Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1064

Search results for: multivariate distributions

1064 Regression for Doubly Inflated Multivariate Poisson Distributions

Authors: Ishapathik Das, Sumen Sen, N. Rao Chaganty, Pooja Sengupta


Dependent multivariate count data occur in several research studies. These data can be modeled by a multivariate Poisson or Negative binomial distribution constructed using copulas. However, when some of the counts are inflated, that is, the number of observations in some cells are much larger than other cells, then the copula based multivariate Poisson (or Negative binomial) distribution may not fit well and it is not an appropriate statistical model for the data. There is a need to modify or adjust the multivariate distribution to account for the inflated frequencies. In this article, we consider the situation where the frequencies of two cells are higher compared to the other cells, and develop a doubly inflated multivariate Poisson distribution function using multivariate Gaussian copula. We also discuss procedures for regression on covariates for the doubly inflated multivariate count data. For illustrating the proposed methodologies, we present a real data containing bivariate count observations with inflations in two cells. Several models and linear predictors with log link functions are considered, and we discuss maximum likelihood estimation to estimate unknown parameters of the models.

Keywords: copula, Gaussian copula, multivariate distributions, inflated distributios

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1063 The Modality of Multivariate Skew Normal Mixture

Authors: Bader Alruwaili, Surajit Ray


Finite mixtures are a flexible and powerful tool that can be used for univariate and multivariate distributions, and a wide range of research analysis has been conducted based on the multivariate normal mixture and multivariate of a t-mixture. Determining the number of modes is an important activity that, in turn, allows one to determine the number of homogeneous groups in a population. Our work currently being carried out relates to the study of the modality of the skew normal distribution in the univariate and multivariate cases. For the skew normal distribution, the aims are associated with studying the modality of the skew normal distribution and providing the ridgeline, the ridgeline elevation function, the $\Pi$ function, and the curvature function, and this will be conducive to an exploration of the number and location of mode when mixing the two components of skew normal distribution. The subsequent objective is to apply these results to the application of real world data sets, such as flow cytometry data.

Keywords: mode, modality, multivariate skew normal, finite mixture, number of mode

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1062 Modelling Operational Risk Using Extreme Value Theory and Skew t-Copulas via Bayesian Inference

Authors: Betty Johanna Garzon Rozo, Jonathan Crook, Fernando Moreira


Operational risk losses are heavy tailed and are likely to be asymmetric and extremely dependent among business lines/event types. We propose a new methodology to assess, in a multivariate way, the asymmetry and extreme dependence between severity distributions, and to calculate the capital for Operational Risk. This methodology simultaneously uses (i) several parametric distributions and an alternative mix distribution (the Lognormal for the body of losses and the Generalized Pareto Distribution for the tail) via extreme value theory using SAS®, (ii) the multivariate skew t-copula applied for the first time for operational losses and (iii) Bayesian theory to estimate new n-dimensional skew t-copula models via Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation. This paper analyses a newly operational loss data set, SAS Global Operational Risk Data [SAS OpRisk], to model operational risk at international financial institutions. All the severity models are constructed in SAS® 9.2. We implement the procedure PROC SEVERITY and PROC NLMIXED. This paper focuses in describing this implementation.

Keywords: operational risk, loss distribution approach, extreme value theory, copulas

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1061 A Proposed Mechanism for Skewing Symmetric Distributions

Authors: M. T. Alodat


In this paper, we propose a mechanism for skewing any symmetric distribution. The new distribution is called the deflation-inflation distribution (DID). We discuss some statistical properties of the DID such moments, stochastic representation, log-concavity. Also we fit the distribution to real data and we compare it to normal distribution and Azzlaini's skew normal distribution. Numerical results show that the DID fits the the tree ring data better than the other two distributions.

