Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8933

Search results for: maternal effects

8933 The Effects of Early Maternal Separation on Risky Choice in Rats

Authors: Osvaldo Collazo, Cristiano Valerio Dos Santos

Abstract:

Early maternal separation has been shown to bring about many negative effects on behavior in rats. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of early maternal separation on risky choice in rats. One group of male and female Wistar rats was exposed to an early maternal separation protocol while a control group was left undisturbed. Then both groups were exposed to a series of behavioral tests, including a test of risky choice, where one alternative offered a constant reward while the other offered a variable reward. There was a difference between groups when they chose between a variable and a constant reward delay, but no other difference was significant. These results suggest that early maternal separation may be related to a greater preference for shorter delays, which is characteristic of more impulsive choices.

Keywords: early maternal separation, impulsivity, risky choice, variability

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8932 Maternal Death Review and Contextualization of Maternal Death in West Bengal

Authors: M. Illias Kanchan

Abstract:

The death of a woman during pregnancy and childbirth is not only a health issue, but also a matter of social injustice. This study makes an attempt to explore the association between maternal death and associated factors in West Bengal using the approaches of facility-based and community-based maternal death review. Bivariate and binary logistic regression analysis have been performed to understand the causes and circumstances of maternal deaths in West Bengal. Delay in seeking care was the major contributor in maternal deaths, near about one-third women died due to this factor. The most common cause of maternal death is found to be hypertensive disorders of pregnancy or eclampsia. We believe that these deaths can be averted by reducing hypertensive disorders of pregnancy or eclampsia.

Keywords: maternal death, facility-based, community-based, review, west Bengal, eclampsia

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8931 Analysis of Trends in Equity of Maternal Health Care in South India

Authors: Anushree S. Panikkassery

Abstract:

The paper analyses the pattern and trend of maternal health care in south Indian states. It studies the interstate disparities in terms of maternal health care. It also compares the trends in terms of achieving the target of sustainable development Goal is related to maternal health. The maternal health care (MHC) development is one of the key indicators for the development of health sector in the country and assumes significance from the socioeconomic and developmental perspectives. Maternal health care mainly consists of composite care during pregnancy, child birth as well as postpartum period. Antenatal care, identification, referral and management of high risk pregnancies, safe and healthy child birth and early postnatal care are some of the important issues pertaining to maternal health. Data is collected from national family health survey 1992-93, 1998-99, 2005-06, and 2015-16. A concentration index is used to study the disparities in equity of maternal health among south Indian states. The study shows that there has been an improvement in maternal health care in south Indian states with Kerala topping among the states. But there exist disparities among the south Indian states.

Keywords: antenatal care, disparities, equity, maternal health

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8930 The Negative Impact of the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic on Maternal and Child Health, Considering Maternal Experiences of Abuse and Neglect in Childhood

Authors: Franziska Köhler-Dauner, Inka Mayer, Lara Hart, Ute Ziegenhain, Jörg M. Fegert

Abstract:

Preventive isolation and social distancing strategies during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic have confronted families with a variety of different restrictions and stresses. Especially during this stressful time, children need a stable parental home to avoid developmental disorders. Additional risk factors such as maternal childhood abuse and neglect (CM) experiences may influence mothers' psychosomatic health (pG) and children's physical well-being (kW) during times of increased stress. Our aim was to analyse the interaction between maternal CM, maternal pG and children's kW during the pandemic. Mothers from a well-documented birth cohort to study transgenerational transmission of CM, were included in an online 'pandemic' survey assessing maternal pG and children's physical health during the pandemic. Our mediation analysis showed a significant positive association between the extent of maternal CM experiences, mothers' psychosomatic symptoms and their children's kW. Maternal psychosomatic symptoms significantly mediate the interaction between CM and children's kW; the direct effect remains non-significant when maternal psychosomatic symptoms are included as mediators. Maternal CM appears to be a relevant risk factor for maternal pG and children's kW during the pandemic. Maternal CM experiences seem to influence the way parents cope with stressful situations and increase the risk of suffering from depressive symptoms. The latter also affect their children's kW. Our findings underline the importance of carefully assessing the specific situation of families with children and offering individually adapted help to help families survive the pandemic.

Keywords: pandemic, maternal health, child health, abuse, neglect, maternal experiences

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8929 Risk Factors for Maternal and Neonatal Morbidities Associated with Operative Vaginal Deliveries

Authors: Maria Reichenber Arcilla

Abstract:

Objective: To determine the risk factors for maternal and neonatal complications associated with operative vaginal deliveries. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 435 patients who underwent operative vaginal deliveries was done. Patient profiles – age, parity, AOG, duration of labor – and outcomes – birthweight, maternal and neonatal complications - were tabulated and multivariable analysis and logistic regression were performed using SPSS® Statistics Base. Results and Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the incidence of maternal and neonatal complications between those that underwent vacuum and forceps extraction. Among the variables analysed, parity and duration of labor reached statistical significance. The odds of maternal complications were 3 times higher among nulliparous patients. Neonatal complications were seen in those whose labor lasted more than 9 hours.

Keywords: operative vaginal deliveries, maternal, neonatal, morbidity

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8928 Maternal Health Outcome and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Dynamic Panel Analysis

Authors: Okwan Frank

Abstract:

Maternal health outcome is one of the major population development challenges in Sub-Saharan Africa. The region has the highest maternal mortality ratio, despite the progressive economic growth in the region during the global economic crisis. It has been hypothesized that increase in economic growth will reduce the level of maternal mortality. The purpose of this study is to investigate the existence of the negative relationship between health outcome proxy by maternal mortality ratio and economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. The study used the Pooled Mean Group estimator of ARDL Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) and the Kao test for cointegration to examine the short-run and long-run relationship between maternal mortality and economic growth. The results of the cointegration test showed the existence of a long-run relationship between the variables considered for the study. The long-run result of the Pooled Mean group estimates confirmed the hypothesis of an inverse relationship between maternal health outcome proxy by maternal mortality ratio and economic growth proxy by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita. Thus increasing economic growth by investing in the health care systems to reduce pregnancy and childbirth complications will help reduce maternal mortality in the sub-region.

