Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2444

Search results for: women writers

2444 Beauty Representation and Body Politic of Women Writers in Magdalene

Authors: Putri Alya Ramadhani

Abstract:

This research analysed how women writers represent their beauty in a platform called Magdalene. With the vision “Supporting diversity, empowering minds,” Magdalene is a new media that seeks to represent women's voices rarely heard in mainstream media. This research elaborates further on how women writers, through their writing, use their body politic to subvert patriarchal values. This research used a qualitative method with an explorative design by using text analysis based on the representation theory of Stuart Hall and in-dept-interview with Women Writers in Magdalene. The result illustrated that women writers represent their beauty in Magdalene to subvert body and beauty-representation in mainstream discourse. Furthermore, the authors have identified an identity negotiation as tension from inevitable oppression and power towards and from women’s bodies. In addition, Women Writers showed the power of their bodies through the redefinition of beauty practices and self. Hence, they subvert body dichotomy to redefine body values in society. In conclusion, this study shows various representations of beauty and body that are underrepresented in the mainstream media through the innovative new medium, Magdalena.

Keywords: women writers, beauty-representation, body politic, new media, identity negotiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
2443 Female Dis-Empowerment in Contemporary Zimbabwe: A Re-Look at Shona Writers’ Vision of the Factors and Solutions

Authors: Godwin Makaudze

Abstract:

The majority of women in contemporary Zimbabwe continue to hold marginalised and insignificant positions in society and to be accorded negative and stereotyped images in literature. In light of this, government and civic organisations and even writers channel many resources, time, and efforts towards the emancipation of the female gender. Using the Africana womanist and socio-historical literary theories and focussing on two post-colonial novels, this paper re-engages the dis-empowerment of women in contemporary Zimbabwe, examining the believed causes and suggested solutions. The paper observes that the writers whip the already whipped by blaming patriarchy, African men and cultural practices as the underlying causes of such a sorry state of affairs while at the same time celebrating war against all these, as well as education, unity among women, Christianity and single motherhood as panaceas to the problem. The paper concludes that the writers’ anger is misdirected as they have fallen trap to the very popular yet mythical victim-blame motif espoused by many writers who focus on Shona people’s problems.

Keywords: cultural practices, female dis-empowerment, patriarchy, Shona novel, solutions, Zimbabwe

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
2442 Ba'albakī's Influence on 1950s and 1960s Lebanese Women Writers

Authors: Khaled Igbaria

Abstract:

While Ba'albakī ceased writing or publishing since 1964, it is considerable and significant to investigate Ba'albakī's influence on others. This paper examines her influence on three Lebanese women writers: Emily Nasrallah, Muná Jabbūr, and Hanan al-Shaykh. However, the aim is not simply to examine the influence of the writer on these three authors, but rather to note similarities and differences in the challenges they faced and the agendas they followed in their fiction writing. For each of these writers, this article will describe elements of their literature, and then sketch out the influence which Ba'albakī has had on them. This paper relies on material from Sidawi because it includes interviews with the female writers discussed that are relevant to the current discussion. Sidawi asked them about Ba'albakī and her influence on them, the challenges they faced, and how they coped with them. This paper points out their comments using their own words. To be clear, examining these writers' notes and works is beyond the scope of this paper. To sum up, there are significant parallels between the life and work of Ba'albakī, and other Lebanese women writers such as Nasrallah, Jabbūr and al-Shaykh. Like Ba'albakī, Nasrallah and al-Shaykh also suffered in their struggle against their families. Nasrallah and al-Shaykh, like Ba'albakī, suffered because their society did not trust in their abilities and creativity. Ba'albakī opted for isolation because of her conflict with patriarchal society including the Lebanese women’s groups, while Nasrallah's isolation was because she preferred individualism and autonomy, and Jabbūr, as could be speculated, was not able to cope with the suffering caused by her role as a woman writer within Lebanese society. Whereas Ba'albakī isolated herself from the Lebanese women’s groups, focusing instead on her feminist writing and joining the Shi'r group, Al-Shaykh and the Lebanese women’s groups are able to cooperate in harmony. Furthermore, while Nasrallah and Al-Shaykh continued to publish fiction, Ba'albakī stopped publishing fiction in 1964. All of the above confirms not only that it is worthy to investigate deeply and academically both the biography and the works of Ba'albakī, but also that she deserves to include her throughout the top great Arab female writers, at the time, like Al-Shaykh and Nawal El Saadawi.