Keywords: normal distribution, moments, Fisher information, symmetric distributions

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1060 Multivariate Genome-Wide Association Studies for Identifying Additional Loci for Myopia

Authors: Qiao Fan, Xiaobo Guo, Junxian Zhu, Xiaohu Ding, Ching-Yu Cheng, Tien-Yin Wong, Mingguang He, Heping Zhang, Xueqin Wang


A systematic, simultaneous analysis of multiple phenotypes in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) draws a great attention to integrate the signals from single phenotypes with increased power. However, lacking an interpretable and efficient multivariate GWAS analysis impede the application of such approach. In this study, we propose to decompose the multivariate model into a series of simple univariate models. This transformation illuminates what exactly the individual trait contributes to the significant signals from the multivariate analyses. By employing our approach in the analysis of three myopia-related endophenotypes from the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SIMES), we identify novel candidate loci which were successfully validated in an independent Guangzhou Twin Eye Study (GTES).

Keywords: GWAS multivariate, multiple traits, myopia, association

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1059 Copula Markov Switching Multifractal Models for Forecasting Value-at-Risk

Authors: Giriraj Achari, Malay Bhattacharyya


In this paper, the effectiveness of Copula Markov Switching Multifractal (MSM) models at forecasting Value-at-Risk of a two-stock portfolio is studied. The innovations are allowed to be drawn from distributions that can capture skewness and leptokurtosis, which are well documented empirical characteristics observed in financial returns. The candidate distributions considered for this purpose are Johnson-SU, Pearson Type-IV and α-Stable distributions. The two univariate marginal distributions are combined using the Student-t copula. The estimation of all parameters is performed by Maximum Likelihood Estimation. Finally, the models are compared in terms of accurate Value-at-Risk (VaR) forecasts using tests of unconditional coverage and independence. It is found that Copula-MSM-models with leptokurtic innovation distributions perform slightly better than Copula-MSM model with Normal innovations. Copula-MSM models, in general, produce better VaR forecasts as compared to traditional methods like Historical Simulation method, Variance-Covariance approach and Copula-Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (Copula-GARCH) models.

Keywords: Copula, Markov Switching, multifractal, value-at-risk

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1058 X̄ and S Control Charts based on Weighted Standard Deviation Method

Authors: Derya Karagöz


A Shewhart chart based on normality assumption is not appropriate for skewed distributions since its Type-I error rate is inflated. This study presents X̄ and S control charts for monitoring the process variability for skewed distributions. We propose Weighted Standard Deviation (WSD) X̄ and S control charts. Standard deviation estimator is applied to monitor the process variability for estimating the process standard deviation, in the case of the W SD X̄ and S control charts as this estimator is simple and easy to compute. Unlike the Shewhart control chart, the proposed charts provide asymmetric limits in accordance with the direction and degree of skewness to construct the upper and lower limits. The performances of the proposed charts are compared with other heuristic charts for skewed distributions by using Simulation study. The Simulation studies show that the proposed control charts have good properties for skewed distributions and large sample sizes.

Keywords: weighted standard deviation, MAD, skewed distributions, S control charts

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1057 Characterization of Probability Distributions through Conditional Expectation of Pair of Generalized Order Statistics

Authors: Zubdahe Noor, Haseeb Athar


In this article, first a relation for conditional expectation is developed and then is used to characterize a general class of distributions F(x) = 1-e^(-ah(x)) through conditional expectation of difference of pair of generalized order statistics. Some results are reduced for particular cases. In the end, a list of distributions is presented in the form of table that are compatible with the given general class.

Keywords: generalized order statistics, order statistics, record values, conditional expectation, characterization

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1056 Classification on Statistical Distributions of a Complex N-Body System