Keywords: economic growth, maternal mortality, pool mean group, Sub-Saharan Africa

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8927 Estimates of (Co)Variance Components and Genetic Parameters for Body Weights and Growth Efficiency Traits in the New Zealand White Rabbits

Authors: M. Sakthivel, A. Devaki, D. Balasubramanyam, P. Kumarasamy, A. Raja, R. Anilkumar, H. Gopi

Abstract:

The genetic parameters of growth traits in the New Zealand White rabbits maintained at Sheep Breeding and Research Station, Sandynallah, The Nilgiris, India were estimated by partitioning the variance and covariance components. The (co)variance components of body weights at weaning (W42), post-weaning (W70) and marketing (W135) age and growth efficiency traits viz., average daily gain (ADG), relative growth rate (RGR) and Kleiber ratio (KR) estimated on a daily basis at different age intervals (1=42 to 70 days; 2=70 to 135 days and 3=42 to 135 days) from weaning to marketing were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood, fitting six animal models with various combinations of direct and maternal effects. Data were collected over a period of 15 years (1998 to 2012). A log-likelihood ratio test was used to select the most appropriate univariate model for each trait, which was subsequently used in bivariate analysis. Heritability estimates for W42, W70 and W135 were 0.42 ± 0.07, 0.40 ± 0.08 and 0.27 ± 0.07, respectively. Heritability estimates of growth efficiency traits were moderate to high (0.18 to 0.42). Of the total phenotypic variation, maternal genetic effect contributed 14 to 32% for early body weight traits (W42 and W70) and ADG1. The contribution of maternal permanent environmental effect varied from 6 to 18% for W42 and for all the growth efficiency traits except for KR2. Maternal permanent environmental effect on most of the growth efficiency traits was a carryover effect of maternal care during weaning. Direct maternal genetic correlations, for the traits in which maternal genetic effect was significant, were moderate to high in magnitude and negative in direction. Maternal effect declined as the age of the animal increased. The estimates of total heritability and maternal across year repeatability for growth traits were moderate and an optimum rate of genetic progress seems possible in the herd by mass selection. The estimates of genetic and phenotypic correlations among body weight traits were moderate to high and positive; among growth efficiency traits were low to high with varying directions; between body weights and growth efficiency traits were very low to high in magnitude and mostly negative in direction. Moderate to high heritability and higher genetic correlation in body weight traits promise good scope for genetic improvement provided measures are taken to keep the inbreeding at the lowest level.

Keywords: genetic parameters, growth traits, maternal effects, rabbit genetics

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8926 Parental Diet Effects on Offspring Body Size and Pathogen Resistance in Bactrocera tryoni

Authors: Hue Dinh, Binh Nguyen, Vivian Mendez, Phillip W. Taylor, Fleur Ponton

Abstract:

Better understanding of how parental diet affects offspring traits is an important ecological and evolutionary question. In this study, we explored how maternal diet influences offspring physiology and resistance to infection using Bactrocera tryoni (Q-fly) as a system model. Female Q-flies were fed one of six single diets varying in their yeast-to-sugar ratio yielding six protein-to-carbohydrate ratios. As controls, we used females that were given a choice between yeast and sugar. Males were reared on a choice diet and allowed to mate with females 14 days post-emergence. Results showed that while maternal diet does not influence offspring developmental time, it has a strong effect on larval body weight. Mother fed either high-protein or high-sugar diet produced larger progeny. By challenging offspring with the bacterium Serratia marcescens, we found that female offspring from mothers fed high-sugar diet survived better the infection compared to those from mothers fed low-sugar diet. In contrast, male offspring produced by mother fed high-protein diet showed better resistance to the infection compared to those produced by mother fed low-protein diet. These results suggested sex-dependent transgenerational effects of maternal nutrition on offspring physiology and immunity.

Keywords: bacterial infection, Bactrocera tryoni, maternal diet, offspring, Serretia marcescens

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8925 Patterns of Associations between Child Maltreatment, Maternal Childhood Adversity, and Maternal Mental Well-Being: A Cross-Sectional Study in Tirana, Albania

Authors: Klea Ramaj

Abstract:

Objectives: There have recently been increasing calls to better understand the intergenerational transmission of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). In particular, little is known about the links between maternal (ACEs), maternal stress, maternal depression, and child abuse against toddlers in countries in South-East Europe. This paper, therefore, aims to present new descriptive data on the epidemiology of maternal mental well-being and maternal ACEs in the capital of Albania, Tirana. It also aims to advance our understanding of the overlap between maternal stress, maternal depression, maternal exposure to ACEs, and child abuse toward two-to-three-year-old. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted with a representative sample of 328 mothers of two-to-three-year-olds, recruited through public nurseries located in 8 diverse socio-economic and geographical areas in Tirana, Albania. Maternal stress was measured through the perceived stress scale (α = 0.78); maternal depression was measured via the patient health questionnaire (α = 0.77); maternal exposure to ACEs was captured via the ACEs international questionnaire (α = 0.77); and child maltreatment was captured via ISPCAN ICAST-P (α = 0.66). The main outcome examined here will be child maltreatment. The paper will first present estimates of maternal stress, depression, and child maltreatment by demographic groups. It will then use multiple regression to examine associations between child maltreatment and risk factors in the domains of maternal stress, maternal depression, and maternal ACEs. Results: Mothers' mean age was 32.3 (SD = 4.24), 87.5% were married, 51% had one child, and 83.5% had completed higher education. Analyses show high levels of stress and exposure to childhood adversity among mothers in Tirana. 97.5% of mothers perceived stress during the last month, and 89% had experienced at least one childhood adversity as measured by the ACE questionnaire, with 20.2% having experienced 4+ ACEs. Analyses show significant positive associations between maternal ACEs and maternal stress r(325) = 0.25, p = 0.00. Mothers with a high number of ACEs were more likely to abuse their children r(327) = .43, p = 0.00. 32% of mothers have used physical discipline with their 2–3-year-old, 84% have used psychological discipline, and 35% have neglected their toddler at least once or twice. The mothers’ depression levels were also positively and significantly associated with child maltreatment r(327) = .34, p = 0.00. Conclusions: This study provides cross-sectional data on the link between maternal exposure to early adversity, maternal mental well-being, and child maltreatment within the context of Tirana, Albania. The results highlight the importance of establishing policies that encourage maternal support, positive parenting, and family well-being in order to help break the cycle of transgenerational violence.

