Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: P. Valdez

15 Effectiveness of Computer Video Games on the Levels of Anxiety of Children Scheduled for Tooth Extraction

Authors: Marji Umil, Miane Karyle Urolaza, Ian Winston Dale Uy, John Charle Magne Valdez, Karen Elizabeth Valdez, Ervin Charles Valencia, Cheryleen Tan-Chua

Abstract:

Objective: Distraction techniques can be successful in reducing the anxiety of children during medical procedures. Dental procedures, in particular, are associated with dental anxiety which has been identified as a significant and common problem in children, however, only limited studies were conducted to address such problem. Thus, this study determined the effectiveness of computer video games on the levels of anxiety of children between 5-12 years old scheduled for tooth extraction. Methods: A pre-test post-test quasi-experimental study was conducted involving 30 randomly-assigned subjects, 15 in the experimental and 15 in the control. Subjects in the experimental group played computer video games for a maximum of 15 minutes, however, no intervention was done on the control. The modified Yale Pre-operative Anxiety Scale (m-YPAS) with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.9 was used to assess anxiety at two different points: upon arrival in the clinic (pre-test anxiety) and 15 minutes after the first measurement (post-test anxiety). Paired t-test and ANCOVA were used to analyze the gathered data. Results: Results showed that there is a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test anxiety scores of the control group (p=0.0002) which indicates an increased anxiety. A significant difference was also noted between the pre-test and post-test anxiety scores of the experimental group (p=0.0002) which indicates decreased anxiety. Comparatively, the experimental group showed lower anxiety score (p=<0.0001) than the control. Conclusion: The use of computer video games is effective in reducing the pre-operative anxiety among children and can be an alternative non-pharmacological management in giving pre-operative care.

Keywords: play therapy, preoperative anxiety, tooth extraction, video games

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14 Development of a Mathematical Theoretical Model and Simulation of the Electromechanical System for Wave Energy Harvesting

Authors: P. Valdez, M. Pelissero, A. Haim, F. Muiño, F. Galia, R. Tula

Abstract:

As a result of the studies performed on the wave energy resource worldwide, a research project was set up to harvest wave energy for its conversion into electrical energy. Within this framework, a theoretical model of the electromechanical energy harvesting system, developed with MATLAB’s Simulink software, will be provided. This tool recreates the site conditions where the device will be installed and offers valuable information about the amount of energy that can be harnessed. This research provides a deeper understanding of the utilization of wave energy in order to improve the efficiency of a 1:1 scale prototype of the device.

Keywords: electromechanical device, modeling, renewable energy, sea wave energy, simulation

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13 Context-Aware Recommender System Using Collaborative Filtering, Content-Based Algorithm and Fuzzy Rules

Authors: Xochilt Ramirez-Garcia, Mario Garcia-Valdez

Abstract:

Contextual recommendations are implemented in Recommender Systems to improve user satisfaction, recommender system makes accurate and suitable recommendations for a particular situation reaching personalized recommendations. The context provides information relevant to the Recommender System and is used as a filter for selection of relevant items for the user. This paper presents a Context-aware Recommender System, which uses techniques based on Collaborative Filtering and Content-Based, as well as fuzzy rules, to recommend items inside the context. The dataset used to test the system is Trip Advisor. The accuracy in the recommendations was evaluated with the Mean Absolute Error.

Keywords: algorithms, collaborative filtering, intelligent systems, fuzzy logic, recommender systems

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12 Understanding Cruise Passengers’ On-board Experience throughout the Customer Decision Journey

Authors: Sabina Akter, Osiris Valdez Banda, Pentti Kujala, Jani Romanoff

Abstract:

This paper examines the relationship between on-board environmental factors and customer overall satisfaction in the context of the cruise on-board experience. The on-board environmental factors considered are ambient, layout/design, social, product/service and on-board enjoyment factors. The study presents a data-driven framework and model for the on-board cruise experience. The data are collected from 893 respondents in an application of a self-administered online questionnaire of their cruise experience. This study reveals the cruise passengers’ on-board experience through the customer decision journey based on the publicly available data. Pearson correlation and regression analysis have been applied, and the results show a positive and a significant relationship between the environmental factors and on-board experience. These data help understand the cruise passengers’ on-board experience, which will be used for the ultimate decision-making process in cruise ship design.