Authors: David C. Ni


Contemporary models for N-body systems are based on temporal, two-body, and mass point representation of Newtonian mechanics. Other mainstream models include 2D and 3D Ising models based on local neighborhood the lattice structures. In Quantum mechanics, the theories of collective modes are for superconductivity and for the long-range quantum entanglement. However, these models are still mainly for the specific phenomena with a set of designated parameters. We are therefore motivated to develop a new construction directly from the complex-variable N-body systems based on the extended Blaschke functions (EBF), which represent a non-temporal and nonlinear extension of Lorentz transformation on the complex plane – the normalized momentum spaces. A point on the complex plane represents a normalized state of particle momentums observed from a reference frame in the theory of special relativity. There are only two key parameters, normalized momentum and nonlinearity for modelling. An algorithm similar to Jenkins-Traub method is adopted for solving EBF iteratively. Through iteration, the solution sets show a form of σ + i [-t, t], where σ and t are the real numbers, and the [-t, t] shows various distributions, such as 1-peak, 2-peak, and 3-peak etc. distributions and some of them are analog to the canonical distributions. The results of the numerical analysis demonstrate continuum-to-discreteness transitions, evolutional invariance of distributions, phase transitions with conjugate symmetry, etc., which manifest the construction as a potential candidate for the unification of statistics. We hereby classify the observed distributions on the finite convergent domains. Continuous and discrete distributions both exist and are predictable for given partitions in different regions of parameter-pair. We further compare these distributions with canonical distributions and address the impacts on the existing applications.

Keywords: blaschke, lorentz transformation, complex variables, continuous, discrete, canonical, classification

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1055 An AK-Chart for the Non-Normal Data

Authors: Chia-Hau Liu, Tai-Yue Wang


Traditional multivariate control charts assume that measurement from manufacturing processes follows a multivariate normal distribution. However, this assumption may not hold or may be difficult to verify because not all the measurement from manufacturing processes are normal distributed in practice. This study develops a new multivariate control chart for monitoring the processes with non-normal data. We propose a mechanism based on integrating the one-class classification method and the adaptive technique. The adaptive technique is used to improve the sensitivity to small shift on one-class classification in statistical process control. In addition, this design provides an easy way to allocate the value of type I error so it is easier to be implemented. Finally, the simulation study and the real data from industry are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the propose control charts.

Keywords: multivariate control chart, statistical process control, one-class classification method, non-normal data

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1054 Multivariate Analysis of Spectroscopic Data for Agriculture Applications

Authors: Asmaa M. Hussein, Amr Wassal, Ahmed Farouk Al-Sadek, A. F. Abd El-Rahman


In this study, a multivariate analysis of potato spectroscopic data was presented to detect the presence of brown rot disease or not. Near-Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy (1,350-2,500 nm) combined with multivariate analysis was used as a rapid, non-destructive technique for the detection of brown rot disease in potatoes. Spectral measurements were performed in 565 samples, which were chosen randomly at the infection place in the potato slice. In this study, 254 infected and 311 uninfected (brown rot-free) samples were analyzed using different advanced statistical analysis techniques. The discrimination performance of different multivariate analysis techniques, including classification, pre-processing, and dimension reduction, were compared. Applying a random forest algorithm classifier with different pre-processing techniques to raw spectra had the best performance as the total classification accuracy of 98.7% was achieved in discriminating infected potatoes from control.

Keywords: Brown rot disease, NIR spectroscopy, potato, random forest

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1053 Forecasting for Financial Stock Returns Using a Quantile Function Model

Authors: Yuzhi Cai


In this paper, we introduce a newly developed quantile function model that can be used for estimating conditional distributions of financial returns and for obtaining multi-step ahead out-of-sample predictive distributions of financial returns. Since we forecast the whole conditional distributions, any predictive quantity of interest about the future financial returns can be obtained simply as a by-product of the method. We also show an application of the model to the daily closing prices of Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) series over the period from 2 January 2004 - 8 October 2010. We obtained the predictive distributions up to 15 days ahead for the DJIA returns, which were further compared with the actually observed returns and those predicted from an AR-GARCH model. The results show that the new model can capture the main features of financial returns and provide a better fitted model together with improved mean forecasts compared with conventional methods. We hope this talk will help audience to see that this new model has the potential to be very useful in practice.