Keywords: feminist writing, Hanan Al-Shaykh, Laylá Ba'albakī, Lebanese women writers, Muná Jabbūr

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
2441 Deconstructing the Dialectics of Gender: An Analysis of Nigerian Igbo Women's Writing

Authors: R. Vidhya

Abstract:

Nigeria, the seat of canonical literature in Africa, though widely acclaimed as the literary capital of the continent, it failed to produce women writers in its literary arena till the 1960s. Only after 1966, with the publication of the first novel by a women writer, Nigeria saw the emergence of women’s writing through which the world witnessed an upsurge in the sensitization of women’s issues in Africa. The Nigerian Igbo women’s writing threw light on gender discrimination in postcolonial Africa. Their works were instrumental in bringing a remarkable change in the perception of gender in a male dominated society. The social mindscape of the land which strongly believed that feminist ideologies could be highly detrimental to its patriarchal setup is slowly changed through the changing perspectives of gender. This paper aims to analyse the select works of Flora Nwapa, Buchi Emecheta and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie to deconstruct the dialectics of gender, which has been realised in the works of these women writers.

Keywords: gender discrimination, Igbo women's writings, postcolonial Africa, changing perspective

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
2440 Women Retelling the Iranian Revolution: A Comparative Study of Novelists Maryam Madjidi and Negar Djavadi

Authors: Alessandro Giardino

Abstract:

The Iranian Revolution has been the object of numberless historical and semi-fictional accounts, often providing a monolithic perspective on the events, due to the westerner positioning of those recounting them. Against this tradition, two contemporary French-Iranian novels "Disoriental" (2016) by Negar Djavadi and "Marx and The Doll" (2017) by Maryam Madjidi have offered readers a female-oriented and interestingly layered representation of the Iranian Revolution, hence addressing the responsibilities and misconceptions of Western countries. Furthermore, these two women writers have shed light on the disenchantment of the Iranian intellectual class vis-à-vis the foundation of the Islamic Republic, by particularly focusing on the deterioration of women’s rights, as well as the repression of political, ethnical, religious and sexual minorities. By a psycholinguistic and semasiological analysis of the two novels by Djavadi and Madjidi, this essay will focus on alternative accounts of the revolution in order to reflect upon the role of intersectional literature to the understanding of history. More specifically, as both women, refugees, and bi-cultural writers, Djavadi and Madjidi unearthed moments and figures of the revolution which had disappeared from the prevalent narrative. In doing so, however, these two writers resorted to entirely opposite styles of writing that, it will be argued, stem from different types of female resistance. In defining these two approaches as a "narrative resistance" and a "photographic resistance," the essay will elucidate the dependence of these writers’ language on generational and psychological factors, but it will also stir a reflection on their different communicative strategies.

Keywords: Iranian revolution, French-Iranian, intersectionality, literature, women writers

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
2439 Woman: Her Identity and Strive for Existence Reflected English Literature

Authors: Diksha Kadam

Abstract:

The study of images of women in literature and women writers has been a significant area of concern for the last four decades because it is as ‘the study of signification and meaning production’ play a vital role in shaping the perceptions and consciousness of various segment of society in relation to the lives, roles, problems and experiences of different categories of women as women and as autonomous citizen of society. In the history of worlds English literature the status of women and representation of her in the writings is an issue of discussion always. The essence of her existence in the literature is felt; the ecstasy of her feelings is always seen. The literature is full of facts and figures. She is one of them. Her contribution to the literature is undoubtedly a beginning of a new era. Multiple challenges and multiple identities as represented in majority of the literary texts and in real provide much hope and assurance to the new generation of mothers and daughters in the direction of transformation of the individual and collective consciousness of society paving way for the emergence of an actually empowered new woman. This paper will focus on some of the prominent Indian and American women writers in English literature and the various dimensions of her image through some of the prominent works. This attempt of mine will be merely a salute to those women who have struggled to prove their identity as one of the members of society.

Keywords: role of women’s writing, new era, contribution to the literature, consciousness, existence

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
2438 From Being to Becoming: Emancipation and Empowerment in the African Diaspora

Authors: R. Vidhya

Abstract:

Diasporic writings present a comprehensive view of social, cultural and psychological dualities of immigrants. Isolation and the strong feelings of insecurity and inferiority due to constant marginalization coupled with a nostalgia for their motherland, its customs, culture, language, food and people which keep haunting the minds of immigrants are the major themes that are handled by diasporic writers. In the African diaspora, more than the men, it is the women who face the brunt and burden of the triple jeopardy – the racial, class and gender discrimination. Women writers from Africa have successfully sketched the plight of African women in the diaspora. Buchi Emecheta, a Nigerian woman writer deftly portrays the African Diaspora in her novels. She skillfully weaves her stories with her own experiences as an immigrant in the United Kingdom. She portrays the immigrant life and psychology through numerous themes like exile, geographical shift of locations, transactions of culture, political instability and the dilemma of moral and religious ideologies in her diasporic novels Second-class Citizen, Gwendolyn and Kehinde. The contemporary Nigerian woman writer Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie has also dexterously depicted the diasporic dilemma of her protagonist Ifemelu in Americannah, who initially has the experience of a despondent and a downcast in the United States of America. This paper aims to analyse the diasporic sentiments and sensibilities of the Nigerian Igbo women writers Buchi Emecheta and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie whose women characters finally find emancipation and empowerment in the African Diaspora. This study is based on the Africana Womanist Literary theory propounded by Clenora Hudson-Weems.

