Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1534

Search results for: electromechanical device

1534 Development of a Mathematical Theoretical Model and Simulation of the Electromechanical System for Wave Energy Harvesting

Authors: P. Valdez, M. Pelissero, A. Haim, F. Muiño, F. Galia, R. Tula


As a result of the studies performed on the wave energy resource worldwide, a research project was set up to harvest wave energy for its conversion into electrical energy. Within this framework, a theoretical model of the electromechanical energy harvesting system, developed with MATLAB’s Simulink software, will be provided. This tool recreates the site conditions where the device will be installed and offers valuable information about the amount of energy that can be harnessed. This research provides a deeper understanding of the utilization of wave energy in order to improve the efficiency of a 1:1 scale prototype of the device.

Keywords: electromechanical device, modeling, renewable energy, sea wave energy, simulation

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1533 An Electromechanical Device to Use in Road Pavements to Convert Vehicles Mechanical Energy into Electrical Energy

Authors: Francisco Duarte, Adelino Ferreira, Paulo Fael


With the growing need for alternative energy sources, research into energy harvesting technologies has increased considerably in recent years. The particular case of energy harvesting on road pavements is a very recent area of research, with different technologies having been developed in recent years. However, none of them have presented high conversion efficiencies nor technical or economic viability. This paper deals with the development of a mechanical system to implement on a road pavement energy harvesting electromechanical device, to transmit energy from the device surface to an electrical generator. The main goal is to quantify the energy harvesting, transmission and conversion efficiency of the proposed system and compare it with existing systems. Conclusions about the system’s efficiency are presented.

Keywords: road pavement, energy harvesting, energy conversion, system modelling

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1532 Modeling and Optimization of Nanogenerator for Energy Harvesting

Authors: Fawzi Srairi, Abderrahmane Dib


Recently, the desire for a self-powered micro and nanodevices has attracted a great interest of using sustainable energy sources. Further, the ultimate goal of nanogenerator is to harvest energy from the ambient environment in which a self-powered device based on these generators is needed. With the development of nanogenerator-based circuits design and optimization, the building of new device simulator is necessary for the study and the synthesis of electromechanical parameters of this type of models. In the present article, both numerical modeling and optimization of piezoelectric nanogenerator based on zinc oxide have been carried out. They aim to improve the electromechanical performances, robustness, and synthesis process for nanogenerator. The proposed model has been developed for a systematic study of the nanowire morphology parameters in stretching mode. In addition, heuristic optimization technique, namely, particle swarm optimization has been implemented for an analytic modeling and an optimization of nanogenerator-based process in stretching mode. Moreover, the obtained results have been tested and compared with conventional model where a good agreement has been obtained for excitation mode. The developed nanogenerator model can be generalized, extended and integrated into simulators devices to study nanogenerator-based circuits.

Keywords: electrical potential, heuristic algorithms, numerical modeling, nanogenerator

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1531 Analysis of Electromechanical Torsional Vibration in Large-Power AC Drive System Based on Virtual Inertia Control

Authors: Jin Wang, Chunyi Zhu, Chongjian Li, Dapeng Zheng


A method based on virtual inertia for suppressing electromechanical torsional vibration of a large-power AC drive system is presented in this paper. The main drive system of the rolling mill is the research object, and a two-inertia elastic model is established to study the mechanism of electromechanical torsional vibration. The improvement is made based on the control of the load observer. The virtual inertia control ratio K is added to the speed forward channel, and the feedback loop adds 1-K to design virtual inertia control. The control method combines the advantages of the positive and negative feedback control of the load observer, can achieve the purpose of controlling the moment of inertia of the motor from the perspective of electrical control, and effectively suppress oscillation.