Keywords: DJIA, financial returns, predictive distribution, quantile function model

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1052 The Moment of the Optimal Average Length of the Multivariate Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Control Chart for Equally Correlated Variables

Authors: Edokpa Idemudia Waziri, Salisu S. Umar


The Hotellng’s T^2 is a well-known statistic for detecting a shift in the mean vector of a multivariate normal distribution. Control charts based on T have been widely used in statistical process control for monitoring a multivariate process. Although it is a powerful tool, the T statistic is deficient when the shift to be detected in the mean vector of a multivariate process is small and consistent. The Multivariate Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (MEWMA) control chart is one of the control statistics used to overcome the drawback of the Hotellng’s T statistic. In this paper, the probability distribution of the Average Run Length (ARL) of the MEWMA control chart when the quality characteristics exhibit substantial cross correlation and when the process is in-control and out-of-control was derived using the Markov Chain algorithm. The derivation of the probability functions and the moments of the run length distribution were also obtained and they were consistent with some existing results for the in-control and out-of-control situation. By simulation process, the procedure identified a class of ARL for the MEWMA control when the process is in-control and out-of-control. From our study, it was observed that the MEWMA scheme is quite adequate for detecting a small shift and a good way to improve the quality of goods and services in a multivariate situation. It was also observed that as the in-control average run length ARL0¬ or the number of variables (p) increases, the optimum value of the ARL0pt increases asymptotically and as the magnitude of the shift σ increases, the optimal ARLopt decreases. Finally, we use the example from the literature to illustrate our method and demonstrate its efficiency.

Keywords: average run length, markov chain, multivariate exponentially weighted moving average, optimal smoothing parameter

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1051 A Bayesian Multivariate Microeconometric Model for Estimation of Price Elasticity of Demand

Authors: Jefferson Hernandez, Juan Padilla


Estimation of price elasticity of demand is a valuable tool for the task of price settling. Given its relevance, it is an active field for microeconomic and statistical research. Price elasticity in the industry of oil and gas, in particular for fuels sold in gas stations, has shown to be a challenging topic given the market and state restrictions, and underlying correlations structures between the types of fuels sold by the same gas station. This paper explores the Lotka-Volterra model for the problem for price elasticity estimation in the context of fuels; in addition, it is introduced multivariate random effects with the purpose of dealing with errors, e.g., measurement or missing data errors. In order to model the underlying correlation structures, the Inverse-Wishart, Hierarchical Half-t and LKJ distributions are studied. Here, the Bayesian paradigm through Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms for model estimation is considered. Simulation studies covering a wide range of situations were performed in order to evaluate parameter recovery for the proposed models and algorithms. Results revealed that the proposed algorithms recovered quite well all model parameters. Also, a real data set analysis was performed in order to illustrate the proposed approach.

Keywords: price elasticity, volume, correlation structures, Bayesian models

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1050 First Order Moment Bounds on DMRL and IMRL Classes of Life Distributions

Authors: Debasis Sengupta, Sudipta Das


The class of life distributions with decreasing mean residual life (DMRL) is well known in the field of reliability modeling. It contains the IFR class of distributions and is contained in the NBUE class of distributions. While upper and lower bounds of the reliability distribution function of aging classes such as IFR, IFRA, NBU, NBUE, and HNBUE have discussed in the literature for a long time, there is no analogous result available for the DMRL class. We obtain the upper and lower bounds for the reliability function of the DMRL class in terms of first order finite moment. The lower bound is obtained by showing that for any fixed time, the minimization of the reliability function over the class of all DMRL distributions with a fixed mean is equivalent to its minimization over a smaller class of distribution with a special form. Optimization over this restricted set can be made algebraically. Likewise, the maximization of the reliability function over the class of all DMRL distributions with a fixed mean turns out to be a parametric optimization problem over the class of DMRL distributions of a special form. The constructive proofs also establish that both the upper and lower bounds are sharp. Further, the DMRL upper bound coincides with the HNBUE upper bound and the lower bound coincides with the IFR lower bound. We also prove that a pair of sharp upper and lower bounds for the reliability function when the distribution is increasing mean residual life (IMRL) with a fixed mean. This result is proved in a similar way. These inequalities fill a long-standing void in the literature of the life distribution modeling.

