Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2538

Search results for: colonial India

2538 From Colonial Outpost to Cultural India: Folk Epics of India

Authors: Jyoti Brahma

Abstract:

Folk epics of India are found in various Indian languages. The study of folk epics and its importance in folkloristic study in India came into prominence only during the nineteenth century. The British administrators and missionaries collected and documented folk epics from various parts of the country. The paper is an attempt to investigate how colonial outpost appears to penetrate the interiors of Indian land and society and triggered off the Indian Renaissance. It takes into account the compositions of the epics of India and the attention it received during the nineteenth century, which in turn gave, rise to the national consciousness shaping the culture of India. Composed as oral traditions these folk epics are now seen as repositories of historical consciousness whereas in earlier times societies without literacy were said to be without history. So, there is an urgent need to re-examine the British impact on Indian literary traditions. The Bhakti poets through their nuanced responses in their efforts to change the behavior of Indian society gives us the perfect example of deferment in the clear cut distinction between the folk and the classical in the context of India. It evades a pure categorization and classification of the classical and constitutes part of the folk traditions of the cultural heritage of India. Therefore, the ethical question of what is ontologically known as ordinary discourse in the case of the “folk” forms metaphors and folk language gains importance once more. The paper also thus seeks simultaneously to outline the significant factors responsible for shaping the destiny of folklore in South India particularly the four political states of the Indian Union: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, what could be termed as South Indian “cultural zones”.

Keywords: colonial, folk, folklore, tradition

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2537 Colonial Racism and the Benin Bronze Artefacts, 1862-1960

Authors: Idahosa Osagie Ojo

Abstract:

This research is on colonial racism and the Benin bronze artefacts between 1862 and 1960. It analyses the British racial sentiments against the Benin people that heralded colonial rule and how they influenced the perceptions of the artworks during the period. The aim is to contribute to the knowledge of colonial rule in Benin by bringing to the fore its impacts on the perception and interpretation of the Benin bronze artefacts during the period. Primary and secondary sources were utilised and the historical method was adopted. The findings reveal that the first British racial propaganda against the Benin people started in 1862 and that it was consciously orchestrated to manoeuvre public opinion for the ill-conceived colonial project. The research also reveals that the Benin people were not alone in this, as other peoples of Africa that were targeted for British colonial domination suffered the same fate. Findings also show that racial propaganda was actually used to rationalised colonial rule in Benin and that it later influenced the interpretations and perception of the Benin bronze artefacts throughout the colonial period and beyond.

Keywords: Benin, Bronzes, colonial, racism

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2536 Influence of Colonial Architecture on South Indian Vernacular Constructions: A Case of Venkatagiri in Andhra Pradesh, India

Authors: Jahnavi Priya Alluri, Sarang Barbarwar

Abstract:

With over 6000 years of sustained civilization, India has been home to diverse social customs and various communities. The country’s culture and architecture have been profoundly impacted by the extensive variation in its geography and climatic conditions. In its history, many kingdoms have ruled in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The vernacular constructions of this region have progressed considerably in this period. The paper discusses the impact on vernacular architecture in Venkatagiri, Andhra Pradesh, post the arrival of the British. The town was a small settlement that finds its roots in the Vijaynagara Empire. The study tries to highlight the amalgamation of colonial influences on the local construction techniques and material usage. It discusses the new variation in the style of architecture through the case of Venkatagiri Palace and its precincts. The paper also discusses the traits of distinction in the influence through various social and economic groups of the old city of the same town.

Keywords: vernacular architecture, colonial architecture, Venkatagiri, south Indian vernacular

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2535 Fashion as a Tool of Modernity and Female Empowerment in the Nineteenth-Century Zenana

Authors: Ira Solomatina

Abstract:

This paper looks at the role of fashion and clothes in the context of the late nineteenth-century Indian zenana. It suggests that fashion and clothes served as tools for self-assertion and empowerment among the zenana women, allowing them to negotiate between tradition and modernity and establish themselves as modern subjects. In pre-Independence India and in upper-class Indians households, zenana was women's part of the house, where women lived separately from men and in seclusion (purdah). To male colonial scholars and officials, zenana remained impenetrable, inviting speculations about the position of the zenana women. In the colonial imagination, the Indian woman was not only the helpless victim, oppressed by the Indian man but also the agent of deviant sexuality. Consequently, in the colonial British scholarship, zenana was portrayed as a space of idleness, perverse sexuality, ignorance, and illness. Contrary to the dominating ideas about zenana, some Western women writers presented more varied accounts of the zenana life, noting on the good education, dignified manners, and sophisticated fashion choices of the women in the zenana. Contemporary research by postcolonial scholars shows that zenana women in purdah travelled, had access to education and political power. The history of India has examples of women rulers in purdah and more than enough instances of zenana women influencing politics and culture. Zenana, in short, was not an ahistorical, dark realm of idleness but the space of culture and a space impacted by modernity. The paper proves that in the context of zenana, clothes, and fashion provided a visual vocabulary for the women to establish themselves as modern subjects and negotiate between modernity and tradition. To do so, it relies on photographs of zenana women and written accounts about and from the nineteenth-century zenana.