Keywords: electromechanical torsional vibration, large-power AC drive system, load observer, simulation design

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1530 Strongly Coupled Finite Element Formulation of Electromechanical Systems with Integrated Mesh Morphing Using Radial Basis Functions

Authors: David Kriebel, Jan Edgar Mehner


The paper introduces a method to efficiently simulate nonlinear changing electrostatic fields occurring in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). Large deflections of the capacitor electrodes usually introduce nonlinear electromechanical forces on the mechanical system. Traditional finite element methods require a time-consuming remeshing process to capture exact results for this physical domain interaction. In order to accelerate the simulation process and eliminate the remeshing process, a formulation of a strongly coupled electromechanical transducer element will be introduced, which uses a combination of finite-element with an advanced mesh morphing technique using radial basis functions (RBF). The RBF allows large geometrical changes of the electric field domain while retaining the high element quality of the deformed mesh. Coupling effects between mechanical and electrical domains are directly included within the element formulation. Fringing field effects are described accurately by using traditional arbitrary shape functions.

Keywords: electromechanical, electric field, transducer, simulation, modeling, finite-element, mesh morphing, radial basis function

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1529 The Research of Reliability of MEMS Device under Thermal Shock Test in Space Mission

Authors: Liu Ziyu, Gao Yongfeng, Li Muhua, Zhao Jiahao, Meng Song


The effect of thermal shock on the operation of micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) were examined. All MEMS device were tested before and after three different conditions of thermal shock (from -55℃ to 85℃, from -65℃ to 125℃, from -65℃ to 200℃). The micro lens showed no changes after thermal shock, which shows that the design of the micro lens can be well adapted to the application environment in the space. The design of the micro mirror can be well adapted to the space application environment. The micro-magnetometer, RF MEMS switch and the micro accelerometer exhibited degradation and parameter drift after thermal shock, potential mechanical was proposed.

Keywords: MEMS, thermal shock test, reliability, space environment

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1528 Fabrication of Periodic Graphene-Like Structure of Zinc Oxide Piezoelectric Device

Authors: Zi-Gui Huang, Shen-Hsien Hu


This study proposes a fabrication of phononic-crystal acoustic wave device. A graphene-like atomic structure was adopted as the main research subject, and a graphene-like structure was designed using piezoelectric material zinc oxide and its periodic boundary conditions were defined using the finite element method. The effects of a hexagonal honeycomb structure were investigated regarding the band gap phenomenon. The use of micro-electromechanical systems process technology to make the film etched micron graphics, designed to produce four kinds of different piezoelectric structure (plat, periodic, single defect and double defects). Frequency response signals and phase change were also measured in this paper.

Keywords: MEMS, phononic crystal, piezoelectric material, Zinc oxide

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1527 Obtaining the Analytic Dependence for Estimating the Ore Mill Operation Modes

Authors: Baghdasaryan Marinka


The particular significance of comprehensive estimation of the increase in the operation efficiency of the mill motor electromechanical system, providing the main technological process for obtaining a metallic concentrate, as well as the technical state of the system are substantiated. The works carried out in the sphere of investigating, creating, and improving the operation modes of electric drive motors and ore-grinding mills have been studied. Analytic dependences for estimating the operation modes of the ore-grinding mills aimed at improving the ore-crashing process maintenance and technical service efficiencies have been obtained. The obtained analytic dependencies establish a link between the technological and power parameters of the electromechanical system, and allow to estimate the state of the system and reveal the controlled parameters required for the efficient management in case of changing the technological parameters. It has been substantiated that the changes in the technological factors affecting the consumption power of the drive motor do not cause an instability in the electromechanical system.

Keywords: electromechanical system, estimation, operation mode, productivity, technological process, the mill filling degree

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1526 Highly-Efficient Photoreaction Using Microfluidic Device

Authors: Shigenori Togashi, Yukako Asano


We developed an effective microfluidic device for photoreactions with low reflectance and good heat conductance. The performance of this microfluidic device was tested by carrying out a photoreactive synthesis of benzopinacol and acetone from benzophenone and 2-propanol. The yield reached 36% with an irradiation time of 469.2 s and was improved by more than 30% when compared to the values obtained by the batch method. Therefore, the microfluidic device was found to be effective for improving the yields of photoreactions.