Keywords: DMRL, IMRL, reliability bounds, hazard functions

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1049 Introduction of Robust Multivariate Process Capability Indices

Authors: Behrooz Khalilloo, Hamid Shahriari, Emad Roghanian


Process capability indices (PCIs) are important concepts of statistical quality control and measure the capability of processes and how much processes are meeting certain specifications. An important issue in statistical quality control is parameter estimation. Under the assumption of multivariate normality, the distribution parameters, mean vector and variance-covariance matrix must be estimated, when they are unknown. Classic estimation methods like method of moment estimation (MME) or maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) makes good estimation of the population parameters when data are not contaminated. But when outliers exist in the data, MME and MLE make weak estimators of the population parameters. So we need some estimators which have good estimation in the presence of outliers. In this work robust M-estimators for estimating these parameters are used and based on robust parameter estimators, robust process capability indices are introduced. The performances of these robust estimators in the presence of outliers and their effects on process capability indices are evaluated by real and simulated multivariate data. The results indicate that the proposed robust capability indices perform much better than the existing process capability indices.

Keywords: multivariate process capability indices, robust M-estimator, outlier, multivariate quality control, statistical quality control

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1048 Determining Best Fitting Distributions for Minimum Flows of Streams in Gediz Basin

Authors: Naci Büyükkaracığan


Today, the need for water sources is swiftly increasing due to population growth. At the same time, it is known that some regions will face with shortage of water and drought because of the global warming and climate change. In this context, evaluation and analysis of hydrological data such as the observed trends, drought and flood prediction of short term flow has great deal of importance. The most accurate selection probability distribution is important to describe the low flow statistics for the studies related to drought analysis. As in many basins In Turkey, Gediz River basin will be affected enough by the drought and will decrease the amount of used water. The aim of this study is to derive appropriate probability distributions for frequency analysis of annual minimum flows at 6 gauging stations of the Gediz Basin. After applying 10 different probability distributions, six different parameter estimation methods and 3 fitness test, the Pearson 3 distribution and general extreme values distributions were found to give optimal results.

Keywords: Gediz Basin, goodness-of-fit tests, minimum flows, probability distribution

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1047 A Non-parametric Clustering Approach for Multivariate Geostatistical Data

Authors: Francky Fouedjio


Multivariate geostatistical data have become omnipresent in the geosciences and pose substantial analysis challenges. One of them is the grouping of data locations into spatially contiguous clusters so that data locations within the same cluster are more similar while clusters are different from each other, in some sense. Spatially contiguous clusters can significantly improve the interpretation that turns the resulting clusters into meaningful geographical subregions. In this paper, we develop an agglomerative hierarchical clustering approach that takes into account the spatial dependency between observations. It relies on a dissimilarity matrix built from a non-parametric kernel estimator of the spatial dependence structure of data. It integrates existing methods to find the optimal cluster number and to evaluate the contribution of variables to the clustering. The capability of the proposed approach to provide spatially compact, connected and meaningful clusters is assessed using bivariate synthetic dataset and multivariate geochemical dataset. The proposed clustering method gives satisfactory results compared to other similar geostatistical clustering methods.

Keywords: clustering, geostatistics, multivariate data, non-parametric

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1046 On the Bootstrap P-Value Method in Identifying out of Control Signals in Multivariate Control Chart

Authors: O. Ikpotokin


In any production process, every product is aimed to attain a certain standard, but the presence of assignable cause of variability affects our process, thereby leading to low quality of product. The ability to identify and remove this type of variability reduces its overall effect, thereby improving the quality of the product. In case of a univariate control chart signal, it is easy to detect the problem and give a solution since it is related to a single quality characteristic. However, the problems involved in the use of multivariate control chart are the violation of multivariate normal assumption and the difficulty in identifying the quality characteristic(s) that resulted in the out of control signals. The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of non-parametric control chart (the bootstrap approach) for obtaining control limit to overcome the problem of multivariate distributional assumption and the p-value method for detecting out of control signals. Results from a performance study show that the proposed bootstrap method enables the setting of control limit that can enhance the detection of out of control signals when compared, while the p-value method also enhanced in identifying out of control variables.