Keywords: child maltreatment, maternal mental well-being, intergenerational abuse, Tirana, Albania

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8924 Anemia Maternal in Pregnancy as a Risk Factor of Low Birth Weight: A Systematic Review

Authors: Herlena Hayati, Diyan Reni Jayathi, Hairida Anggun, Citra Amelia

Abstract:

This systematic review research is aimed to find out anemia maternal during pregnancy as a risk factor of low birth weight. This research was done by searching some journals which have associated to maternal anemia during pregnancy with low birth weight that had been published in journal accreditation and scopus index. Study literature that researcher had been done by March – April 2016 through online library of UI. The journals that had been selected according to inclusive criteria and exclusive criteria had been through the critial appraisal process. This systematic review towards 4 journals that had been selected and published showed the significant result statistically that anemia maternal is one of the risk factors which causes low birth weight. Anemia maternal on the first-trimester pregnancy showed significant association with low birth weight. Moderate anemia and severe anemia also showed significant association with low birth weight. Meanwhile, mild anemia doesn’t have an association with low birth weight. The conclusion of this study is anemia maternal (as an independent risk factor) have an influence towards low birth weight.

Keywords: anemia maternal, low birth weight, pregnancy, systematic review

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8923 Maternal Obesity in Nigeria: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Ojochenemi J. Onubi, Debbi Marais, Lorna Aucott, Friday Okonofua, Amudha Poobalan

Abstract:

Background: Obesity is a worldwide epidemic with major health and economic consequences. Pregnancy is a trigger point for the development of obesity, and maternal obesity is associated with significant adverse effects in the mother and child. Nigeria is experiencing a double burden of under- and over-nutrition with rising levels of obesity particularly in women. However, there is scarcity of data on maternal obesity in Nigeria and other African countries. Aims and Objectives: This project aimed at identifying crucial components of potential interventions for maternal obesity in Nigeria. The objectives were to assess the prevalence, effects, and distribution of maternal obesity; knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of pregnant women and maternal healthcare providers; and identify existing interventions for maternal obesity in Nigeria. Methodology: A systematic review and meta-analysis were initially conducted to appraise the existing literature on maternal obesity in Africa. Following this, a quantitative questionnaire survey of the KAP of pregnant women and a qualitative interview study of the KAP of Health Care Workers (HCW) were conducted in seven secondary and tertiary hospitals across Nigeria. Quantitative data was analysed using SPSS statistical software, while thematic analysis was conducted for qualitative data. Results: Twenty-nine studies included in the systematic review showed significant prevalence, socio-demographic associations, and adverse effects of maternal obesity on labour, maternal, and child outcomes in Africa. The questionnaire survey of 435 mothers revealed a maternal obesity prevalence of 17.9% among mothers who registered for antenatal care in the first trimester. The mothers received nutrition information from different sources and had insufficient knowledge of their own weight category or recommended Gestational Weight Gain (GWG), causes, complications, and safe ways to manage maternal obesity. However, majority of the mothers were of the opinion that excess GWG is avoided in pregnancy and some practiced weight management (diet and exercise) during pregnancy. For the qualitative study, four main themes were identified: ‘Concerns about obesity in pregnancy’, ‘Barriers to care for obese pregnant women’, ‘Practice of care for obese pregnant women’, and ‘Improving care for obese pregnant women’. HCW expressed concerns about rising levels of maternal obesity, lack of guidelines for the management of obese pregnant women and worries about unintended consequences of antenatal interventions. ‘Barriers’ included lack of contact with obese women before pregnancy, late registration for antenatal care, and perceived maternal barriers such as socio-cultural beliefs of mothers and poverty. ‘Practice’ included anticipatory care and screening for possible complications, general nutrition education during antenatal care and interdisciplinary care for mothers with complications. HCW offered suggestions on improving care for obese women including timing, type, and settings of interventions; and the need for involvement of other stake holders in caring for obese pregnant women. Conclusions: Culturally adaptable/sensitive interventions should be developed for the management of obese pregnant women in Africa. Education and training of mothers and health care workers, and provision of guidelines are some of the components of potential interventions in Nigeria.