Keywords: woman's fashion, colonial India, modernity, zenana

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2534 Transporting the Setting of the Beloved Musical, Peter Pan, to Colonial India

Authors: R. Roznowski

Abstract:

This paper is an examination of a recent Michigan State University production of the classic musical, Peter Pan. In this production, approved by the licensor, the action was moved to Colonial India transforming the musical’s message to include themes of cultural identity, racism, classism and ultimately inclusion. Major character changes and casting decisions expanded the scope of the musical while still retaining the original book and score. Major changes included reframing the Darlings as British Colonials stationed in India. The Lost Boy’s as mixed race children of British officials and their Indian nannies, the Pirates were a female 'fishing fleet' a group of women sent from England to keep the British soldiers from mixing with the locals and the Michigan State University Bhangra Dance Team played the Indians in the production. Traditional Indian theatrical techniques were also employed in the storytelling. The presentation will cover the key changes to the musical, the rehearsal process, historical accuracy and audience reaction. A final analysis of cultural appropriation versus historical reframing will be examined.

Keywords: directing, history, musical theatre, producing

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2533 Plethora of Drivers Transforming Colonial Cities: The Case of Allahabad

Authors: Akanksha Gupta, Vishal Dubey

Abstract:

In the Neoliberal era, there has been a much-talked discourse about urban issues that arise from a narrow approach of the single rationality of market-driven planning in Indian cities. More to this, India's urban planning is already jeopardized by the captious shortage of infrastructure, a cluster of incoherent governing bodies and implementation mechanism, leading cities to lie in the plethora of urban challenges. In this context, Allahabad (now known as Prayagraj) a city in North India is not an exception. Once known as the most planned splendid Colonial city of the British regime in India collapsed phenomenally because of the incompetent approach of planning machinery, straightforward market-driven accession and lack of attention on urban equity and sustainability. Particularly Civil Lines a Colonial neighbourhood, reached to the zenith of the glorified legacy of the Colonial era, transformed into filthy and congested urban form. Contextually this study contemplates and assesses the chronological episodes of major changes in land management reforms and policies under the ad hoc approach of political economy and land use planning which radically degraded the living environment in the present context. This study would empirically showcase the selected sample area detailing some of the major consequences in terms of gradual change in urban morphology, land use, and function. Here the method of study is primarily a qualitative study implying oral history and other historical methods to exhibit the idiom of planning conundrum. This subsequently reflects the repercussions translated into major issues like unclear land titles, encroachment, and unauthorized development and mushrooming of informal and squatter settlements. In nutshell, the study seeks to distinct out the limitations of the land reform and land management policies, which impacted the general degradation to the beautiful setting of Colonial neighbourhood. The Colonial legacy of Civil Lines now exists in the traces of history- memories of people, who once took pride in its serenity have now witnessed the transformation bit by bit till neo-liberal market forces completely swallow it.

Keywords: civil lines, land reforms, policies, urban challenges

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2532 Hindi Cinema in a Post-Colonial India: A Study on Guru Dutt's Self-Expression in 'Pyasa'

Authors: Mrunmayee Das

Abstract:

This study aims to explore the film 'Pyasa' directed by actor-director Guru Dutt, filmed during the 1950’s golden age of Hindi cinema. 'Pyasa' was filmed after a decade of India being a new nation and narrates the world-view of a poet dressed in western ideals, tasting modernity, uprooted from his familial and social moorings causing friction of being between survival and self- expression. The research is based on literature review to study the attitudes, particularly the post-colonial, informing the film. In terms of the structure, the relational study of the film and the historical background of that time came first. Further explorations deal with the use of image making, dialogue, and poetry in the form of songs facilitating the central theme of the human plight of poverty, not of material but of thought. The literature review establishes Dutt’s style of expressing melodic melodrama through a dance between light and shadow majorly in the form of song sequences signifying the greys of the society. It was found in this research that melodrama is created by the changing contrasts and use of close-ups. The song sequences convey the tensions of being a contemporary liberal educated youth and having to deal with the societal-ills of this world, which highlights the theme of compulsion towards self-destruction. It is concluded that Dutt’s 'Pyasa' is a autobiographical commentary on the state of a nation doing away with a borrowed identity and refashioning its own.

Keywords: cinema, Guru Dutt, post-colonial India, self-expression

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2531 The Investigation on the Role of Colonial Judges in Protecting the Rights of Muslim Women to Dower and Divorce in British India: From the Period between 1800-1939

Authors: Sunil Tirkey

Abstract:

The colonial court records between 1800 to 1939 in India show the existence of excessive dower, which were usually paid at the dissolution of marriage to discourage divorce. Supporting this view of excessive dower as a useful device, Mitra Sharafi (legal historian of modern South Asia) argues that inflated dower and divorce law protected Muslim women against instant divorce, making it too expensive for husbands to use it. Further, according to her, British judges enhanced women’s rights to dower and divorce by pronouncing rulings in favour of a high amount of dower to protect the women against the one-sided authority of men to divorce. Contrary to the view of Sharafi, this paper will argue that inflated dower did not protect the rights of women against instant divorce and undesirable marriage, and British judges did not really work to better the lives of Muslim women. To prove so, we shall firstly argue from the court cases that it was challenging for women to prove divorce on the husbands’ denial of divorce in order to avoid the payment of dower. Secondly, it was almost impossible for women to get rid of their undesirable marriage, as divorce was impartially dependent on their husbands. Thirdly, Muslim women were often deprived of their unpaid prompt dower due to the rigorous application of colonial law of limitation by British judges. Furthermore, the abolition of the office of Muslim legal experts from the colonial courts in 1864 deprived Muslim women not only to avail the interpretation of Islamic law but to benefit from the diversity and flexibility of Islamic law in obtaining their right to dower and divorce.