Keywords: bootstrap control limit, p-value method, out-of-control signals, p-value, quality characteristics

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1045 The Use of Boosted Multivariate Trees in Medical Decision-Making for Repeated Measurements

Authors: Ebru Turgal, Beyza Doganay Erdogan


Machine learning aims to model the relationship between the response and features. Medical decision-making researchers would like to make decisions about patients’ course and treatment, by examining the repeated measurements over time. Boosting approach is now being used in machine learning area for these aims as an influential tool. The aim of this study is to show the usage of multivariate tree boosting in this field. The main reason for utilizing this approach in the field of decision-making is the ease solutions of complex relationships. To show how multivariate tree boosting method can be used to identify important features and feature-time interaction, we used the data, which was collected retrospectively from Ankara University Chest Diseases Department records. Dataset includes repeated PF ratio measurements. The follow-up time is planned for 120 hours. A set of different models is tested. In conclusion, main idea of classification with weighed combination of classifiers is a reliable method which was shown with simulations several times. Furthermore, time varying variables will be taken into consideration within this concept and it could be possible to make accurate decisions about regression and survival problems.

Keywords: boosted multivariate trees, longitudinal data, multivariate regression tree, panel data

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1044 Analyzing the Influence of Hydrometeorlogical Extremes, Geological Setting, and Social Demographic on Public Health

Authors: Irfan Ahmad Afip


This main research objective is to accurately identify the possibility for a Leptospirosis outbreak severity of a certain area based on its input features into a multivariate regression model. The research question is the possibility of an outbreak in a specific area being influenced by this feature, such as social demographics and hydrometeorological extremes. If the occurrence of an outbreak is being subjected to these features, then the epidemic severity for an area will be different depending on its environmental setting because the features will influence the possibility and severity of an outbreak. Specifically, this research objective was three-fold, namely: (a) to identify the relevant multivariate features and visualize the patterns data, (b) to develop a multivariate regression model based from the selected features and determine the possibility for Leptospirosis outbreak in an area, and (c) to compare the predictive ability of multivariate regression model and machine learning algorithms. Several secondary data features were collected locations in the state of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, based on the possibility it would be relevant to determine the outbreak severity in the area. The relevant features then will become an input in a multivariate regression model; a linear regression model is a simple and quick solution for creating prognostic capabilities. A multivariate regression model has proven more precise prognostic capabilities than univariate models. The expected outcome from this research is to establish a correlation between the features of social demographic and hydrometeorological with Leptospirosis bacteria; it will also become a contributor for understanding the underlying relationship between the pathogen and the ecosystem. The relationship established can be beneficial for the health department or urban planner to inspect and prepare for future outcomes in event detection and system health monitoring.

Keywords: geographical information system, hydrometeorological, leptospirosis, multivariate regression

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1043 Schrödinger Equation with Position-Dependent Mass: Staggered Mass Distributions

Authors: J. J. Peña, J. Morales, J. García-Ravelo, L. Arcos-Díaz


The Point canonical transformation method is applied for solving the Schrödinger equation with position-dependent mass. This class of problem has been solved for continuous mass distributions. In this work, a staggered mass distribution for the case of a free particle in an infinite square well potential has been proposed. The continuity conditions as well as normalization for the wave function are also considered. The proposal can be used for dealing with other kind of staggered mass distributions in the Schrödinger equation with different quantum potentials.

Keywords: free particle, point canonical transformation method, position-dependent mass, staggered mass distribution

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1042 An Application of Modified M-out-of-N Bootstrap Method to Heavy-Tailed Distributions

Authors: Hannah F. Opayinka, Adedayo A. Adepoju


This study is an extension of a prior study on the modification of the existing m-out-of-n (moon) bootstrap method for heavy-tailed distributions in which modified m-out-of-n (mmoon) was proposed as an alternative method to the existing moon technique. In this study, both moon and mmoon techniques were applied to two real income datasets which followed Lognormal and Pareto distributions respectively with finite variances. The performances of these two techniques were compared using Standard Error (SE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The findings showed that mmoon outperformed moon bootstrap in terms of smaller SEs and RMSEs for all the sample sizes considered in the two datasets.