Keywords: Africa, maternal, obesity, pregnancy

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8922 An Assessment of the Impact of Safe Motherhood Initiative on Maternal Health of Women in Gumel Local Government Area of Jigawa State, Nigeria

Authors: Ahmed Mudi, Bala Zakar

Abstract:

The paper assesses the impact of safe motherhood initiative on maternal health of women in Gumel Local Government Area of Jigawa State. The work will specifically concentrate on the background on safe motherhood scheme and maternal health of women. The objective of this paper is to assess the level of safe motherhood scheme in Gumel local government area, to find out the level of maternal health in Gumel local government as well as to determine the impact of safe motherhood scheme on maternal health on women in Gumel Local Government Area Jigawa State. Various literature on the topic are reviewed, the paper adopts survey design and use questionnaire to collect data from the respondent. The study comprises 350 women selected from six rural communities in Gumel using random sampling techniques, and the data was analysed by simple frequency and percentage. The research concluded that safe motherhood initiative has a significant impact on the maternal health of women in Gumel Local Government Area of Jigawa State. Finally, suitable recommendations were given on how to improve the scheme to ensure better maternal health in the region.

Keywords: action, assessment, maternal health, safe motherhood, surgery

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8921 Couple Relationship Satisfaction: The Role of Recollection of Parental Acceptance, Self-Differentiation and Spousal Caregiving

Authors: Ricky Finzi-Dottan

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The actor–partner interdependence model (APIM) was employed in this study to investigate the mediating effect self-differentiation and spousal caregiving have on the relationship between recollection of parental care and acceptance and couple satisfaction. One hundred and forty-four non-clinical couples (N=288) in enduring relationships were recruited. Results for actor effects revealed two mediating paths whereby, among both partners, recollection of maternal (but not paternal) acceptance was associated with their self-differentiation and responsive spousal caregiving, which, in turn, were linked to their spousal relationship satisfaction. Partner effects revealed three mediating paths: for both partners, recollection of childhood maternal acceptance was associated with responsive caregiving, which, in turn, was linked with their partner’s relationship satisfaction. Interestingly, the husbands’ recollection of maternal acceptance was associated with their partners' responsive spousal caregiving, which was linked to both spouses’ relationship satisfaction. Our results may support the theoretical assumptions regarding intergenerational continuity from perceptions of childhood via self-differentiation effecting couple caregiving to couple relationship, but only on the mother's part.

Keywords: couple relationship satisfaction, childhood parental acceptance, self-differentiation, couple caregiving, dyadic perspective

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8920 An Exploratory Study of Effects of Parenting Styles on Maternal Expectation and Perception of Compliance among Adolescents

Authors: Anton James

Abstract:

This study explored the contribution of parenting styles in the Maternal Perception of Compliance Model (MPCM). This model explores maternal expectations to illustrate the formation of maternal perception of severity of noncompliance in adolescent children. The methodology consisted of three stages: In the first stage, a focus group was held, and the data was analysed to fine-tune the interview schedule. In the second stage, a single interview was held, and the interview schedule was further modified. The third and the final stage consisted of interviewing six mothers who had adolescent children. They were chosen with ‘maximum variation’ approach to represent three tiered socioeconomic statuses, and Asian, white and black ethnicities. The data was thematically analysed in a hybrid fashion: inductive coding and deductive assignment of codes into discrete parenting styles. The study found: a) parenting styles are not always discrete and sometimes it can be mixed. b) The parenting styles are influenced by culture, socioeconomic status, transgenerational knowledge, academic knowledge, observational knowledge, self-reflective knowledge, and parental anxiety. c) The parenting style functioned a mediating mechanism where it attempted to converge discrepancies between parental expectations of compliance with maternal perception of severity of noncompliance. The findings of parenting styles were discussed in relation to MPCM.

Keywords: compliance, expectation, parenting styles, perception

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8919 Is Swaziland on Track with the 2015 Millennium Development Goals?

Authors: A. Sathiya Susuman

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Background: The importance of maternal and child healthcare services cannot be stressed enough. These services are very important for the health and health outcomes of the mother and that of the child and in ensuring that both maternal and child deaths are prevented. The objective of the study is to inspire good quality maternal and child health care services in Swaziland. Specifically, is Swaziland on track with the 2015 Millennium Development Goals? Methods: The study used secondary data from the Swaziland Demographic and Health Survey 2006-07. This is an explorative and descriptive study which used pre-selected variables to study factors influencing the use of maternal and child healthcare services in Swaziland. Different types of examinations, such as univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical analysis were adopted. Results: The study findings showed a high use rate of antenatal care (97.3%) and delivery care (74.0%), and a low rate of postnatal care use (20.5%). The uptake childhood immunization is also high in the country, averaging more than 80.0%. Moreover, certain factors which were found to be influencing the use of maternal healthcare and childhood immunization include: woman’s age, parity, media exposure, maternal education, wealth status, and residence. The findings also revealed that these factors affect the use of maternal and child health differently. Conclusion: It is important to study factors related to maternal and child health uptake to inform relevant stakeholders about possible areas of improvement. Programs to educate families about the importance of maternal and child healthcare services should be implemented. Swaziland needs to work hard on child survival and maternal health care services, no doubt it is on track with the MDG 4 & 5.

Keywords: maternal healthcare, antenatal care, delivery care, postnatal care, child health, immunization, socio-economic and demographic factors

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8918 The Effect of Skin to Skin Contact Immediately to Maternal Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy after Cesarean Section

Authors: D. Triana, I. N. Rachmawati, L. Sabri

Abstract:

Maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy is positively associated with increased duration of breastfeeding in different cultures and age groups. This study aims to determine the effect of skin-to-skin contact immediately after the cesarean section on maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy. The research design is Posttest quasi-experimental research design only with control groups involving 52 women with consecutive sampling in Langsa-Aceh. The data collected through breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form. The results of Independent t-test showed a significant difference in the mean values of maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy in the intervention group and the control group (59.00 ± 6.54; 49.62 ± 7.78; p= 0.001). Skin to skin contact is proven to affect the maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy after cesarean section significantly.