Keywords: African Diaspora, Nigerian women writers, Buchi Emecheta, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, emancipation, empowerment

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
2437 'Wandering Uterus': An Analogy of Perception of Women in Hippocratic Corpus and Post-Modern Times

Authors: Ankita Sharma

Abstract:

The study proposes to review the perception of women in the Classical Age (500-336 BC) when Greek Philosophy was in bloom. It was observed that women had very few rights and were still under the control of men. One of the possible reasons for this exclusion was woman’s biology that had a huge influence on her being seen as inferior to men. The text ‘Hippocratic Corpus’ focuses on the biological construct of the female body in classical Greek science that perpetuated the idea of women as second-class citizens and were considered inherently weaker than men. The research highlights the significance of the text that was used to encourage women of that time to get married and produce children and how till today the perception remains the same. The Greek belief of need for confinement and control of 'wandering uterus' has led to superior understanding of men. The pivotal emphasis of this research is to women and their bodies that are depicted in a misogynistic way which paved the way for Hippocratic writers to influence the society’s attitude towards women in their writings. It is intended to draw attention to the prevailing cultural assumptions and preconceived notions about female anatomy that had a pervasive influence in the following centuries with its roots being in ancient science.

Keywords: classical Greek theory, women, wandering womb, modern ideology

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
2436 Sentence Variation in Academic Writing: A Contrastive Study of the Variation of Sentence Types between Male and Female ESL Writers

Authors: Fatima Muhammad Shitu

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the variation of sentence types in English academic writing. The major focus is on whether variation in sentence types can be attributable to the linguistic and most of all the gender of the writers. The objective of this paper is to analyze the sentence types produced by Male and Female ESL writers and to determine whether writers vary the frequency and use of sentence types across the text depending on the rhetorical choices of the writers to construct identity. This study is hinged on the functionalist approach to analyzing academic writing in use. For the purpose of this study, a corpus of 20 academic papers was created and the use of sentences types was analyzed. The data for the study was collated using percentages. In this case, the number of occurrences of the different sentence types were analyzed, calculated and then converted to percentages for each group i.e., male and female ESL writers. The results from these analyses were compared and contrasted in order to determine whether Male and Female ESL writer vary their sentence types, and, or employed the same or different sentence types in their texts. The conclusion is that Male and Female ESL writers not only vary in their use of sentence types in academic writings but also differ.

Keywords: sentence variation, ESL, gender, academic writing

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
2435 Traveling Abroad and the Construction of British Identity and Culture in Selected Women Writers: Lady Elizabeth Craven's A Journey Through the Crimea to Constantinople (1789) and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu's Embassy Letters (1716-1718)

Authors: Raja Al-Khalili

Abstract:

Traveling abroad for British citizens in the eighteenth century was usually performed for two reasons. The first major form was for administering the expanding realm of the British Empire and its need for officials in governing the natives and facilitating the work of business companies. The other form of travel was for pleasure and involved a manifestation of wealth. This form of travel was a prelude for the modern industry of tourism and usually involved a tour of Europe and the Mediterranean. In both forms of travel the British encountered a myriad of cultures. Travel had fostered a sense of pride and confirmed an ethnocentric view of British superiority, but it also brought a critical self-examination of belonging to a colonial empire that thrives on the weaknesses of other nations. Women writers in particular have sought in the travels a kind of self-exploration of the nature of social patriarchy in a diversity of cultures. Both Lady Elizabeth Craven in A Journey through the Crimea to Constantinople (1789) and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu in Embassy Letters (1716-1718) have observed the culture of the Ottomans and then pursued to reflect on the social role of women in England.

Keywords: travel writing, Elizabeth Craven, Lady Mary Wortley, patriarchy

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
2434 Crime against Women behind Closed Doors in Indian Society

Authors: Rasha Kumari Panda

Abstract:

The crime against women in closed door is an important burning issue in day to day life. Domestic violence has become daily part of women’s life. It affects the millions of the women throughout the India as it violates their human rights. Crime against women behind closed door is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women, discrimination against women moreover, when the world is approaching towards modernization, worse the condition of women and girls in our society. This paper examines how the rights of women are being violated and suggests the remedial measures to empower women. Powerlessness of women is the root cause of violence has been specifically addressed.