Keywords: Bootstrap, income data, lognormal distribution, Pareto distribution

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1041 Multivariate Dependent Frequency-Severity Modeling of Insurance Claims: A Vine Copula Approach

Authors: Islem Kedidi, Rihab Bedoui Bensalem, Faysal Manssouri


In traditional models of insurance data, the number and size of claims are assumed to be independent. Relaxing the independence assumption, this article explores the Vine copula to model dependence structure between multivariate frequency and average severity of insurance claim. To illustrate this approach, we use the Wisconsin local government property insurance fund which offers several insurance protections for motor vehicles, property and contractor’s equipment claims. Results show that the C-vine copula can better characterize the multivariate dependence structure between frequency and severity. Furthermore, we find significant dependencies especially between frequency and average severity among different coverage types.

Keywords: dependency modeling, government insurance, insurance claims, vine copula

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1040 On the Impact of Oil Price Fluctuations on Stock Markets: A Multivariate Long-Memory GARCH Framework

Authors: Manel Youssef, Lotfi Belkacem


This paper employs multivariate long memory GARCH models to simultaneously estimate mean and conditional variance spillover effects between oil prices and different financial markets. Since different financial assets are traded based on these market sector returns, it’s important for financial market participants to understand the volatility transmission mechanism over time and across these series in order to make optimal portfolio allocation decisions. We examine weekly returns from January 1, 2003 to November 30, 2012 and find evidence of significant transmission of shocks and volatilities between oil prices and some of the examined financial markets. The findings support the idea of cross-market hedging and sharing of common information by investors.

Keywords: oil prices, stock indices returns, oil volatility, contagion, DCC-multivariate (FI) GARCH

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1039 Hybrid EMPCA-Scott Approach for Estimating Probability Distributions of Mutual Information

Authors: Thuvanan Borvornvitchotikarn, Werasak Kurutach


Mutual information (MI) is widely used in medical image registration. In the different medical images analysis, it is difficult to choose an optimal bins size number for calculating the probability distributions in MI. As the result, this paper presents a new adaptive bins number selection approach that named a hybrid EMPCA-Scott approach. This work combines an expectation maximization principal component analysis (EMPCA) and the modified Scott’s rule. The proposed approach solves the binning problem from the various intensity values in medical images. Experimental results of this work show the lower registration errors compared to other adaptive binning approaches.

Keywords: mutual information, EMPCA, Scott, probability distributions

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1038 Model of Optimal Centroids Approach for Multivariate Data Classification

Authors: Pham Van Nha, Le Cam Binh


Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a population-based stochastic optimization algorithm. PSO was inspired by the natural behavior of birds and fish in migration and foraging for food. PSO is considered as a multidisciplinary optimization model that can be applied in various optimization problems. PSO’s ideas are simple and easy to understand but PSO is only applied in simple model problems. We think that in order to expand the applicability of PSO in complex problems, PSO should be described more explicitly in the form of a mathematical model. In this paper, we represent PSO in a mathematical model and apply in the multivariate data classification. First, PSOs general mathematical model (MPSO) is analyzed as a universal optimization model. Then, Model of Optimal Centroids (MOC) is proposed for the multivariate data classification. Experiments were conducted on some benchmark data sets to prove the effectiveness of MOC compared with several proposed schemes.

Keywords: analysis of optimization, artificial intelligence based optimization, optimization for learning and data analysis, global optimization

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1037 A Strategy for the Application of Second-Order Monte Carlo Algorithms to Petroleum Exploration and Production Projects

Authors: Obioma Uche


Due to the recent volatility in oil & gas prices as well as increased development of non-conventional resources, it has become even more essential to critically evaluate the profitability of petroleum prospects prior to making any investment decisions. Traditionally, simple Monte Carlo (MC) algorithms have been used to randomly sample probability distributions of economic and geological factors (e.g. price, OPEX, CAPEX, reserves, productive life, etc.) in order to obtain probability distributions for profitability metrics such as Net Present Value (NPV). In recent years, second-order MC algorithms have been shown to offer an advantage over simple MC techniques due to the added consideration of uncertainties associated with the probability distributions of the relevant variables. Here, a strategy for the application of the second-order MC technique to a case study is demonstrated to analyze its effectiveness as a tool for portfolio management.