Keywords: breastfeeding self-efficacy, cesarean section, skin to skin contact, immediately

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8917 Effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid on Limb Lengths in Neonatal Rats Exposed to Maternal Tobacco Smoke

Authors: Ramazan F. Akkoc, Elif Erdem, Nalan Kaya, Gonca Ozan, D. Özlem Dabak, Enver Ozan

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Maternal tobacco smoke exposure is known to cause growth retardation in the neonatal skeletal system. Alpha lipoic acid, a natural antioxidant found in some foods, limits the activities of osteoclasts and supports the osteoblast's bone formation mechanism. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effects of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on the height, long bones and tail lengths of pups exposed to maternal tobacco smoke. The rats were divided into four groups: 1) control group, 2) tobacco smoke group, 3) tobacco smoke + ALA group, and 4) ALA group. Rats in the group 2 (tobacco smoke), group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA) were exposed to tobacco smoke twice a day for one hour starting from eight weeks before mating and during pregnancy. In addition to tobacco smoke, 20 mg/kg of alpha lipoic acid was administered via oral gavage to the rats in the group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA). Only alpha lipoic acid was administered to the rats in the group 4. On day 21 postpartum, the height and tail lengths of the pups in all groups were measured, and the length of the extremity long bones was measured after decapitation. All morphometric measurements performed in group 2 (tobacco smoke) showed a significant decrease compared to group 1 (control), while all measurements in group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA) showed a significant increase compared to group 2 (tobacco smoke). It has been shown that ALA has a protective effect against the regression of height, long bones and tail lengths of pups exposed to maternal tobacco smoke.

Keywords: alpha lipoic acid, bone, morphometry, rat, tobacco smoke

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8916 Effects of Maternal Nutrition at Different Stages of Pregnancy in Bali Cows on Growth Performance of the Offspring to Weaning

Authors: D. P. Rahardja, A. L. Toleng, M. Yusuf

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The objective of this study was to investigate the life-long effect of in utero nutrition fed at different stages of pregnancy in Bali cows (n = 40): (U1) without in utero nutrition (0 – parturition, negative control); (U2) 0 – 90 d of gestation; (U3) 90 - 180 d of gestation; (U4) 180 d – parturition; and (U5) in utero nutrition along gestation period (0 d to parturition – positive control) on the growth performance of the offspring to weaning age. The results indicated that effect of maternal nutrition on male and female offspring were particularly indicated by the growth performance of both the male and female offspring from birth to weaning.

Keywords: Bali cows, birth weight, maternal nutrition, pre-weaning daily gain, weaning weight

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8915 An Investigation into the Levels of Human Development, Contraceptives’ Usage and Maternal Health in Indian States

Authors: Divyanshi Singh

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Women’s right to have choices, sense of self-worth and their right to have access to opportunities have been a subject of serious concern. The health of women and their children in Indian society is adversely affected by the woman’s inferior status within households. The level of human development in society is a reflection of the better status of a woman, which has a clear impact on the usage of contraceptive methods and maternal health. The study is an attempt to assess the performance of Indian states on the parameters of levels of development and to see how the developmental trajectory is influencing the choice for contraception and maternal health. The objective of the paper is to study the relationship between usage of contraception, maternal health and levels of human development in Indian states. Data from NFHS-4th round, AHS (2012-13) and census 2011 is used. Three indicators of human development (effective literacy, infant mortality and gross district domestic product) have been taken. Maternal health for the study has been measured in MMR, IMR and pregnancy resulted in abortions, stillbirths and miscarriage. The multiple regression analysis has been done to analyze the relationship between them. The Developmental factor is found to be greatly influencing the choice of family planning and thus they both show strong relation with maternal health.

Keywords: human development, contraceptive usage, maternal health, effective literacy

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8914 The Effect of Fetal Movement Counting on Maternal Antenatal Attachment

Authors: Esra Güney, Tuba Uçar

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Aim: This study has been conducted for the purpose of determining the effects of fetal movement counting on antenatal maternal attachment. Material and Method: This research was conducted on the basis of the real test model with the pre-test /post-test control groups. The study population consists of pregnant women registered in the six different Family Health Centers located in the central Malatya districts of Yeşilyurt and Battalgazi. When power analysis is done, the sample size was calculated for each group of at least 55 pregnant women (55 tests, 55 controls). The data were collected by using Personal Information Form and MAAS (Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale) between July 2015-June 2016. Fetal movement counting training was given to pregnant women by researchers in the experimental group after the pre-test data collection. No intervention was applied to the control group. Post-test data for both groups were collected after four weeks. Data were evaluated with percentage, chi-square arithmetic average, chi-square test and as for the dependent and independent group’s t test. Result: In the MAAS, the pre-test average of total scores in the experimental group is 70.78±6.78, control group is also 71.58±7.54 and so there was no significant difference in mean scores between the two groups (p>0.05). MAAS post-test average of total scores in the experimental group is 78.41±6.65, control group is also is 72.25±7.16 and so the mean scores between groups were found to have statistically significant difference (p<0.05). Conclusion: It was determined that fetal movement counting increases the maternal antenatal attachments.