Keywords: courts, divorce, inflated dower, Islamic law, women’s rights

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2530 Colonialism, Health and Women’s Print Culture in South Asia: A Study of Urdu Journals in Colonial India 1900-1930

Authors: Khanday Pervaiz Ahmad

Abstract:

It was in 19th century when the Indian educated class started to reform their socio-religious set up as an imperative to respond to the challenges put forward by the colonial empire. The colonial discourse on India from the very beginning was gendered, as the colonized society was feminized and its ‘effeminate’ character, as opposed to ‘colonial masculinity’ was held to be a justification for its loss of independence. The ‘women health figure’ is prominently in these gender discourses. The women’s health received a much place in the colonial discourse. Lack of health consciousness, illiteracy, and belief in myths, rituals and superstitions were deemed the main factors taken as an indicator of miserable condition of Indian women’s health. As the low position of women caused shame to the natives, reforming the condition of women, its health occupied a major place in their intellectual as well as activist engagements. Magazines (journals) for women began to appear in various Indian languages in the mid to late 19th century with Bengal leading the front. These sources (Magazines) like Harm, Tehzib un Niswan, Saheli, Khatoon etc. are essential for the study of the emergence of an ideology of respectable domesticity in Indian Muslim upper middle class. Similarly for the study of development of Women’s health consciousness, women’s magazines are very essential. These earliest women Urdu magazines were first started by men, and then followed by the women’s own magazines. Various health issues, like pregnancy, child-rearing, menstruation, midwives training, Pardah, and health etc. were discussed at a time when it was impossible to discuss them in public sphere. These women magazines were brave pioneers, expanding the frontiers of women’s roles, and consciousness at a time when those frontiers were severely limited. This paper will try to focus on how women responded to the question of colonial discourse about their bodies. How health consciousness developed among Indian Muslim women and in what way it contributed in the development of feminist consciousness in South Asian Muslim Women community.

Keywords: Ashraf class, khatoon, haram women, feminism

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2529 Urban Growth Outside the Walled City of Tripoli, Libya: Two Colonial Approaches

Authors: Fathia Elmenghawi

Abstract:

The transformation of cities under colonial rule has received a great deal of scholarly work. Colonizers interpret their colonies differently and many urban and planning approaches can be traced. This paper focuses on the colonial approaches of urban expansion in the city of Tripoli, Libya during two colonial periods, the late Ottomans and the Italians, from the 1830s to 1940s. Both had perceived their approaches to the city’s expansion as means of practicing dominance over the colonized under the disguise of facilitating the process of modernization of the city. This research uses a historical method that based on archival documents such as maps, photos, and publications to uncover the planning practices followed by the two colonizers. The findings indicate that despite the similar intentions that both colonizers had when they expanded the city, one striking difference was distinguished, which is how the Ottomans and the Italians planned to treat the Walled City as, respectively, either a context for expansion or as merely remains to marginalize.

Keywords: colonial urban planning, Italian colonization, Ottoman provinces, walled city

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2528 A Desire to be ‘Recognizable and Reformed’: Natives’ Identity in Walcott’s “Dream on Monkey Mountain”

Authors: S. Khurram, N. Mubashar

Abstract:

The paper examines, through the lens of Postcolonial Theory, how natives resist and react in Derrek Walcott’s “Dream on Monkey Mountain”. It aims at how natives, for being ‘recognized and reformed’, mimic and adapt the white’s ways of living. It also focuses how Walcott expresses natives’ reaction when they cannot construct their identity. Moreover, the paper exploits the Homi. K Bhaba’s concept of Mimicry and Berry’s concepts of Hybridity to explain Caribbean native’s plight. Furthermore, it bring forth Walcott’s deep insight into the psychology of the Caribbean natives. He digs deep into the colonial discourse to reconstruct post-colonial identity and he, as a post-colonial writer, does so by deconstructing colonial ideology of racism by resisting against it.

Keywords: postcolonial theory, mimicry, hybridity, reaction

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2527 Man Eaters and the Eaten Men: A Study of the Portrayal of Indians in the Writings of Jim Corbett

Authors: Iti Roychowdhury

Abstract:

India to the Colonial mind was a crazy quilt of multicoloured patchwork- a land of untold wealth and bejewelled maharajas, of snake charmers and tight rope walkers. India was also the land that offered unparalled game. Indeed Shikar (hunting) was de rigueur for the Raj experience. Tales of shootings and trophies were told and retold in clubs and in company. Foremost among the writers of this genre is Jim Corbett – tracker, hunter, writer, conservationist. Corbett is best known for the killing of man eating tigers and his best known books are Man eaters of Kumaon, The Temple Tiger, Man eating Leopard of Rudraprayag etc. The stories of Jim Corbett are stories of hunting, with no palpable design, no subtext of hegemony, or white man’s burden. The protagonists are the cats. Nevertheless from his writings emerge a vibrant picture of Indian villages, of men, women and children toiling for a livelihood under the constant shadow of the man eaters. Corbett shared a symbiotic relationship with the villagers. They needed him to kill the predators while Corbett needed the support of the locals as drum beaters, coolies and runners to accomplish his tasks. The aim of the present paper is to study the image of Indians in the writings of Jim Corbett and to examine them in the light of colonial perception of Indians.