Keywords: domestic violence, cruelty, dowry, statutes

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
2433 Gender Influence in Yoruba Festivals: A Case Study of Agbaasin Festival in Isanlu-Isin, Kwara State, Nigeria

Authors: Alice Abiodun Atolagbe, Samson Abiodun Atolagbe

Abstract:

All over the world and in the history of mankind, festivals have evolved to celebrate one thing or the other. The Yoruba people are no exemptions and they have several festivals which they celebrate at different times, for different reasons and in different communities. Because mankind is mainly of male and female, most of the festivals involve the two sexes, though different roles are usually assigned. In this paper, the writers examine the influence of gender in Yoruba festival using ‘Agbaasin’ festival in Isanlu-Isin, Kwara State of Nigeria as a case study. A research was conducted by visiting the priests, worshipers, and shrine of ‘Agbaasin’ during which interviews were conducted, documented, and analyzed. It was, thereafter, discovered that men dominated the process of celebrating the ‘Agbaasin’ festival even to the extent of cooking by themselves. The paper recommends that women should be more involved in political and communal activities, government should encourage and sponsor researches on gender issues and that, authors of books and writers of plays should create some fora to encourage women empowerment among the Yoruba people. It is hoped that this paper would contribute to the pool of literature available on gender issues among the Yoruba people of Nigeria.

Keywords: gender, Yoruba, festival, Agbaasin, Isanlu-Isin, Kwara State

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
2432 Disclosing a Patriarchal Society: A Socio-Legal Study on the Indigenous Women's Involvement in Natural Resources Management in Kasepuhan Cirompang

Authors: Irena Lucy Ishimora, Eva Maria Putri Salsabila

Abstract:

The constellation on Indonesian Legal System that varies shows a structural injustice – as a result of patriarchy – exists from the biggest range as a country to the smallest such as a family. Women in their lives, carry out excessive responsibilities in the community. However, the unequal positions between men and women in the society restrain women to fulfill their constructed role. Therefore, increasing the chance for women to become the victim of structural injustice. The lack of authority given to women and its effects can be seen through a case study of the Cirompang Indigenous Women’s involvement in natural resources management. The decision to make the Mount Halimun-Salak as a National Park and the expansion itself did not involve nor consider the existence of indigenous people (Kasepuhan Ciromopang) – especially the women’s experience regarding natural resources management – has been significantly impacting the fulfillment of the indigenous women’s rights. Moreover, the adat law that still reflects patriarchy, made matters worse because women are restricted from expressing their opinion. The writers explored the experience of Cirompang indigenous women through in-depth interviews with them and analyzed it with several theories such as ecofeminism, woman’s access to land and legal pluralism. This paper is important to show how the decision and expansion of the National Park reduced the rights of access to land, natural resources, expressing an opinion, and participating in development. Reflecting on the Cirompang Indigenous Women’s conditions on natural resources management, this paper aims to present the implications of the regulations that do not acknowledge Indigenous women’s experience and the proposed solutions. First, there should be an integration between the law regarding indigenous people and traditional rights in a regulation to align the understanding of indigenous people and their rights. Secondly, Indonesia as a country that’s rich with diversity should ratify the ILO Convention no 169 to reaffirm the protection of Indigenous people’s rights. Last, considering the position of indigenous women that still experienced unjustness in the community, the government and NGOs must collaborate to provide adequate assistance for them.

Keywords: Cirompang indigenous women, indigenous women’s rights, structural injustice, women access to land

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
2431 Fashion as a Tool of Modernity and Female Empowerment in the Nineteenth-Century Zenana

Authors: Ira Solomatina

Abstract:

This paper looks at the role of fashion and clothes in the context of the late nineteenth-century Indian zenana. It suggests that fashion and clothes served as tools for self-assertion and empowerment among the zenana women, allowing them to negotiate between tradition and modernity and establish themselves as modern subjects. In pre-Independence India and in upper-class Indians households, zenana was women's part of the house, where women lived separately from men and in seclusion (purdah). To male colonial scholars and officials, zenana remained impenetrable, inviting speculations about the position of the zenana women. In the colonial imagination, the Indian woman was not only the helpless victim, oppressed by the Indian man but also the agent of deviant sexuality. Consequently, in the colonial British scholarship, zenana was portrayed as a space of idleness, perverse sexuality, ignorance, and illness. Contrary to the dominating ideas about zenana, some Western women writers presented more varied accounts of the zenana life, noting on the good education, dignified manners, and sophisticated fashion choices of the women in the zenana. Contemporary research by postcolonial scholars shows that zenana women in purdah travelled, had access to education and political power. The history of India has examples of women rulers in purdah and more than enough instances of zenana women influencing politics and culture. Zenana, in short, was not an ahistorical, dark realm of idleness but the space of culture and a space impacted by modernity. The paper proves that in the context of zenana, clothes, and fashion provided a visual vocabulary for the women to establish themselves as modern subjects and negotiate between modernity and tradition. To do so, it relies on photographs of zenana women and written accounts about and from the nineteenth-century zenana.