Keywords: antenatal maternal attachment, fetal movement counting, pregnancy, midwifery

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8913 Association of Maternal Age, Ethnicity and BMI with Gestational Diabetes Prevalence in Multi-Racial Singapore

Authors: Nur Atiqah Adam, Mor Jack Ng, Bernard Chern, Kok Hian Tan

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Introduction: Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a common pregnancy complication with short and long-term health consequences for both mother and fetus. Factors such as family history of diabetes mellitus, maternal obesity, maternal age, ethnicity and parity have been reported to influence the risk of GDM. In a multi-racial country like Singapore, it is worthwhile to study the GDM prevalences of different ethnicities. We aim to investigate the influence of ethnicity on the racial prevalences of GDM in Singapore. This is important as it may help us to improve guidelines on GDM healthcare services according to significant risk factors unique to Singapore. Materials and Methods: Obstetric cohort data of 926 singleton deliveries in KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital (KKH) from 2011 to 2013 was obtained. Only patients aged 18 and above and without complicated pregnancies or chronic illnesses were targeted. Factors such as ethnicity, maternal age, parity and maternal body mass index (BMI) at booking visit were studied. A multivariable logistic regression model, adjusted for confounders, was used to determine which of these factors are significantly associated with an increased risk of GDM. Results: The overall GDM prevalence rate based on WHO 1999 criteria & at risk screening (race alone not a risk factor) was 8.86%. GDM rates were higher among women above 35 years old (15.96%), obese (15.15%) and multiparous women (10.12%). Indians had a higher GDM rate (13.0 %) compared to the Chinese (9.57%) and Malays (5.20%). However, using multiple logistic regression model, variables that are significantly related to GDM rates were maternal age (p < 0.001) and maternal BMI at booking visit (p = 0.006). Conclusion: Maternal age (p < 0.001) and maternal booking BMI (p = 0.006) are the strongest risk factors for GDM. Ethnicity per se does not seem to have a significant influence on the prevalence of GDM in Singapore (p = 0.064). Hence we should tailor guidelines on GDM healthcare services according to maternal age and booking BMI rather than ethnicity.

Keywords: ethnicity, gestational diabetes, healthcare, pregnancy

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8912 Management of Nutritional Strategies in Prevention of Autism Before and During Pregnancy

Authors: Maryam Ghavam Sadri, Kimia Moiniafshari

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Objectives: Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder that has negative effects on verbal, mental and behavioral development. Studies have shown the role of a maternal dietary pattern before and during pregnancy. The relation of exerting of nutritional management programs in prevention of Autism has been approved. This review article has been made to investigate the role of nutritional management strategies before and during pregnancy in the prevention of Autism. Methods: This review study was accomplished by using the keywords related to the topic, 67 articles were found (2000-2015) and finally 20 article with criteria such as including maternal lifestyle, nutritional deficiencies and Autism prevention were selected. Results: Maternal dietary pattern and health before and during pregnancy have important roles in the incidence of Autism. Studies have suggested that high dietary fat intake and obesity can increase the risk of Autism in offspring. Maternal metabolic condition specially gestational diabetes (GDM) (p-value < 0.04) and folate deficiency (p-value = 0.04) is associated with risk of Autism. Studies have shown that folate intake in mothers with autistic children is less than mothers who have typically developing children (TYP) (p-value<0.01). As folate is an essential micronutrient for fetus mental development, consumption of average 600 mcg/day especially in P1 phase of pregnancy results in significant reduction in incidence of Autism (OR:1.53, 95%CI=0.42-0.92, p-value = 0.02). furthermore, essential fatty acid deficiency especially omega-3 fatty acid increases the rate of Autism and consumption of supplements and food sources of omega-3 can decrease the risk of Autism up to 34% (RR=1.53, 95%CI=1-2.32). Conclusion: regards to nutritional deficiency and maternal metabolic condition before and during pregnancy in prevalence of Autism, carrying out the appropriate nutritional strategies such as well-timed folate supplementation before pregnancy and healthy lifestyle adherence for prevention of metabolic syndrome (GDM) seems to help Autism prevention.

Keywords: autism, autism prevention, dietary inadequacy, maternal lifestyle

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8911 Maternal Deprivation as Predictor of Academic Performance and Psychosocial Adjustment of Primary School Pupils in Abeokuta Metropolis

Authors: Abayomi Olatoke Adejobi

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The study investigated maternal deprivation as predictor of academic performance and psychosocial adjustment of primary school pupils in Abeokuta metropolis. Three null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Two hundred public primary school pupils were randomly selected as subjects for the study. The instruments used for data collection were Index of Family Relations (IFR) by Hudson, modified version of Psychosocial Adjustment Scale (PAS) by O’ bailey and Academic records of the pupils from Cumulative Records Folder (CRF). The data collected were statistically treated and the three hypotheses were tested using t-test and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Confident statistical methods at 0.05 alpha level. The results of the analysis showed that there is a significant difference in the academic performance of children who suffered maternal deprivation and those who did not (t – 5.61; df = 198; P < 0.05). Also, there was a significant relationship between psychosocial adjustment of children and maternal deprivation (r = 0.37, df = 10; P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference in academic performance of boys and girls who suffered maternal deprivation (t = 0.32; df = 109; P > 0.05). Based on the results some recommendations were made.

Keywords: maternal deprivation, psychosocial adjustment, academic performance, primary school pupils

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8910 Relations between Psychological Adjustment and Perceived Parental, Teacher and Best Friend Acceptance among Bangladeshi Adolescents

Authors: Tariqul Islam, Shaheen Mollah

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The study's main objective is to assess the relationship between psychological adjustment and parental acceptance-rejection, teacher acceptance-rejection, and best friend acceptance-rejection among secondary school students. This study was conducted on a sample of 300 (6th through 10th-grade students) recruited from over ten schools in Dhaka. While the schools were selected purposively, the respondents within each school were selected conveniently. The collected data were analyzed using Pearson product-moment correlation, hierarchical regression, and simultaneous regression analysis. The results showed that psychological adjustment is positively correlated with paternal, maternal, teacher, and best friend acceptance. The paternal acceptance was significantly connected with maternal acceptance. The teacher and best friend acceptance are correlated substantially with paternal and maternal acceptance. The hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that maternal, paternal, teacher, and best friend acceptance-rejection contributed significantly to students' psychological adjustment. The results revealed substantial independent contributions of maternal, paternal, teacher, and best friend acceptance on the students' psychological adjustment. The simultaneous regression analysis indicates that the maternal and best friend acceptances (but not paternal acceptance) were significant predictors of psychological adjustments. It showed that 41.7% variability in psychological adjustment could be explained by paternal, maternal, and best friend acceptance. The findings of the present study are exciting. They may contribute to developing insight in parents and best friends for behaving properly with their offspring and friend, respectively, for better psychological adjustment.

