search Engine Web Portal designed to handle such jobs via an extension of a PHP class. We describe how to implement various media-updating tasks in our system as well as experiments carried out using these implementations on an Amazon Web Services cluster.

Keywords: distributed jobs framework, news aggregation, video conversion, email

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42 3 Phase Induction Motor Control Using Single Phase Input and GSM

Authors: Pooja S. Billade, Sanjay S. Chopade

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the design of three phase induction motor control using single phase input and GSM.The controller used in this work is a wireless speed control using a GSM technique that proves to be very efficient and reliable in applications.The most common principle is the constant V/Hz principle which requires that the magnitude and frequency of the voltage applied to the stator of a motor maintain a constant ratio. By doing this, the magnitude of the magnetic field in the stator is kept at an approximately constant level throughout the operating range. Thus, maximum constant torque producing capability is maintained. The energy that a switching power converter delivers to a motor is controlled by Pulse Width Modulated signals applied to the gates of the power transistors in H-bridge configuration. PWM signals are pulse trains with fixed frequency and magnitude and variable pulse width. When a PWM signal is applied to the gate of a power transistor, it causes the turn on and turns off intervals of the transistor to change from one PWM period.

Keywords: index terms— PIC, GSM (global system for mobile), LCD (Liquid Crystal Display), IM (Induction Motor)

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41 Population Stereotype Production, User Factors, and Icon Design for Underserved Communities of Rural India

Authors: Avijit Sengupta, Klarissa Ting Ting Cheng, Maffee Peng-Hui Wan

Abstract:

This study investigates the influence of user factors and referent characteristics on representation types generated using the stereotype production method for designing icons. Sixty-eight participants of farming communities were asked to draw images based on sixteen feature referents. Significant statistical differences were found between the types of representations generated for contextual and context-independent referents. Strong correlations were observed between years of formal education and total number of abstract representations produced for both contextual and context-independent referents. However, representation characteristics were not influenced by other user factors such as participants’ experience with mobile phone and years of farming experience. A statistically significant tendency of making concrete representations was observed for both contextual and context-independent referents. These findings provide insights on community members’ involvement in icon design and suggest a consolidated icon design strategy based on population stereotype, particularly for under-served rural communities of India.

Keywords: abstract representation, concrete representation, participatory design, population stereotype

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40 Rare Earth Doped Alkali Halide Crystals for Thermoluminescence Dosimetry Application

Authors: Pooja Seth, Shruti Aggarwal

Abstract:

The Europium (Eu) doped (0.02-0.1 wt %) lithium fluoride (LiF) crystal in the form of multicrystalline sheet was gown by the edge defined film fed growth (EFG) technique. Crystals were grown in argon gas atmosphere using graphite crucible and stainless steel die. The systematic incorporation of Eu inside the host LiF lattice was confirmed by X-ray diffractometry. Thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve was recorded on annealed (AN) crystals after irradiation with a gamma dose of 15 Gy. The effect of different concentration of Eu in enhancing the thermoluminescence (TL) intensity of LiF was studied. The normalized peak height of the Eu-doped LiF crystal was nearly 12 times that of the LiF crystals. The optimized concentration of Eu in LiF was found to be 0.05wt% at which maximum TL intensity was observed with main TL peak positioned at 185 °C. At higher concentration TL intensity decreases due to the formation of precipitates in the form of clusters or aggregates. The nature of the energy traps in Eu doped LiF was analysed through glow curve deconvolution. The trap depth was found to be in the range of 0.2 – 0.5 eV. These results showed that doping with Eu enhances the TL intensity by creating more defect sites for capturing of electron and holes during irradiation which might be useful for dosimetry application.

Keywords: thermoluminescence, defects, gamma radiation, crystals

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39 Protective Effect of Cow Urine against Chlorpyrifos Induced-Genotoxicity and Neurotoxicity in Albino Rats

Authors: Shelly Sharma, Pooja Chadha

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Humans are exposed to pesticides and insecticides either directly or indirectly. Exposure to these pesticides may lead to acute toxicity to mammals and non-target organisms. Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a broad spectrum organophosphate pesticide widely used in various countries of the world. The aim of the present study was to assess the toxicity associated with chlorpyrifos exposure and possible mitigating effect of cow urine against genotoxic and toxic effects in rat brain induced by chlorpyrifos. For this purpose LD50 was determined and rats were orally administered with 1/8th of LD50 (19mg/kg b.wt). Brain samples were taken after 24hrs, 48hrs and 72hrs of treatment. A significant increase in the % tail DNA was observed along with the increase in MDA levels of brain tissues in chlorpyrifos treated groups as compared to control. Cow urine treated groups show decrease in DNA damage and MDA levels as compared to CPF treated group. The study indicates that cow urine has ameliorative potential against neurotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by CPF. Cow urine is considered rich in vitamin A, E and volatile fatty acids which provide antioxidant potential to it. Thus, it can be used as a genoprotective agent.

Keywords: comet assay, brain, cow urine, genotoxicity, toxicity

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38 Indoor Visible Light Communication Channel Characterization for User Mobility: A Use-Case Study

Authors: Pooja Sanathkumar, Srinidhi Murali, Sethuraman TV, Saravanan M, Paventhan Arumugam, Ashwin Ashok

Abstract:

The last decade has witnessed a significant interest in visible light communication (VLC) technology, as VLC can potentially achieve high data rate links and secure communication channels. However, the use of VLC under mobile settings is fundamentally limited as its a line-of-sight (LOS) technology and there has been limited breakthroughs in realizing VLC for mobile settings. In this regard, this work targets to study the VLC channel under mobility. Through a use-case study analysis with experiment data traces this paper presents an empirical VLC channel study considering the application of VLC for smart lighting in an indoor room environment. This paper contributes a calibration study of a prototype VLC smart lighting system in an indoor environment and through the inferences gained from the calibration, and considering a user is carrying a mobile device fit with a VLC receiver, this work presents recommendations for user's position adjustments, with the goal to ensure maximum connectivity across the room.