Keywords: hegemony, orientalism, Shikar literature, White Man's Burden

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2526 Saving the Decolonized Subject from Neglected Tropical Diseases: Public Health Campaign and Household-Centred Sanitation in Colonial West Africa, 1900-1960

Authors: Adebisi David Alade

Abstract:

In pre-colonial West Africa, the deadliness of the climate vis-a- vis malaria and other tropical diseases to Europeans turned the region into the “white man’s grave.” Thus, immediately after the partition of Africa in 1885, civilisatrice and mise en valeur not only became a pretext for the establishment of colonial rule; from a medical point of view, the control and possible eradication of disease in the continent emerged as one of the first concerns of the European colonizers. Though geared toward making Africa exploitable, historical evidence suggests that some colonial Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) policies and projects reduced certain tropical diseases in some West African communities. Exploring some of these disease control interventions by way of historical revisionism, this paper challenges the orthodox interpretation of colonial sanitation and public health measures in West Africa. This paper critiques the deployment of race and class as analytical tools for the study of colonial WASH projects, an exercise which often reduces the complexity and ambiguity of colonialism to the binary of colonizer and the colonized. Since West Africa presently ranks high among regions with Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs), it is imperative to decentre colonial racism and economic exploitation in African history in order to give room for Africans to see themselves in other ways. Far from resolving the problem of NTDs by fiat in the region, this study seeks to highlight important blind spots in African colonial history in an attempt to prevent post-colonial African leaders from throwing away the baby with the bath water. As scholars researching colonial sanitation and public health in the continent rarely examine its complex meaning and content, this paper submits that the outright demonization of colonial rule across space and time continues to build ideological wall between the present and the past which not only inhibit fruitful borrowing from colonial administration of West Africa, but also prevents a wide understanding of the challenges of WASH policies and projects in most West African states.

Keywords: colonial rule, disease control, neglected tropical diseases, WASH

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2525 Colonialism and Modernism in Architecture, the Case of a Blank Page Opportunity in Casablanka

Authors: Nezha Alaoui

Abstract:

The early 1950s French colonial context in Morocco provided an opportunity for architects to question the modernist established order by building dwellings for the local population. The dwellings were originally designed to encourage Muslims to adopt an urban lifestyle based on local customs. However, the inhabitants transformed their dwelling into a hybrid habitation. This paper aims to prove the relevance of the design process in accordance with the local colonial context by analyzing the dwellers' appropriation process and the modification of their habitat.

Keywords: colonial heritage, appropriation process, islamic spatial habit, housing experiment, modernist mass housing

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2524 Patriarchy in Caste Society and Control over Women’s Sexuality in India

Authors: Renu Singh

Abstract:

The caste system in Indian society plays an important role in subjugation of women. It creates divides and controls over women’s sexuality in various ways. This paper attempts to look into various modes in which the institution of caste makes some forms of sexuality as socially “acceptable” norms, while deems others as obscene, immoral and against social ethos. Based on a review of existing literature in this area this paper attempts to understand the notion of sexuality in Indian context. It tries to understand how the emergence of norms and values of sexual behaviour has been entwined with the evolution of caste system and the subjugation of many sections of Indian society. It also attempts to trace the internalisation of patriarchal values in Indian society, and the role played by the colonial rulers in creating and maintaining stringent division of space into public and private ones. It is argued here that brahmanical patriarchy, which is a unique phenomenon of the Indian Subcontinent, plays a crucial role in subjugating and controlling women in general and their sexuality in particular. It also creates a divide among women of different castes. Furthermore, the process of colonisation played an important role in shaping the discourse of sexuality in its present form. There were contradictions as well as consensus between the colonial rulers over the questions of regulation of the private domain, as in introducing reform legislation in the nineteenth century informed the debate on sexuality in postcolonial India. The process of emergence of the dichotomous notions of ‘good’ and ‘bad’ sexuality, and the resistance to any ‘deviation’ from the ‘normal’ sexuality is located, not merely in the ‘passive’ evolution of society, but in the actual politics of it.

Keywords: caste, control, sexuality, regulation, brahmanical patriarchy, India

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2523 Bauhaus Exhibition 1922: New Weapon of Anti-Colonial Resistance in India

Authors: Suneet Jagdev

Abstract:

The development of the original Bauhaus occurred at a time in the beginning of the 20th century when the industrialization of Germany had reached a climax. The cities were a reflection of the new living conditions of an industrialized society. The Bauhaus can be interpreted as an ambitious attempt to find appropriate answers to the challenges by using architecture-urban development and design. The core elements of the conviction of the day were the belief in the necessary crossing of boundaries between the various disciplines and courage to experiment for a better solution. Even after 100 years, the situation in our cities is shaped by similar complexity. The urban consequences of developments are difficult to estimate and to predict. The paper critically reflected on the central aspects of the history of the Bauhaus and its role in bringing the modernism in India by comparative studies of the methodology adopted by the artists and designer in both the countries. The paper talked in detail about how the Bauhaus Exhibition in 1922 offered Indian artists a new weapon of anti-colonial resistance. The original Bauhaus fought its aesthetic and political battles in the context of economic instability and the rise of German fascism. The Indians had access to dominant global languages and in a particular English. The availability of print media and a vibrant indigenous intellectual culture provided Indian people a tool to accept technology while denying both its dominant role in culture and the inevitability of only one form of modernism. The indigenous was thus less an engagement with their culture as in the West than a tool of anti-colonial struggle. We have shown how the Indian people used Bauhaus as a critique of colonialism itself through an undermining of its typical modes of representation and as a means of incorporating the Indian desire for spirituality into art and as providing the cultural basis for a non-materialistic and anti-industrial form of what we might now term development. The paper reflected how through painting the Bauhaus entered the artistic consciousness of the sub-continent not only for its stylistic and technical innovations but as a tool for a critical and even utopian modernism that could challenge both the hegemony of academic and orientalist art and as the bearer of a transnational avant-garde as much political as it was artistic, and as such the basis of a non-Eurocentric but genuinely cosmopolitan alternative to the hierarchies of oppression and domination that had long bound India and were at that moment rising once again to a tragic crescendo in Europe. We have talked about how the Bauhaus of today can offer an innovative orientation towards discourse around architecture and design.

Keywords: anti-colonial struggle, art over architecture, Bauhaus exhibition of 1922, industrialization

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2522 Vénus Noire: A (Post)Colonial Gaze

Authors: Hania Pasandi

Abstract:

Over his first three films, Abdellatif Kechiche established himself as one of the most celebrated directors at work in twenty-first-century French cinema. While his first three movies, La Faute à Voltaire (2000), L’Esquive (2003), and La Graine et le mulet (2007) tell stories about individuals of the Maghrebi origin or descent struggling to find their place in the contemporary French Republic, his 2010’s movie, Vénus noire (2010) recounts the true story of the so-called ‘Hottentot Venus’, Saartjie Baartman, who became famous after her stage appearances in London and Paris in the early eighteenth century. The movie shows the complex ways in which gender and ethnicity can combine in exclusionary discourse. This paper studies gender and racial identities, the irony of science theorisation about ethnicities through the male colonial gaze on a heavily exhibited woman. This paper explores how Vénus Noire engages the spectator’s own corporeal awareness of violence and calls attention to the othering practices of (post)colonial times.

Keywords: gender, (post)colonial gaze, other, violence

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2521 Encounters with the Other Sisters of the Past: the Role of Colonial History and Memory in the Adjustment of the Postcolonial Female Identity

Authors: Fatiha Kaïd Berrahal, Nassima Kaïd, Djihad Affaf Selt

Abstract:

The present paper is a comparative analysis of the Algerian writer Assia Djebar’s women of Algiers in Their Apartment (1982) and the Anglo-Egyptian Ahdaf Soueif’s The Map of Love (1999) foregrounded on the female protagonists’ painfully common colonial and patriarchal experiences, though in different geographical regions of North Africa. This study raises questions pertaining, first, to the emerging contemporary genre “Historiographic meta-fiction” in which the novels examined could be inscribed, then, the interplay of colonial history and personal memory that impinges on the development of the identity of the post-colonial female subject. As the novels alternate between the historical and the autobiographical, we currently seek to understand how it is pertinent and pressing for women to excavate the lost and occluded stories of the past for the adjustment of their present personal identities, which are undoubtedly an important part of the identity of a nation.

Keywords: postcolonial feminism, islamic feminism, memory, histoirographic metafiction

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2520 Law Verses Tradition: Beliefs in and Practices of Witchcraft in Contemporary Ghana and the Law

Authors: Baba Iddrisu Musah

Abstract:

Many Ghanaians, including the rich and downtrodden, elite and unlettered, rural and urban dwellers, politicians and civil servants, in one way or the other, believe in and practice witchcraft. The existence of witches’ camp in northern Ghana, the rise of Pentecostal churches, especially in southern Ghana with the penchant to cleanse people of witchcraft, as well as media reports of witchcraft imputations assuming wider dimensions in the country, often classified as a citadel of democracy, good governance and human rights in Africa, buttress the pervasive nature of belief in and the practice of witchcraft in the country. This is in spite of the fact that tremendous efforts, especially by British colonial authorities, were made to regulate witchcraft beliefs and its associated practices. Informed by Western values and philosophy, witchcraft was considered by colonial authorities as illogical and unscientific. This paper, which is largely a review of existing literature, supplemented by archival information from the national archives of Ghana, focuses on the nature of witchcraft regulation in Ghana’s pre-colonial and colonial past, as well as immediately after Ghana obtained her independence in 1957. This article concludes by rhetorically questioning whether or not believing in and the practice of witchcraft in contemporary Ghana in general, and the existence of witches’ camps in the northern region of the country are attributed to the failure of past regulations, as well as the failure of present government policies.