Keywords: cruise behavior, customer activities, on-board environmental factors, on-board experience, user or customer satisfaction

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11 The Role of Spiritual Experience, Gerotranscendence and Social Engagement on Successful Aging among Incarcerated Filipino Elderly: A Structural Equation Model

Authors: Les Paul Valdez, Rowena Manzarate, Joseph Carl Lunizo, Mary Thereze Mabaquiao, Mary Deo Luigi Mabunay

Abstract:

Background: Across the literature, varying definitions of successful aging can be found. As a result, several determinants have been associated with successful aging. However, there is a paucity of literature exploring the relationship between successful aging and factors such as spiritual experience, gerotranscendence, and social engagement. Objective: Thus, this study purports to ascertain the relationship between and among spiritual experience, gerotranscendence, social engagement and successful aging. Methods: The Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES), Social Engagement Scale (SES), Gerotranscendence Scale Revised (GS-R) and Expectations Regarding Aging (ERA) were fielded to 349 incarcerated elderly to measure spiritual experience, social engagement, gerotranscendence and successful aging respectively. Data was analyzed using Structural Equation Modelling through AMOS 21. The hypothesized model was evaluated using the goodness of fit and parsimony indices. Results: Social engagement (β= .179, p=.128) and spiritual experience (β= .375, p=.262) contribute to successful aging through the mediating effect of gerotranscendence (β= .973, p=.718). Conclusion: Today more than ever, healthcare providers in penal institutions are challenged to ensure that incarcerated elderly are socially and spiritually engaged; and have high levels of gerotranscendence.

Keywords: elderly, Filipino, gerotranscendence, social engagement, spiritual experience, successful aging

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10 Cultural Factors Associated with Male Criminal Behavior and Inmate Population

Authors: Patricia Martinez Lanz, Patricia Hernandez Valdez

Abstract:

Over the last decade, crime has reached unprecedented levels and has caused much violent death in Mexico. To establish factors that potentially can facilitate crime, as well as the status of the emotional wellbeing presented in prison population, the present study was realized with a sample composed of 299 inmates of the Federal Center for Social Reinsertion in Oaxaca, Mexico. A questionnaire was specifically developed designed and applied to this population, evaluating sociodemographic factors and four Likert scales: substance consumption (drugs and alcohol), domestic violence and depressive symptoms. Reliability was adequate (Cronbach's Alpha= .703) and validity of the instrument showed appropriate relations between the reagents of each scale. Results showed through Chi Square analysis, statistically significant differences in the correlations between sociodemographic factors, domestic violence, addictions and depressive symptoms. Results reported that most of the inmates were between 28 and 47 years old (51.8%), had a low educational level (elementary school 42.5%), were in consensual union (42.5%), had high and severe levels of alcohol consumption (43.5% of the cases) and reported the presence of high and severe level of depression (28.9% of the cases). The results of this research are part of a national study of all Federal Centers for Social Reinsertion System in Mexico, in order to developed intervention strategies used in prison to prevent crime.

Keywords: delinquency, addictions, violence, depression, crime, criminal behavior

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9 Leasing Revisited: Mastering the Digital Transformation with Traditional Financing

Authors: Tobias Huttche, Marco Canipa-Valdez, Corinne Mühlebach

Abstract:

This article discusses the role of leasing on the digital transformation process of companies and corresponding economic effects. Based on the traditional mechanisms of leasing, this article focuses in particular on the benefits of leasing as financing instrument with regard to the innovation potential of companies. Practical examples demonstrate how leasing can become an integral part of new business models. Especially, with regard to the digital transformation and corresponding investments in know-how and infrastructure, leasing can play an important role. Furthermore, findings of an empirical survey are presented dealing with the usage of leasing in Switzerland in an international context. The survey shows not only the benefits of leasing against the backdrop of digital transformation but gives guidance on how other countries can benefit from promoting leasing in their legislation and economy. Based on a simulation model for Switzerland, the economic effect of an increase in leasing volume is being calculated. Again, the respective results underline the substantial growth potential. This holds true especially for economies where asset-based lending is rarely used because of a lack of entrepreneurial or private security of the borrower (cash-based financing for developing and emerging countries). Overall, the authors found that leasing using companies are more productive and tend to grow faster than companies using less or none leasing. The positive effects of leasing on emerging digital challenges for companies and entire economies should encourage other countries to facilitate access to leasing as financing instrument by decreasing legal-, tax- and accounting-related requirements in the respective jurisdiction.

Keywords: Cash-Based financing, digital transformation, financing instruments, growth, innovation, leasing

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8 Effect of Food Supplies Holstein Calves Supplemented with Bacillus Subtilis PB6 in Morbidity and Mortality

Authors: Banca Patricia Pena Revuelta, Ramiro Gonzalez Avalos, Juan Leonardo Rocha Valdez, Jose Gonzalez Avalos, Karla Rodriguez Hernandez

Abstract:

Probiotics are a promising alternative to improve productivity and animals' health. In addition, they can be part of the composition of different types of products, including foods (functional foods), medicines, and dietary supplements. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the feeding of Holstein calves supplemented with bacillus subtilis PB6 in morbidity and mortality. 60 newborn animals were used, randomly included in 1 of 3 treatments. The treatments were as follows: T1 = control, T2 = 10 g / calf / day. The first takes within 20 min after birth, T3 = 10 g / calf/day. The first takes between 12 and 24 h after birth. In all the treatments, 432 L of pasteurized whole milk divided into two doses/day 07:00 and 15:00, respectively, were given for 60 days. The addition of bacillus subtilis PB6 was carried out in the milk tub at the time of feeding them. The first colostrum intake (2 L • intake) was given within 2 h after birth, after which they were given a second 6 h after the first one. The diseases registered to monitor the morbidity and mortality of the calves were: diarrhea and pneumonia. The registry was carried out from birth to 60 days of life. The parameter evaluated was food consumption. The variable statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance, and comparison of means was performed using the Tukey test. The value of P < 0.05 was used to consider the statistical difference. The results of the present study in relation to the consumption of food show no statistical difference P < 0.05 between treatments (14,762, 11,698, and 12,403 kg of food average, respectively). Calves group to which they were not provided Bacillus subtilis PB6 obtained higher feed intake. The addition of Bacillus subtilis PB6 in feeding calves does not increase feed intake.

Keywords: feeding, development, milk, probiotic

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7 Microstructure Evolution and Modelling of Shear Forming

Authors: Karla D. Vazquez-Valdez, Bradley P. Wynne

Abstract:

In the last decades manufacturing needs have been changing, leading to the study of manufacturing methods that were underdeveloped, such as incremental forming processes like shear forming. These processes use rotating tools in constant local contact with the workpiece, which is often also rotating, to generate shape. This means much lower loads to forge large parts and no need for expensive special tooling. Potential has already been established by demonstrating manufacture of high-value products, e.g., turbine and satellite parts, with high dimensional accuracy from difficult to manufacture materials. Thus, huge opportunities exist for these processes to replace the current method of manufacture for a range of high value components, e.g., eliminating lengthy machining, reducing material waste and process times; or the manufacture of a complicated shape without the development of expensive tooling. However, little is known about the exact deformation conditions during processing and why certain materials are better than others for shear forming, leading to a lot of trial and error before production. Three alloys were used for this study: Ti-54M, Jethete M154, and IN718. General Microscopy and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) were used to measure strains and orientation maps during shear forming. A Design of Experiments (DOE) analysis was also made in order to understand the impact of process parameters in the properties of the final workpieces. Such information was the key to develop a reliable Finite Element Method (FEM) model that closely resembles the deformation paths of this process. Finally, the potential of these three materials to be shear spun was studied using the FEM model and their Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) which led to the development of a rough methodology for testing the shear spinnability of various metals.