Keywords: visible light communication, mobility, empirical study, channel characterization

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37 Dynamics of Mach Zehnder Modulator in Open and Closed Loop Bias Condition

Authors: Ramonika Sengupta, Stuti Kachhwaha, Asha Adhiya, K. Satya Raja Sekhar, Rajwinder Kaur

Abstract:

Numerous efforts have been done in the past decade to develop the methods of secure communication that are free from interception and eavesdropping. In fiber optic communication, chaotic optical carrier signals are used for data encryption in secure data transmission. Mach-Zehnder Modulators (MZM) are the key components for generating the chaotic signals to be used as optical carriers. This paper presents the dynamics of a lithium niobate MZM modulator under various biasing conditions. The chaotic fluctuations of the intensity of a laser diode have been generated using the electro-optic MZM modulator operating in a highly nonlinear regime. The modulator is driven in closed loop by its own output at an earlier time. When used as an electro-optic oscillator employing delayed feedback, the MZM displays a wide range of output waveforms of varying complexity. The dynamical behavior of the system ranges from periodic to nonlinear oscillations. The nonlinearity displayed by the system is reproducible and is easily controllable. In this paper, we demonstrate a wide variety of optical signals generated by MZM using easily controllable device parameters in both open and close loop bias conditions.

Keywords: chaotic carrier, fiber optic communication, Mach-Zehnder modulator, secure data transmission

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36 Food Traceability for Small and Medium Enterprises Using Blockchain Technology

Authors: Amit Kohli, Pooja Lekhi, Gihan Adel Amin Hafez

Abstract:

Blockchain is a distributor ledger technology trend that extended to different fields and proved a remarkable success. Blockchain technology is a vital proliferation technique that recuperates the food supply chain traceability process. While tracing is the core of the food supply chain; still, a complex system mitigates the exceptional risk of food contamination, foodborne, food waste, and food fraud. In addition, the upsurge of food supply chain data variance and variety in the traceability system requires complete transparency, a secure, steadfast, sustainable, and efficient approach to face the food supply chain challenges. On the other hand, blockchain technical aspects merged with a detailed implementation plan, the advantages and challenges in food traceability have not been much elucidated for small and medium enterprises (SMEs.) This paper demonstrated the advantages and challenges of applying blockchain in SMEs combined with the success stories of firms implementing blockchain to cover the gap. Moreover, blockchain architecture in SMEs and how technology, organization, and environment frameworks can guarantee the success of blockchain implementation have been revealed.

Keywords: blockchain technology, small and medium enterprises, food traceability, blockchain architecture

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35 Communication Barriers in Disaster Risk Management

Authors: Pooja Pandey

Abstract:

The role of communication plays an integral part in the management of any disaster, whether natural or human-induced, both require effective and strategic delivery of information. The way any information is conveyed carries the most weight while dealing with the disaster. Hence, integrating communication strategies in disaster risk management (DRM) are extensively acknowledged however, these integration and planning are missing from the practical books. Researchers are continuously exploring integrated DRM and have established substantial vents between research and implementation of the strategies (gaps between science and policy). For this reason, this paper reviews the communication barriers that obstruct effective management of the disaster. Communication between first responders (government agencies, police, medical services) and the public (people directly affected by the disaster) is most critical and lacks proper delivery during a disaster. And these challenges can only be resolved if the foundation of the problem is properly dealt with, which is resolving the issues within the organizations. Through this study, it was found that it is necessary to build the communication gap between the organizations themselves as most of the hindrances occur during the mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery phase of the disaster. The study is concluded with the main aim to review the communication barriers within and at the organizational, technological, and social levels that impact effective DRM. In the end, some suggestions are made to strengthen the knowledge for future improvement in communication between the responders and their organizations.

Keywords: communication, organization, barriers, first responders, disaster risk management

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34 Photo-Induced Reversible Surface Wettability Analysis of GLAD Synthesized In2O3/TiO2 Heterostructure Nanocolumn

Authors: Pheiroijam Pooja, P. Chinnamuthu

Abstract:

A novel vertical 1D In2O3/TiO2 nanocolumn (NC) axial heterostructure has been successfully synthesized using Glancing Angle Deposition (GLAD) technique inside E-Beam Evaporator chamber. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) has been used to evaluate the morphology of the structure grown. The estimated length of In2O3/TiO2 NC is ~250 nm and ~300nm for In2O3 and TiO2 respectively with diameter ~60-90 nm. The surface of the heterostructure is porous in nature which can affect the interfacial wettability properties. The grown structure has been further characterized using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible absorption measurement. The polycrystalline nature of the sample has been examined using XRD with prominent peaks obtained with phase (101) for anatase TiO2 and (211) for In2O3. Here, 1D axial heterostructure NC thus favors efficient segregation of photo-excited carriers due to their type II band alignment between the constituent materials. Moreover, the 1D nanostructure is known for their large surface area and excellent ionic charge transport property. On exposure to UV light illumination, the surface properties of In2O3/TiO2 NC changes whereby the hydrophobic nature of the heterostructure changes to hydrophilic. As a result, the reversible surface wettability of heterostructure on interaction with UV light can give potential applications as antifogging and self-cleaning surfaces.

Keywords: GLAD, heterostructure, In2O3/TiO2 NC, surface wettability

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