Keywords: colonial, natives, regulation, witchcraft

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2519 The Jury System in the Courts in Nineteenth Century Assam: Power Negotiations and Politics in an Institutional Rubric of a Colonial Regime

Authors: Jahnu Bharadwaj

Abstract:

In the third decade of the 19th century, the political landscape of the Brahmaputra valley changed at many levels. The establishment of East India Company’s authority in ‘Assam’ was complete with the Treaty of Yandaboo. The whole phenomenon of the annexation of Assam into the British Indian Empire led to several administrative reorganizations and reforms under the new regime. British colonial rule was distinguished by new systems and institutions of governance. This paper broadly looks at the historical proceedings of the introduction of the Rule of Law and a new legal structure in the region of ‘Assam’. With numerous archival data, this paper seeks to chiefly examine the trajectory of an important element in the new legal apparatus, i.e. the jury in the British criminal courts introduced in the newly annexed region. Right from the beginning of colonial legal innovations with the establishment of the panchayats and the parallel courts in Assam, the jury became an important element in the structure of the judicial system. In both civil and criminal courts, the jury was to be formed from the learned members of the ‘native’ society. In the working of the criminal court, the jury became significantly powerful and influential. The structure meant that the judge or the British authority eventually had no compulsion to obey the verdict of the jury. However, the structure also provided that the jury had a considerable say in matters of the court proceedings, and their verdict had significant weight. This study seeks to look at certain important criminal cases pertaining to the nineteenth century and the functioning of the jury in those cases. The power play at display between the British officials, judges and the members of the jury would be helpful in highlighting the important deliberations and politics that were in place in the functioning of the British criminal legal apparatus in colonial Assam. The working and the politics of the members of the jury in many cases exerted considerable influence in the court proceedings. The interesting negotiations of the British officials or judges also present us with vital insights. By reflecting on the difficulty that the British officials and judges felt with the considerable space for opinion and difference that was provided to important members of the local society, this paper seeks to locate, with evidence, the racial politics at play within the official formulations of the legal apparatus in the colonial rule in Assam. This study seeks to argue that despite the rhetorical claims of legal equality within the Empire, racial consideration and racial politics was a reality even in the making of the structure itself. This in a way helps to enrich our ideas about the racial elements at work in numerous layers sustaining the colonial regime.

Keywords: criminal courts, colonial regime, jury, race

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2518 Articulating the Colonial Relation, a Conversation between Afropessimism and Anti-Colonialism

Authors: Thomas Compton

Abstract:

As Decolonialism becomes an important topic in Political Theory, the rupture between the colonized and the colonist relation has lost attention. Focusing on the anti-colonial activist Madhi Amel, we shall consider his attention to the permanence of the colonial relation and how it preempts Frank Wilderson’s formulation of (white) culturally necessary Anti-Black violence. Both projects draw attention away from empirical accounts of oppression, instead focusing on the structural relation which precipitates them. As Amel says that we should stop thinking of the ‘underdeveloped’ as beyond the colonial relation, Wilderson says we should stop think of the Black rights that have surpassed the role of the slave. However, Amel moves beyond his idol Althusser’s Structuralism toward a formulation of the colonial relation as source of domination. Our analysis will take a Lacanian turn in considering how this non-relation was formulated as a relation how this space of negativity became a ideological opportunity for Colonial domination. Wilderson’s work shall problematise this as we conclude with his criticisms of Structural accounts for the failure to consider how Black social death exists as more than necessity but a cite of white desire. Amel, a Lebanese activist and scholar (re)discovered by Hicham Safieddine, argues colonialism is more than the theft of land, but instead a privatization of collective property and form of investment which (re)produces the status of the capitalist in spaces ‘outside’ the market. Although Amel was a true Marxist-Leninsist, who exposited the economic determinacy of the Colonial Mode of Production, we are reading this account through Alenka Zupančič’s reformulation of the ‘invisible hand job of the market’. Amel points to the signifier ‘underdeveloped’ as buttressed on a pre-colonial epistemic break, as the Western investor (debt collector) sees the (post?) colony narcissistic image. However, the colony can never become site of class conflict, as the workers are not unified but existing between two countries. In industry, they are paid in Colonial subjectivisation, the promise of market (self)pleasure, at home, they are refugees. They are not, as Wilderson states, in the permanent social death of the slave, but they are less than the white worker. This is formulated as citizen (white), non-citizen (colonized), anti-citizen (Black/slave). Here we may also think of how indentured Indians were used as instruments of colonial violence. Wilderson’s aphorism “there is no analogy to anti-Black violence” lays bare his fundamental opposition between colonial and specifically anti-Black violence. It is not only that the debt collector, landowner, or other owners of production pleasures themselves as if their hand is invisible. The absolute negativity between colony and colonized provides a new frontier for desire, the development of a colonial mode of production. An invention inside the colonial structure that is generative of class substitution. We shall explore how Amel ignores the role of the slave but how Wilderson forecloses the history African anti-colonial.