Keywords: shear forming, damage, principal strains, forming limit diagram

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6 Slaughter and Carcass Characterization, and Sensory Qualities of Native, Pure, and Upgraded Breeds of Goat Raised in the Philippines

Authors: Jonathan N. Nayga, Emelita B. Valdez, Mila R. Andres, Beulah B. Estrada, Emelina A. Lopez, Rogelio B. Tamayo, Aubrey Joy M. Balbin

Abstract:

Goat production is one of the activities included in integrated farming in the Philippines. Goats are raised for its meat and regardless of breed the animal is slaughtered for this purpose. In order to document the carcass yield of different goats slaughtered, five (5) different breeds of goats to include Purebred Boer and Anglo-nubian, Crossbred Boer and Anglo-nubian and Philippine Native goat were used in the study. Data on slaughter parameters, carcass characteristics, and sensory evaluation were gathered and analyzed using Complete Random Design (CRD) at 5% level of significance and the results of carcass conformation were assessed descriptively. Results showed that slaughter data such as slaughter/live weight, hot and chilled carcass weights, dressing percentage and percentage drip loss were significantly different (P>0.05) among breeds. On carcass and meat characteristics, pure breed and upgraded Boer were found to be moderately muscular while Native goat was rated as thin muscular. The color of the carcass also revealed that Purebred and crossbred Boer were described dark red, while Native goat was noted to be slightly pale. On sensory evaluation, the results indicated that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) among breeds evaluated. It is therefore concluded that purebred goat has heavier carcass, while both purebred Boer and upgrade are rated slightly muscular. It is further confirms that regardless of breed, goat will have the same sensory characteristics. Thus, it is recommended to slaughter heavier goats to obtain more carcasses with better conformation and quality.

Keywords: carcass quality, goat, sensory evaluation, slaughter

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5 Use of Recycled Vegetable Oil in the Diet of Lactating Sows

Authors: Juan Manuel Uriarte Lopez, Hector Raul Guemez Gaxiola, Javier Alonso Romo Rubio, Juan Manuel Romo Valdez

Abstract:

The objective of this investigation was to determine the influence of the use of recycled vegetable oil from restaurants in the productive performance of sows in lactation. Twenty-four hybrids lactating sows (Landrace x Yorkshire) were divided into three treatments with eight sows per treatment. On day 107 of gestation, the sows were moved to the mesh floor maternity cages in an environment regulated by the environment regulated (2.4 × 0.6 m) contained an area (2.4 × 0.5 m) for newborn pigs on each side, all diets were provided as a dry powder, and the sows received free access to water throughout the experimental period. After farrowing, the sows were fasted for 12 hours, the daily feed ration gradually increased, and the sows had ad libitum access to feed on the fourth day. The diets used were corn-soybean meal-based, containing 0 (CONT), recycled vegetable oil 1.0 % (RVOL), or recycled vegetable oil 1.5 % (RVOH) for 30 days. The diets contained similar calculated levels of crude protein and metabolizable energy and contained vitamins and minerals that exceeded National Research Council (1998) recommendations; sows were fed three times daily. On day 30, piglets were weaned, and performances of lactating sows and nursery piglets were recorded. Results indicated that average daily feed intake (5.58, 5.55, and 5.49 kg for CONT, RVOL, and RVO, respectively) of sows were not affected (P > 0.05) by different dietary. There was no difference in the average body weight of piglets on the day of birth, with 1.33, 1.36, and 1.35 kg, respectively (P > 0.05). There was no difference in average body weight of piglets on day 30, with 6.91, 6.75, and 7.05 kg, respectively 0.05) between treatments numbers of weaned piglets per sow (9.95, 9.80, and 9.80) were not affected by treatments (P > 0.05).In conclusion, the substitution of virgin vegetable oil for recycled vegetable oil in the diet does not affect the productive performance of lactating sows.