Keywords: woman's fashion, colonial India, modernity, zenana

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
2430 Comparison of Women’s Political Participation in Korea and China

Authors: Minjeoung Kim

Abstract:

This paper deals with the comparison of women’s political participation in Korea and China. Korean women are participated more in higher education. As the economic development and the women's social participation can enhance the possibility of women's political participation in advanced democratic countries, in Asian countries such as Korea and China in which Confucianism prohibited women to participate in public life and the process of nation building is different from western countries, the political power takes an initiative to implement policies for women's participation in politics and for women's consciousness.

Keywords: korea, china, women, political participation

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
2429 Representation of Female Experiences by Upcoming African Women Writers: A Case Study of Three Post-2000 South African Narratives

Authors: Liberty Takudzwa Nyete

Abstract:

This paper examines the feminine representation of women’s experiences in relation to womanhood as depicted by selected three South African female authors:. The study examines the challenges, difficulties and strategies used by various female characters’ to deal with situations in a typical apartheid and post-apartheid society. It also explores the way in which gender, race and class discourses are treated in the selected texts. The three authors, born and bred at the peak of the anti-apartheid movement and women’s protest against patriarchy, witnessed the effects of apartheid on both their families and societies at large which could perhaps have influenced their writing. The study is informed by both the feminist and womanist ideologies postulated by different theorists. In particular, the study of Not Woman Enough considers issues of motherhood, womanhood and racism; while that of Shameless focuses on the importance of women’s narration of their own stories, sexuality and racism; and the depiction of sexual violence, class, and women’s roles in the fight against oppression is explored with regard to This Book Betrays My Brother. Thus, the study concludes on the social makeovers that include women in all the spheres of life, such as education and the economy, which were largely dominated by men but are no longer defined by economic status, physical attributes, class nor sexuality.

Keywords: apartheid, feminism, prostitution, sexual violence, womanism, womanhood

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
2428 The Projection of Breaking Sexual Repression: Modern Women in Indian Fictions in Marathi

Authors: Suresh B. Shinde

Abstract:

The present paper examined the selective fictional works of the Indian writers in the Marathi language which reflects the gradual erosion of sexual repression of modern women characters. Furthermore, the study employed the attitudinal survey method to counter check the fictional reality of the Indian women in real life in the modern era. The Indian writers in an early stage from the pre and post-independence period pictured the women characters such as sexually suppressed and adherence to male sexual dominance. Gangadhar Gadgil a ‘Sahitya Akademi’ award winner writer in his story ‘Ek Manus’ shown that a husband, abnormally exploited her wife. G. A. Kulkarni a ‘Sahitya Akademi’ award winner writer shown that a young lady character suppressed her proposal of marriage with she loved due to the social pressure and conventions. Arvind Gokhale and Kamal Desai have also pictured lady characters who suppressed their sexual urges even they were highly educated. In the late 20th century and early 21st century, the trends of Marathi literature is dramatically changed accordingly the women fictions. Gouri Deshpande, the popular story writer, penetrates modern woman very clearly. Two lady characters are living happily together accepting revolts of society for a sexual relationship. Meghna Pethe, another well-known writer in her story, depicts a women character who was lived with her friend as live-in-relationship and enjoying the erotic sex. How so far, it was seen that the pre and post-independence women fictions are gradually changed regarding her sexually urges. This reality leads to design the survey research design in which 100 college girls and 100 middle-aged women were surveyed with sexual attitude scale and feminist identity test. It was hypothesized that the today's college girls would higher on sexual attitude and feminist identity than middle-aged women. Moreover, it was also assumed that sexual attitude and feminist identity would have a strong positive correlation. The obtained data analyzed through Students’ test and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). The results reveal that the today's college girls are having a high level of sexual attitude and feminist identity than middle-aged women. Results also reveal that sexual attitude and feminist identity have a strongest positive correlation. How so far the survey research has provided the reality ground to the modern women in Indian fictions in Marathi literature. The findings of the research have been discussed accordingly the gender equality as well as psychological perspectives.