Keywords: Monte Carlo algorithms, portfolio management, profitability, risk analysis

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1036 Marginalized Two-Part Joint Models for Generalized Gamma Family of Distributions

Authors: Mohadeseh Shojaei Shahrokhabadi, Ding-Geng (Din) Chen


Positive continuous outcomes with a substantial number of zero values and incomplete longitudinal follow-up are quite common in medical cost data. To jointly model semi-continuous longitudinal cost data and survival data and to provide marginalized covariate effect estimates, a marginalized two-part joint model (MTJM) has been developed for outcome variables with lognormal distributions. In this paper, we propose MTJM models for outcome variables from a generalized gamma (GG) family of distributions. The GG distribution constitutes a general family that includes approximately all of the most frequently used distributions like the Gamma, Exponential, Weibull, and Log Normal. In the proposed MTJM-GG model, the conditional mean from a conventional two-part model with a three-parameter GG distribution is parameterized to provide the marginal interpretation for regression coefficients. In addition, MTJM-gamma and MTJM-Weibull are developed as special cases of MTJM-GG. To illustrate the applicability of the MTJM-GG, we applied the model to a set of real electronic health record data recently collected in Iran, and we provided SAS code for application. The simulation results showed that when the outcome distribution is unknown or misspecified, which is usually the case in real data sets, the MTJM-GG consistently outperforms other models. The GG family of distribution facilitates estimating a model with improved fit over the MTJM-gamma, standard Weibull, or Log-Normal distributions.

Keywords: marginalized two-part model, zero-inflated, right-skewed, semi-continuous, generalized gamma

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1035 DEMs: A Multivariate Comparison Approach

Authors: Juan Francisco Reinoso Gordo, Francisco Javier Ariza-López, José Rodríguez Avi, Domingo Barrera Rosillo


The evaluation of the quality of a data product is based on the comparison of the product with a reference of greater accuracy. In the case of MDE data products, quality assessment usually focuses on positional accuracy and few studies consider other terrain characteristics, such as slope and orientation. The proposal that is made consists of evaluating the similarity of two DEMs (a product and a reference), through the joint analysis of the distribution functions of the variables of interest, for example, elevations, slopes and orientations. This is a multivariable approach that focuses on distribution functions, not on single parameters such as mean values or dispersions (e.g. root mean squared error or variance). This is considered to be a more holistic approach. The use of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test is proposed due to its non-parametric nature, since the distributions of the variables of interest cannot always be adequately modeled by parametric models (e.g. the Normal distribution model). In addition, its application to the multivariate case is carried out jointly by means of a single test on the convolution of the distribution functions of the variables considered, which avoids the use of corrections such as Bonferroni when several statistics hypothesis tests are carried out together. In this work, two DEM products have been considered, DEM02 with a resolution of 2x2 meters and DEM05 with a resolution of 5x5 meters, both generated by the National Geographic Institute of Spain. DEM02 is considered as the reference and DEM05 as the product to be evaluated. In addition, the slope and aspect derived models have been calculated by GIS operations on the two DEM datasets. Through sample simulation processes, the adequate behavior of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical test has been verified when the null hypothesis is true, which allows calibrating the value of the statistic for the desired significance value (e.g. 5%). Once the process has been calibrated, the same process can be applied to compare the similarity of different DEM data sets (e.g. the DEM05 versus the DEM02). In summary, an innovative alternative for the comparison of DEM data sets based on a multinomial non-parametric perspective has been proposed by means of a single Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. This new approach could be extended to other DEM features of interest (e.g. curvature, etc.) and to more than three variables

Keywords: data quality, DEM, kolmogorov-smirnov test, multivariate DEM comparison

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