Keywords: lactating, sow, vegetable, oil

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4 Practical Experiences in the Development of a Lab-Scale Process for the Production and Recovery of Fucoxanthin

Authors: Alma Gómez-Loredo, José González-Valdez, Jorge Benavides, Marco Rito-Palomares

Abstract:

Fucoxanthin is a carotenoid that exerts multiple beneficial effects on human health, including antioxidant, anti-cancer, antidiabetic and anti-obesity activity; making the development of a whole process for its production and recovery an important contribution. In this work, the lab-scale production and purification of fucoxanthin in Isocrhysis galbana have been studied. In batch cultures, low light intensities (13.5 μmol/m2s) and bubble agitation were the best conditions for production of the carotenoid with product yields of up to 0.143 mg/g. After fucoxanthin ethanolic extraction from biomass and hexane partition, further recovery and purification of the carotenoid has been accomplished by means of alcohol – salt Aqueous Two-Phase System (ATPS) extraction followed by an ultrafiltration (UF) step. An ATPS comprised of ethanol and potassium phosphate (Volume Ratio (VR) =3; Tie-line Length (TLL) 60% w/w) presented a fucoxanthin recovery yield of 76.24 ± 1.60% among the studied systems and was able to remove 64.89 ± 2.64% of the carotenoid and chlorophyll pollutants. For UF, the addition of ethanol to the original recovered ethanolic ATPS stream to a final relation of 74.15% (w/w) resulted in a reduction of approximately 16% of the protein contents, increasing product purity with a recovery yield of about 63% of the compound in the permeate stream. Considering the production, extraction and primary recovery (ATPS and UF) steps, around a 45% global fucoxanthin recovery should be expected. Although other purification technologies, such as Centrifugal Partition Chromatography are able to obtain fucoxanthin recoveries of up to 83%, the process developed in the present work does not require large volumes of solvents or expensive equipment. Moreover, it has a potential for scale up to commercial scale and represents a cost-effective strategy when compared to traditional separation techniques like chromatography.

Keywords: aqueous two-phase systems, fucoxanthin, Isochrysis galbana, microalgae, ultrafiltration

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3 Effect of Gamma Radiation, Age of Paddy, Rice Variety and Packaging Materials on the Surface Free Fatty Acid Content of Brown Rice

Authors: Zenaida M. De Guzman, Davison T. Baldos, Gilberto T. Diano, Jeff Darren G. Valdez, Levelyn Mitos Tolentino, Gina B. Abrera, Ma. Lucia Cobar, Cristina Gragasin

Abstract:

One of the factors affecting the quality of brown rice is the free fatty acid produced from surface lipids. It is the purpose of the study to determine the effect of gamma radiation, packaging materials and age and variety of paddy on the surface free fatty acid content using two different brown rice variety, namely, RC-160 and SL-7, packed in two different packaging materials, namely, regular polyethylene bag and Super bag irradiated at 0.5 and 1.0 kGy. Brown rice was produced from 2-week old (Lot 1) and two months old paddy (Lot 2) and irradiated at the Co-60 Multipurpose Irradiation Facility, PNRI. The surface Free Fatty Acid (FFA) content was obtained following the AOCS Official Method (1982) with some modifications. The experiment was laid out using Split-Plot Randomized Control Block Design. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the effects of variety, age of paddy and interactions of both were both significant. The surface FFA of SL-7 variety was found to be significantly higher than the RC-160 variety for all radiation doses. Likewise, Lot 2 was observed to have higher surface FFA than Lot 1 regardless of packaging material and radiation dose. It was observed that the surface FFA of both varieties packed in both packaging materials increased significantly up to the 2nd or 3rd month of storage and remains the same until the 5th month. On the other hand, radiation dose did not significantly affect the surface free fatty acid content for all storage/sampling time while the packaging material significantly interacts with the type of variety and radiation dose. Gamma radiation was proven to have no significant effect on the surface free fatty acid at 0.5 and 1.0 kGy and further analyses are needed to determine the action of gamma radiation to the activity of enzyme (lipase-induced and microbial) responsible for the production of other lipolytic products and the effect of gamma radiation on the integrity of the packaging materials.