Keywords: sexual repression, women in Indian fictions, sexual attitude, feminist perspectives

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
2427 Gender Based Violence and Women’s Health

Authors: Sangita Bharati

Abstract:

Violence against women is now well recognised as a public health problem and human rights violation of worldwide significance. It is an important risk factor for women's ill health, with far reaching consequences for both their physical and mental health. Gender based violence takes many forms and results in physical, sexual and psychological harm to the women throughout their lives. Gender based violence often manifests unequal power relation between men and women in society and the secondary status of the women because of which women have to suffer a range of health problems in silence. This paper will aim at describing a few problems related to women’s health which are directly linked to their experience as victims of gender based violence.

Keywords: violence, health, women, society

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
2426 Exploring the Aesthetics of Sexual Violence in Therese Park’s ‘A Gift of the Emperor’: A Brief Study on Korean Comfort Women

Authors: Khushboo Verma

Abstract:

The use of rape as a weapon of war has been in existence for as early as the middle ages. Women, during the conflict, have been treated as the spoils of war, a reward for the conquering soldiers granted to them by their superiors which is, arguably, most often overlooked as part of the collateral damage that is unavoidable in conflict zones. Korean-born Therese Park’s first novel, A Gift of the Emperor (1997), describes one such atrocious incidence wherein she highlights the active role the Japanese military played in procuring and condoning trafficking of women, who were euphemistically referred to as ‘comfort women’, for prostitution during World War II. This paper thus aims to look at the remembering and reckonings of these women, which fueled a range of creative gestures in the artistic representations and knowledge production by Korean American artists and writers. The essay divides into three parts wherein first it tries to highlight the relationship of the state and the self in relation to the ‘comfort women’ as to who bears the onus of the exploitation of these women, or the responsibility for the redressal with the present-day notions of human rights as studied through Ueno Chizuko’s ‘The Politics of Memory: Nation, Individual and Self’ (1999). There are several narratological elements of the text that are of interest here which shall be viewed and analysed throughout the paper as well. The second part of the paper talks about the aesthetics of rape and sexual violence as represented or (mis)represented by Park in her novel as she attempts to give voice to the victim and retain her and her suffering as the central focus of the narrative. Finally, the third part of the novel explores as well as places the novel in the context of debates over the highly contested issue of ‘comfort women’ and the actual ‘comfort women’ survivors’ testimonies. For this purpose, the present study focuses on Dori Laub’s ‘Truth and Testimony: The Process and the Struggle’ (1991).

Keywords: Korean comfort women, survivors’ testimonies, sexual slavery, aesthetics of sexual violence, horrible memories

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
2425 A Sociological Exploration of How Chinese Highly Educated Women Respond to the Gender Stereotype in China

Authors: Qian Wang

Abstract:

In this study, Chinese highly educated women referred to those women who are currently doing their Ph.D. studies, and those who have already had Ph.D. degrees. In ancient Chinese society, women were subordinated to men. The only gender role of women was to be a wife and a mother. With the rapid development of China, women are encouraged to pursue higher education. As a result of this, the number of highly educated women is growing very quickly. However, people, especially men, believe that highly educated women are challenging the traditional image of Chinese women. It is thus believed that highly educated women are very different with the traditional women. They are demonstrating an image of independent and confident women with promising careers. Plus, with the reinforcement of mass media, highly educated women are regarded as non-traditional women. People stigmatize them as the 'third gender' on the basis of male and female. Now, the 'third gender' has become a gender stereotype of highly educated women. In this study, 20 participants were interviewed to explore their perceptions of self and how these highly educated women respond to the stereotype. The study finds that Chinese highly educated women are facing a variety of problems and difficulties in their daily life, and they believe that one of the leading causes is the contradiction between patriarchal values and the views of gender equality in contemporary China. This study gives rich qualitative data in the research of Chinese women and will help to extend the current Chinese gender studies.

Keywords: Chinese highly educated women, gender stereotype, self, the ‘third gender’

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
2424 Postcolonialism and Feminist Dialogics: Re-Imaging Cultural Exclusion in the Nigerian Feminist Fiction

Authors: Muhammad Dahiru

Abstract:

A contestable polemic in postcolonialism is the Western Universalist conception of the people of a vast continent such as Africa as homogenous. Quite often, the postcolonial African woman is seen as an entity in western cultural and literary feminist theorisations. The debate between the so-called western feminist scholarship and the postcolonial/third world feminists that began in the late 1980s focuses on this universalisation of women’s concerns as monolithic. This article argues that the universalising assumption that all women share similar concerns in not only Africa as a continent but even in Nigeria as a country is misleading because of cultural differences. The article is a dialogic reading of Nigerian literature arguing that there is no culturally normative perspective on Nigerian feminist fiction because of the multifaceted and multicultural concerns of women writers from the different cultural regions in the country. The article concludes that this can better be read and appreciated through the lens of M. M. Bakhtin’s theory of dialogism.