Keywords: adjustment, parenting, rejection, acceptance

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8909 Pregnant Women’s Views on a Trial of Posture for Fetal Malposition

Authors: Jennifer A. Barrowclough, Caroline A. Crowther, Bridget Kool

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Fetal malposition in labour is associated with adverse maternal and infant health outcomes. Evidence for effective interventions for fetal malposition is inconclusive. The feasibility and design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of maternal posture to improve maternal and infant outcomes of malposition should be considered, based on the hypothesis that gravity corrects malposition. The aim was to assess pregnant women’s views on the acceptability of a future trial of maternal posture for fetal malposition in labour, and the enablers and barriers of participation. Method: An online anonymous survey of pregnant women was conducted in Auckland during 2020. Descriptive summaries of quantitative data used chi-square to assess differences in proportions. The influence of maternal characteristics on women’s responses was assessed using cross-tabulation. Free text responses were analysed thematically. Results: Respondents (n=206) were mostly aged26-35 years (75%), of 29-38 weeks gestation (71%), of European (40%) or Asian (36%) ethnicity, were evenly nulliparous or multiparous. Most women (76%) had heard of fetal malposition in labour however only 28% were aware of the use of maternal posture to correct this. Most women (86%) were interested in labour research. Although 37% indicated they would participate in a future RCT of posture for fetal malposition, nearly half (47%) were unsure and a further quarter (15%) indicated they would not participate. Comfort was the predominant concern (22%). Almost half of the respondents (49%) indicated they would consult their partner before deciding on participation in an RCT. Conclusions: Participation in a trial of maternal posture in labour can be enabled through measures to enhance maternal comfort, increased awareness of malposition and the role of posture, and the involvement of partners during trial counselling and recruitment.

Keywords: pregnant women, labour, presentation, posture, randomized controlled trial, survey

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8908 Maternal-Fetal Outcome in Pregnant Women with Ebola Virus Disease: A Systematic Review

Authors: Garba Iliyasu, Lamaran Dattijo

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Introduction: Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a disease of humans and other primates caused by Ebola viruses. The most widespread epidemic of EVD in history occurred recently in several West African countries. The burden and outcome of EVD in pregnant women remains uncertain. There are very few studies to date reporting on maternal and fetal outcomes among pregnant women with EVD, hence the justification for this comprehensive review of these published studies. Methods: Published studies in English that reported on maternal and or fetal outcome among pregnant women with EVD up to May 2016 were searched in electronic databases (Google Scholar, Medline, Embase, PubMed, AJOL, and Scopus). Studies that did not satisfy the inclusion criteria were excluded. We extracted the following variables from each study: geographical location, year of the study, settings of the study, participants, maternal and fetal outcome.Result: There were 12 studies that reported on 108 pregnant women and 110 fetal outcomes. Six of the studies were case reports, 3 retrospective studies, 2 cross-sectional studies and 1 was a technical report. There were 91(84.3%) deaths out of the 108 pregnant women, while only 1(0.9%) fetal survival was reported out of 110. Survival rate among the 15 patients that had spontaneous abortion/stillbirth or induced delivery was 100%. Conclusion: There was a poor maternal and fetal outcome among pregnant women with EVD, and fetal evacuation significantly improves maternal survival.

Keywords: Africa, ebola, maternofetal, outcome

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8907 Exploring Women Perceptions on the Benefit Package of the Free Maternal Health Policy under the Universal Health Coverage of the National Health Insurance Scheme in Rural Upper West Region of Ghana: A Qualitative study

Authors: Alexander Suuk Laar, Emmanuel Bekyieriya, Sylvester Isang, Benjamin Baguune

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Introduction: In Ghana, despite the implementation of strategies and initiatives to ensure universal access to reproductive health and family planning (FP) services for the past two decades, interventions have not adequately addressed the access and utilization needs of women of reproductive age, especially in rural Ghana. To improve access and use of reproductive and maternal health services in Ghana, a free maternal care exemption policy under the universal health coverage of the National Health Insurance Scheme was implemented in 2005. Despite the importance of FP, this service was left out of the benefit package of the policy. Low or no use of FP services is often associated with poor health among women. However, to date, there has been limited research on perspectives of women for not making FP services as part of the benefit package of the free maternal health services. This qualitative study explored perceptions of women on the comprehensiveness of the free maternal health benefit package and the effects on utilisation of services in the rural Upper West region of Ghana to improve services. Methods: This exploratory qualitative study used focus group discussions with pregnant and lactating women in three rural districts in the Upper West region of Ghana. Six focus groups were held with both pregnant women and lactating mothers at the time of the interview. Three focus group discussions were organised with the same category of women in each district. We used a purposive sampling procedure to select the participants from the districts. The interviews with the written consent of the participants lasted between 60 minutes and 120 minutes. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using Braun and Clarke thematic framework guidelines. Results: This research presents an in-depth account of women's perceptions on the effects associated with the uptake of FP services and its exclusion from the benefit package of the free maternal health policy. Our study found that participants did not support the exclusion of FP services in the benefit package. Participants mentioned factors hampering their access to and use of FP and contraceptive services to include the cost of services, distance and cost of transport to health facilities, lack of knowledge about FP services, socio-cultural norms and negative attitude of healthcare professionals. Participants are of the view that making FP services part of the benefit package could have addressed the cost aspect of services which act as the main barrier to improve the use of services by poor rural women. Conclusion: Women of reproductive age face cost barriers that limit their access to and use of FP and contraception services in the rural Upper West region of Ghana and need health policymakers to revise the free maternal health package to include FP services. It is essential for policymakers to begin considering revising the free maternal health policy benefit package to include FP services to help address the cost barrier for rural poor women to use services.