Keywords: brown rice, free fatty acid, gamma radiation, polyethylene bag

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2 Comparison of the Common Factors of the Top Academic Elementary Schools to the Average Elementary Schools in California: Looking beyond School Leadership

Authors: Lindy Valdez, Daryl Parker

Abstract:

Introduction: There has been much research on academic achievement in elementary schools. Most of the research has been on school leadership. While research has focused on the role of leadership on school improvement, little research has examined what variables the top elementary schools have in common. To undertake school improvement, it is important to understand what factors the best schools share. The purpose of this study was to examine data of the “Best Elementary Schools in California,” based on academic achievement as rated by three prominent websites and determine if these schools had any common factors which were different than the statewide averages. The variables examined included access to subject matter specialists (physical education, art, and music), librarians, after school programs, class size, socioeconomic status, and diversity. The participants consisted of the top public elementary schools in California based on the websites i)https://www.niche.com/k12/search/best-schools/, ii)https://www.finder.com/best-schools-california,and iii)https://www.schooldigger.com/go/CA/schoolrank.aspx. The data for subject matter specialists (physical education, art, and music), librarians, after school programs, class size, socioeconomic status, and diversity were collected from these top schools and compared to California statewide averages. Results indicate that top public elementary schools in California have a high number of subject matter specialists that teach physical education, art, and music. These positions are on the decline in the average public elementary school in California, but the top schools have abundant access to these specialists. The physical education specialist has the highest statistically significant difference between the nationwide average and the top schools—librarians, and after school programs are also most commonly high in top public elementary schools in California. The high presence of these programs may be aiding academic achievement in less visible ways. Class size is small, socio-economic status is high, and diversity is low among top public elementary schools in California when compared to the statewide average public elementary schools in California. The single largest area of discrepancy was between physical education specialists in a top school and their state and nationwide averages. The socioeconomic status of schools and parents may be an underlining factor affecting several other variables. This affluence could explain how these schools were able to have access to subject matter specialists, after-school activities, and, therefore, more opportunities for physical activity and greater learning opportunities affecting academic achievement.

Keywords: academic achievement, elementary education, factors, schools

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1 Discrete PID and Discrete State Feedback Control of a Brushed DC Motor

Authors: I. Valdez, J. Perdomo, M. Colindres, N. Castro

Abstract:

Today, digital servo systems are extensively used in industrial manufacturing processes, robotic applications, vehicles and other areas. In such control systems, control action is provided by digital controllers with different compensation algorithms, which are designed to meet specific requirements for a given application. Due to the constant search for optimization in industrial processes, it is of interest to design digital controllers that offer ease of realization, improved computational efficiency, affordable return rates, and ease of tuning that ultimately improve the performance of the controlled actuators. There is a vast range of options of compensation algorithms that could be used, although in the industry, most controllers used are based on a PID structure. This research article compares different types of digital compensators implemented in a servo system for DC motor position control. PID compensation is evaluated on its two most common architectures: PID position form (1 DOF), and PID speed form (2 DOF). State feedback algorithms are also evaluated, testing two modern control theory techniques: discrete state observer for non-measurable variables tracking, and a linear quadratic method which allows a compromise between the theoretical optimal control and the realization that most closely matches it. The compared control systems’ performance is evaluated through simulations in the Simulink platform, in which it is attempted to model accurately each of the system’s hardware components. The criteria by which the control systems are compared are reference tracking and disturbance rejection. In this investigation, it is considered that the accurate tracking of the reference signal for a position control system is particularly important because of the frequency and the suddenness in which the control signal could change in position control applications, while disturbance rejection is considered essential because the torque applied to the motor shaft due to sudden load changes can be modeled as a disturbance that must be rejected, ensuring reference tracking. Results show that 2 DOF PID controllers exhibit high performance in terms of the benchmarks mentioned, as long as they are properly tuned. As for controllers based on state feedback, due to the nature and the advantage which state space provides for modelling MIMO, it is expected that such controllers evince ease of tuning for disturbance rejection, assuming that the designer of such controllers is experienced. An in-depth multi-dimensional analysis of preliminary research results indicate that state feedback control method is more satisfactory, but PID control method exhibits easier implementation in most control applications.

Keywords: control, DC motor, discrete PID, discrete state feedback

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