Keywords: cultural exclusion, dialogics, Nigerian feminist fiction, postcolonialism

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
2423 Women Characters in Pakistani Films: A Critical Evaluation

Authors: Ali Arshad

Abstract:

The study examines the depiction of women characters in Urdu and Punjabi films. It is a critical evaluation of forty-eight Pakistani films. It explores the characters of women portrays in Urdu and Punjabi film of Pakistan. Using content analysis as methodology with feminist research that helps to investigate the phenomena and supports the study. Finding of the study shows that women characters in Urdu and Punjabi films are not the reflection of true Pakistani women rather this picture represents a negative image of Pakistani women in viewers mind. These characters don’t address the women’s issues nor do they present the solutions to these problems faced by Pakistani women. The characters of Pakistani women are not free from male prejudice, and these films do not portray the social and political role perform by actual Pakistani women. The analysis shows that the characters of women in Urdu and Punjabi films are based on the assumptions.

Keywords: women, Pakistani, film, characters

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
2422 Language and the Politics of Feminism through the Lens of Ba’s ‘So Long a Letter’ and Alkali’s ‘The Stillborn’

Authors: Jummai Aliyu Mohammed

Abstract:

The Sapir-Whorfian hypothesis postulates that the structure of a language determines the way in which species of that language view the world. It also states that the culture of a people finds reflection in their language. Consequently language becomes a vehicle of thought; a channel through which negative stereotypes of women is created and also one through which such images are dispelled. Women are generally portrayed as weaker vessels and inferior to men; a position which draws a counter reaction from women through their writings. In their writings, they attempt to reinvent womanhood and liberate the woman from the hitherto negative light they were portrayed. This position best describes the term feminism which argues that women be given equal rights in all spheres of life as men. This paper attempts to evaluate Ba’s ‘So Long a Letter’ and Alkali’s ‘The Stillborn’ with the view to identify the relationship between language and feminism. In evaluating this relationship, the paper concludes that there are several factors responsible for the variation in the speech pattern of male and female. All of these factors favour the male gender and further condemns the woman to oppression. Although the writers come from two different cultural backgrounds, the works amplify feminism and captured them as apostles of feminism.

Keywords: feminism, language, politics, Sapir-Whorfian hypothesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
2421 Portrayal of Women in Television Advertisement

Authors: Priya Sarah Vijoy

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to analyze the Portrayal of women in Television Advertisements. This research study is conducted to analyze how women are portrayed in Television Advertisements. Advertising dates back to several hundreds of years. Right from the beginning, the seller wanted his goods to be sold and he used various techniques for achieving his objective. Advertisements have consistently confined women to traditional mother, home, or beauty/sex-oriented roles that are not representative of women’s diversity. Currently, in our society the television stereotyping of woman is the dominating forces in the media that degrade women and limit their representation. Thus the study analyzes how women are portrayed in Television advertisements and find whether roles of women in Television Advertisement are related to the product or not.

Keywords: advertising, stereotyping, television, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
2420 Sexualization of Women in Nigerian Magazine Advertisements

Authors: Kehinde Augustina Odukoya

Abstract:

This study examines the portrayal of women in Nigerian magazine advertisements, with the aim to investigate whether there is sexualization of women in the advertisements. To achieve this aim, content analyses of 61 magazine advertisements from 5 different categories of magazines; a general interest magazine (Genevieve), fashion magazine (Hints Complete Fashion), men’s magazine (Mode), women’s magazine (Totally Whole) and a relationship magazine (Forever) were carried out. Erving Goffman’s 1979 frame analysis and Kang’s two additional coding categories were used to investigate the sexualization of women. Findings show that women are used for decorative purposes and objectified in over 70 per cent of the advertisements analyzed. Also, there is sexualization of women in magazine advertisements because women are nude 57.4 percent of the magazine advertisements.

Keywords: advertisements, magazine, sexualization, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
2419 A Diagnostic Study of Rape Culture in India

Authors: V. U. Ameera

Abstract:

Rape has become an epidemic in India. Rape becomes a repressive weapon, which used to make them silent or used sometimes as a mode of punishment. Even for marrying above their status or for caste violation through a marriage of their choice, women are sentenced for mass rape, and the retribution is done in the presence of her family and villagers. Dalit or lower class women are brutally raped in a process of chastisement carried out by the upper class to keep the former always under their feet. Even in police stations, women are raped so that, their wretched condition will compel them to blurt out the truth. In a patriarchal society, for every trespass of woman, she is retaliated with a trespass into her body, which they think is the finest fine she can pay, as they are still driven by Victorian morality and believe once ‘the jewel’ is stolen, it is stolen forever. Even when the reports of brutal rapes comes out, those who are in responsible position also take the girls to task for going out in inappropriate time. As it is elsewhere in the world, in India too rape is a destructive weapon used to destroy men folk morally and psychologically, as they deem their honor rest in their protecting the purity of their women. During the communal skirmishes, as it is evident from Gujarat and Muzzafar Nagar recently, women are subjected to mass rape so that they can terrorize their men. Even women writers are threatened with rape for criticizing the maneuvers and manipulations of political parties. This becomes possible because of the undue weight given to the chastity of women. This study intends to analyze the nature of rapes occurring in India, including its use as a tool to establish and perpetuate the dominant position of men in social power structures. The study reveals how society, media and literature have imbibed and spread the notion of this sacred glass bowl which is the proud possession of men, the breaking of which steals them of their honor.

Keywords: guardians of chastity, patriarchal mindset, power tool, punishment rape

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
2418 Women Education in Islam, Christianity, and Judaism

Authors: Nuzhat Fatima

Abstract:

This is very misleading conception that Islam is the religion of terrorists or terrorism. It is also another misconception that women are not given due important in Islamic. And women are forced to use veil. But if we closely look at the other two religions they also have the same commandments about the veil. Then comes education, women are given the equal right of education in Islam. But there are certain people creating the bad image of Islam and not giving permission to their females to get education. This paper will present the brief description of education and status of women in all three religions.

Keywords: Islam, women, education, christianity, Judaism

Procedia PDF Downloads 454
2417 The Pink Elephant: Women who Bully Other Women in the Workplace

Authors: Berri A. Wells

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to explore the different variables that influence women, specifically Black American or African American women to target and bully other Black American women in the workplace. The Pink Elephant Study seeks to answer the research question, what are some of the factors that prompt Black women to target and harass other Black women in the workplace or other professional settings and organizations? The goal of the study is to enhance the workplace bullying body of knowledge in two specific ways beginning with the inclusion of Black women in the conversation of workplace bullying. A second goal is to hear from and learn from perpetrators of workplace bullying.

Keywords: workplace bullying, incivility at work, women at work, overcoming conflict

Procedia PDF Downloads 12
2416 Family Planning Use among Women Living with HIV in Malawi: Analysis from Malawi DHS-2010 Data

Authors: Dereje Habte, Jane Namasasu

Abstract:

Background: The aim of the analysis was to assess the practice of family planning (FP) among HIV-infected women and the influence of women’s awareness of HIV-positive status in the practice of FP. Methods: The analysis was made among 489 non-pregnant, sexually active, fecund women living with HIV. Result: Of the 489 confirmed HIV positive women, 184 (37.6%) reported that they knew they are HIV positive. The number of women with current use and unmet need of any family planning method were found to be 251 (51.2%) and 107 (21.9%) respectively. Women’s knowledge of HIV-positive status (AOR: 2.32(1.54,3.50)), secondary and above education (AOR: 2.36(1.16,4.78)), presence of 3-4 (AOR: 2.60(1.08,6.28)) and more than four alive children (AOR: 3.03(1.18,7.82)) were significantly associated with current use of family planning. Conclusion: Women’s awareness of HIV-positive status was found to significantly predict family planning practice among women living with HIV.

Keywords: family planning, HIV, Malawi, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 477
2415 Representation of Woman in Vagina Monologue: A Study of Feminism

Authors: Epata Puji Astuti

Abstract:

The Vagina Monologue is a play written by Eve Ensler, which is premiered at Off-Broadway, New York, in 1996. This play is quite different from the other play since it talks about the issue of t men's oppression toward women, and it is performed in monologue. The vagina becomes the main symbol of being discussed in the play. What did men do to women's vagina and how women view and treat her vagina reflects men's attitude toward women. Ensler had interviewed 200 women from various backgrounds to get their stories about the vagina. Ensler also has her own story about vagina. For the researcher, it is interesting to analyze how Ensler represented women in the symbol of vagina. What happened toward vagina reflected the reality about what happened toward women. How Ensler voices the issues of women, such as love, birth, rape, sex work, sexual harassment, etc. are interesting to be analyzed. This research tries to reveal how women are represented in the play. To understand about the representation of women, the researcher uses feminism theory. Textual analysis method is used to find out how women struggle for her own life and speak up for herself. Based on the analysis, it can be concluded that Ensler depicted vagina is not as dirty thing, vagina is a noble thing and men should honor it as they honor women. It reflected that women show their power and resistance toward men's oppression.

Keywords: feminism, vagina, women, violence

Procedia PDF Downloads 64