Keywords: afropessimism, fanon, marxism, postcolonialism

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2517 Sounds of Power: An Ethnoorganological Approach to Understanding Colonial Music Culture in the Peruvian Andes

Authors: Natascha Reich

Abstract:

In colonial Peru, the Spanish crown relied on religious orders, most notably Dominicans, Franciscans, and Jesuits, for accelerating processes of colonization. The dissemination of Christian art, architecture, and music, and most of all, the agency of indigenous people in their production played a key role in facilitating the acceptance of the new religious and political system. Current research on Peruvian colonial music culture and its role as a vehicle for colonization focus on practices in urban centers. The lack of (written) primary sources seems to turn rural areas into a less attractive research territory for musicologists. This paper advocates for a more inclusive approach. By investigating seventeenth-century pipe organs as material remains of Franciscan missionary music culture, it shows how reactions to colonial forces and Christianization in rural Andean locations could follow tendencies different from those in urban areas. Indigenous musicians in cities tried to 'fit' into the European system in order to be accepted by the ruling Spanish elite. By contrast, the indigenous-built pipe organs in the rural Peruvian Colca-Valley show distinctly native-Andean influences. This paper argues that this syncretism can be interpreted as hybridity in Homi K. Bhabha’s sense, as a means of the colonized to undermine the power of the colonizer and to advance reactionary politics. Not only will it show the necessity of considering rural Peruvian music history in modern scholarship for arriving at a more complete picture of colonial culture, but it will also evidence the advantages of a mixed-methodology approach. Historical organology, combined with concepts from ethnomusicology and post-colonial studies, proves as a useful tool in the absence or scarcity of written primary sources.

Keywords: cultural hybridity, music as reactionary politics, Latin American pipe organs, Peruvian colonial music

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2516 Assessing India’s Foreign Policy Towards Afghanistan

Authors: Saifurahman Fayiz

Abstract:

Afghanistan and India have close technical, political, economic, and diplomatic bilateral ties. The ties is not limited between the governments of the two countries, but their relationship are among the peoples. India is the best regional trustworthy partner and biggest donor for the development of Afghanistan. The objectives of this study to assess India’s foreign policy towards Afghanistan since 9\11. The research method conducted based on qualitative research method with descriptive. The research findings propose that; India should deal with and build up its strategy relations with neighbor countries.

Keywords: strategy, policy, India, Afghanistan

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2515 Corruption in India: Causes and Remedial Measures

Authors: Ghulam Nabi Naz

Abstract:

After independence, the popular belief that Gandhian will not indulge in corruption got a setback, post-independence setup paved the way for heavy corruption. The menace which would have dealt with strong legal provisions has become a way of life of Indian society. Corruption is recognized as the single biggest problem facing the country today. It undermines democracy and rule of law, violates human rights, distorts market and corrodes the moral fibre of people. The paper discusses the causes and possible remedial measures of corruption and response of people in Indian society. It emphasizes the factors which provide fertile ground for growth of corruption like, degradation of moral values, absence of a strong anti-corruption law and its effective enforcement, accountability, consistency and a defective system of fighting elections. The paper also highlights the reforms necessary for fighting corruption in India.

Keywords: embezzlement, colonial, licence Raj, good governance, misappropriation, Sangh ideologue, Anna movement

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2514 Changing Pattern and Trend of Head of Household in India: Evidence from Various Rounds of National Family Health Survey

Authors: Moslem Hossain, Mukesh Kumar, K. C. Das

Abstract:

Background: Household headship is the crucial decision-maker as well as the economic provider of the household. In Indian society, household heads occupied by men from the pre-colonial period. This study attempt to examine the changes in household headship in India. Methods: The study used univariate and multivariate analysis to examine the trends and patterns of different characteristics of the household head using the various rounds of national family health survey data. Results: The female household head is gradually increasing; on the other hand, the male-dominant is decreasing over the four national family and health surveys. The mean age of the household head is higher in rural areas than urban India. Only ten percentage of Households are higher educated, and 83 percent of the male household head has a low standard of living. The mean family size of the household has a decreasing trend in both the urban and rural areas during the study period. Conclusions: The result indicates that women's autonomy is increasing and leading to inclusive growth, which introduced in the eleven five year plan, especially focuses on the woman and young people in the country.

Keywords: household head, national family health survey, mean age, mean family size

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2513 India’s Strategy toward Afghanistan since 9\11

Authors: Saifurahman Fayiz

Abstract:

overall, India had friendly relation with different governments in Afghanistan except for the Taliban regime amongst the years 1996 to 2001. The terrorist attack in the United States provided India a chance to follow its strategy in Afghanistan. India support Afghanistan since 9\11. The objectives of this study to study India’s strategy towards Afghanistan and its implication to neighbor countries. The research method conducted based on qualitative research method with descriptive. The research findings propose that; India has chosen a soft power policy to implement its strategy in Afghanistan.

Keywords: strategy, policy, soft power, Afghanistan

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2512 State of Conservation of the British Colonial Architectural Heritage of Karachi: Case Study of Damage Mapping of Empress Market Building

Authors: Tania Ali Soomro

Abstract:

In 1839, the British, after the annexation of the port city of Karachi, established a new urban centre consisting of various quarters and introduced new settlements there. These quarters were out of the boundaries of fortified native old area and now contain much of the oldest parts of the city and signify the colonial history of Karachi, in particular the Saddar Bazaar and the neighboring areas of Kharadar and Mithadar. These quarters bestow a mix of functional typology built in a hybrid form of construction - an adaptation of the western architectural attributes to regional requirements and characteristics. This approach is referred to as the Anglo Vernacular, Colonial or the Domestic Gothic architectural form. This research paper investigates the historical and architectural value of one such property: the Empress Market designed by then Municipal Architect, Ar. James Strachan in 1889 as a commemorative monument for the jubilee of Her Majesty the Queen Victoria; Empress of British India, at that time. This paper presents information on the present conservation status of the market building and highlights its role as a catalyst to the community interconnection. This building has survived to present day and functioned well, despite undergoing numerous transformations. A detailed analysis of the bio-degradation (Natural-Chemical dissolution of material) and the bio-deterioration (Manmade-Negative state change of the material) of the building, based on the examination of the prevailing causes of these bio-alterations is carried out, and is presented in form of a damage atlas containing both the categories of bio-alteration/ changes occurred to the building over the time. The research methodology followed in this paper starts with the available archival analysis, physical observation, photographic documentation, the statistics review and the interviews with the direct and indirect stakeholders. The results and findings of this research portray that these bio-alterations and changes are the essential part of the life cycle of Empress Market building which illustrate the historic development of the premise and therefore ought to be given due importance (depending upon their condition) while developing the conservation plan for the building.

Keywords: British colonial architecture, bio-alteration, bio-degradation, bio-deterioration, domestic gothic architectural form

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2511 Enriching Post-Colonial Discourse: An Appraisal of Doms Pagliawan’s Fire Extinguisher

Authors: Robertgie L. Pianar

Abstract:

Post-colonial theory, post-colonialism, or Poco is a recently established literary theory. Consequently, not many literary works, local and international, have been subjected to its criticism. To help intellectualize local literary texts, in particular, through post-colonial discourse, this qualitative inquiry unfolded. Textual analysis was employed to describe, analyse, and interpret Doms Pagliawan’s Fire Extinguisher, a regional work of literature, grounded on the postcolonial concepts of Edward Said’s Otherness, Homi Bhabha’s Unhomeliness or Paralysis, and Frantz Fanon’s Cultural Resistance. The in-depth reading affirmed that the story contains those postcolonial attributes, revealing the following; (A) the presence of the colonizer, who successfully established colonial control over the colonized, the other, was found; (B) through power superimposition, the colonized character was silenced or paralyzed; and, (C) forms of cultural resistance from the colonized character were shown but no matter how its character avoids ‘postcolonial acts’, the struggle just intensifies, hence inevitable. Pagliawan’s Fire Extinguisher is thus a post-colonial text realizer between two differing cultures, the colonizer and the other. Results of this study may substantiate classroom discussions, both undergraduate and graduate classes, specifically in Philippine and World literature, 21st Century literature, readings in New English literatures, and literary theory and criticism courses, scaffolding learners’ grasp of post-colonialism as a major literary theory drawing classic exemplifications from this regional work.

Keywords: cultural resistance, otherness, post-colonialism, textual analysis, unhomeliness/paralysis

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2510 A Critical Analysis of Environmental Investment in India

Authors: K. Y. Chen, H. Chua, C. W. Kan

Abstract:

Environmental investment is an important issue in many countries. In this study, we will first review the environmental issues related to India and their effect on the economical development. Secondly, economic data would be collected from government yearly statistics. The statistics would also include the environmental investment information of India. Finally, we would co-relate the data in order to find out the relationship between environmental investment and sustainable development in India. Therefore, in the paper, we aim to analyse the effect of an environmental investment on the sustainable development in India. Based on the economic data collected, India is in development status with fast population and GDP growth speed. India is facing the environment problems due to its high-speed development. However, the environment investment could give a positive impact on the sustainable development in India. The environmental investment is keeping in the same growth rate with GDP. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the financial support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for this work.

Keywords: India, environmental investment, sustainable development, analysis

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2509 Continuity of Place-Identity: Identifying Regional Components of Kerala Architecture through 1805-1950

Authors: Manoj K. Kumar, Deepthi Bathala

Abstract:

Man has the need to know and feel as a part of the historical continuum and it is this continuum that reinforces his identity. Architecture and the built environment contribute to this identity as established by the various identity theories exploring the relationship between the two. Architecture which is organic has been successful in maintaining a continuum of identity until the advent of globalization when the world saw a drastic shift to architecture of ‘placelessness’. The answer to the perfect synthesis of ‘universalization’ and ‘regionalism’ is an ongoing quest. However, history has established a smooth transition from vernacular to colonial to modern unlike the architecture of today. The traditional Kerala architecture has evolved from the tropical climate, geography, local needs, materials, skills and foreign influences. It is unique in contrast to the architecture of the neighboring states as a result of the geographical barriers however influenced by the architecture of the Orient due to trade relations. Through 1805 to 1950, the European influence on the architecture of Kerala resulted in the emergence of the colonial style which managed to establish a continuum of the traditional architecture. The paper focuses on the identification of the components of architecture that established the continuity of place-identity in the architecture of Kerala and examines the transition from the traditional Kerala architecture to colonial architecture during the colonial period. Visual surveys based on the principles of urban design, cognitive mapping, typology analysis followed by the strong understanding of the morphological and built environment along with the matrix method are the research tools used. The understanding of these components of continuity can be useful in creating buildings which people can relate to in the present day. South-Asia shares the history of colonialism and the understanding of these components can pave the way for further research on how to establish a regional identity in the era of globalization.

Keywords: colonial, identity, place, regional

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