Keywords: benefit package, free maternal policy, women, Ghana, rural Upper West Region, Universal Health Coverage.

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8906 Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Maternal, Newborn, Child Health and Nutrition Indicators in Miagao, Iloilo and Sibunag, Guimaras, Philippines

Authors: Franco Miguel Nodado, Adrienne Marie Bugayong Janagap, Allen Claire Arances, Kirsten Anne Gerez, Frances Catherine Rosario, Charise Alvyne Samaniego, Matt Andrew Secular, Rommel Gestuveo, Marilyn Sumayo, Joseph Arbizo, Philip Ian Padilla

Abstract:

COVID-19 pandemic adversely affected the delivery of health care services, but its impacts on Maternal, Newborn, Child Health and Nutrition (MNCHN) programs in rural municipalities in the Philippines remains understudied. Thus, this study explored the effects of the pandemic on MNCHN indicators in the municipalities of Miagao, Iloilo and Sibunag, Guimaras. A cross-sectional design was employed to compare the MNCHN indicators before and during the pandemic, and between Miagao and Sibunag. Key informant interviews (KII) were performed to identify the factors affecting access to MNCHN programs. During the pandemic, Miagao had a significant increase in positive outcomes of eight out of ten maternal health indicators, while Sibunag showed a significant decrease in six indicators. For child health and nutrition, Miagao obtained significant improvements in five of seven indicators, while Sibunag showed a significant increase in positive outcomes for six. KII data showed that the primary concern of mothers in Miagao is accessibility, while mothers in Sibunag raised concerns on accessibility, availability, and affordability of these MNCHN services. Miagao MHO employed various strategies such as telemedicine, activation of barangay health workers, and decentralization of health services to Barangay Health Centers, which can explain the improvements in MNCHN indicators. Sibunag also decentralized its health services, but its limited resources might have led them to prioritize child health and nutrition services. The findings suggest that the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on MNCHN depend on local health measures employed by the municipality, while telemedicine is a very useful tool in mitigating the negative effects of disrupted health services.

Keywords: maternal, child, COVID-19, Miagao, Sibunag, nutrition

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8905 Paternal Postpartum Depression and Its Relationship to Maternal Depression

Authors: Fatemeh Abdollahi, Mehran Zarghami, Jamshid Yazdani Jarati, Mun-Sunn Lye

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Fathers may be at risk of depression during the postpartum period. Some studies have been reported maternal depression is the key predictor of paternal postpartum depression (PPD). This study aimed to explore this association. Using a cross-sectional study design, 591 couples referring to primary health centers at 2-8 weeks postpartum (during 2017) were recruited. Couples screened for depression using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Data on socio-demographic characteristics and psychosocial factors was also gathered. Paternal PPD was analyzed in relation to maternal PPD and other related factors using multiple regressions. The prevalence of Paternal and maternal postpartum depression was 15.7% (93) and 31.8% (188), respectively. The regression model showed that there was increased risk of PPD in fathers whose wives experienced PPD [OR=1.15, (95%CI: 1.04-1.27)], who had a lower state of general health [OR=1.21, (95%CI: 1.11-1.33)], who experienced increased number of life events [OR=1.42, (95%CI: 1.01-1.2.00)], and who were at older age [OR=1.20, (95%CI: 1.05- 1.36)]. Also, there was a decreased risk of depression in fathers with more children compared with those with fewer children [OR=0.20, (95%CI: 0.07-0.53)]. Maternal PPD and psychosocial risk factors were the strong predictors of parental PPD. Being grown up in a family with two depressed parents are an important issue for children and needs futher research and attention.

Keywords: Father, Mother, Postpartum depression, Risk factors

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8904 Analysis of Maternal Death Surveillance and Response: Causes and Contributing Factors in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2022

Authors: Sisay Tiroro Salato

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Background: Ethiopia has been implementing the maternal death surveillance and response system to provide real-time actionable information, including causes of death and contributing factors. Analysis of maternal mortality surveillance data was conducted to identify the causes and underlying factors in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: We carried out a retrospective surveillance data analysis of 324 maternal deaths reported in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from 2017 to 2021. The data were extracted from the national maternal death surveillance and response database, including information from case investigation, verbal autopsy, and facility extraction forms. The data were analyzed by computing frequency and presented in numbers, proportions, and ratios. Results: Of 324 maternal deaths, 92% died in the health facilities, 6.2% in transit, and 1.5% at home. The mean age at death was 28 years, ranging from 17 to 45. The maternal mortality ratio per 100,000 live births was 77for the five years, ranging from 126 in 2017 to 21 in 2021. The direct and indirect causes of death were responsible for 87% and 13%, respectively. The direct causes included obstetric haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, puerperal sepsis, embolism, obstructed labour, and abortion. The third delay (delay in receiving care after reaching health facilities) accounted for 57% of deaths, while the first delay (delay in deciding to seek health care) and the second delay (delay in reaching health facilities) and accounted for 34% and 24%, respectively. Late arrival to the referral facility, delayed management after admission, andnon-recognition of danger signs were underlying factors. Conclusion: Over 86% of maternal deaths were attributed by avoidable direct causes. The majority of women do try to reach health services when an emergency occurs, but the third delays present a major problem. Improving the quality of care at the healthcare facility level will help to reduce maternal death.

Keywords: maternal death, surveillance, delays, factors

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