Keywords: microfluidic device, photoreaction, black aluminum oxide, benzophenone, yield improvement

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1525 Replacement Time and Number of Preventive Maintenance Actions for Second-Hand Device

Authors: Wen Liang Chang


In this study, the optimal replacement time and number of preventive maintenance (PM) actions were investigated for a second-hand device. Suppose that a user intends to use a second-hand device for manufacturing products, and that the device is replaced with a new one. Any device failure is rectified through minimal repair, thereby incurring a fixed repair cost to the user. If the new device fails within the FRW period, minimal repair is performed at no cost to the user. After the FRW expires, a failed device is repaired and the cost of repair is incurred by the user. In this study, two profit models were developed, and the optimal replacement time and number of PM actions were determined to maximize profits. Finally, the influence of the optimal replacement time and number of PM actions were elaborated on, using numerical examples.

Keywords: second-hand device, preventive maintenance, replacement time, device failure

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1524 A Review on the Re-Usage of Single-Use Medical Devices

Authors: Lucas B. Naves, Maria José Abreu


Reprocessing single-use device has attracted interesting on the medical environment over the last decades. The reprocessing technique was sought in order to reduce the cost of purchasing the new medical device, which can achieve almost double of the price of the reprocessed product. In this manuscript, we have done a literature review, aiming the reuse of medical device that was firstly designed for single use only, but has become, more and more, effective on its reprocessing procedure. We also show the regulation, the countries which allows this procedure, the classification of these device and also the most important issue concerning the re-utilization of medical device, how to minimizing the risk of gram positive and negative bacteria, avoid cross-contamination, hepatitis B (HBV), and C (HCV) virus, and also human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Keywords: reusing, reprocessing, single-use medical device, HIV, hepatitis B and C

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1523 Electromechanical-Traffic Model of Compression-Based Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting System

Authors: Saleh Gareh, B. C. Kok, H. H. Goh


Piezoelectric energy harvesting has advantages over other alternative sources due to its large power density, ease of applications, and capability to be fabricated at different scales: macro, micro, and nano. This paper presents an electromechanical-traffic model for roadway compression-based piezoelectric energy harvesting system. A two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) electromechanical model has been developed for the piezoelectric energy harvesting unit to define its performance in power generation under a number of external excitations on road surface. Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT-5H) is selected as the piezoelectric material to be used in this paper due to its high Piezoelectric Charge Constant (d) and Piezoelectric Voltage Constant (g) values. The main source of vibration energy that has been considered in this paper is the moving vehicle on the road. The effect of various frequencies on possible generated power caused by different vibration characteristics of moving vehicle has been studied. A single unit of circle-shape Piezoelectric Cymbal Transducer (PCT) with diameter of 32 mm and thickness of 0.3 mm be able to generate about 0.8 mW and 3 mW of electric power under 4 Hz and 20 Hz of excitation, respectively. The estimated power to be generated for multiple arrays of PCT is approximately 150 kW/ km. Thus, the developed electromechanical-traffic model has enormous potential to be used in estimating the macro scale of roadway power generation system.

Keywords: piezoelectric energy harvesting, cymbal transducer, PZT (lead zirconate titanate), 2-DOF

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1522 Forensic Challenges in Source Device Identification for Digital Videos

Authors: Mustapha Aminu Bagiwa, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul Wahab, Mohd Yamani Idna Idris, Suleman Khan


Video source device identification has become a problem of concern in numerous domains especially in multimedia security and digital investigation. This is because videos are now used as evidence in legal proceedings. Source device identification aim at identifying the source of digital devices using the content they produced. However, due to affordable processing tools and the influx in digital content generating devices, source device identification is still a major problem within the digital forensic community. In this paper, we discuss source device identification for digital videos by identifying techniques that were proposed in the literature for model or specific device identification. This is aimed at identifying salient open challenges for future research.

Keywords: video forgery, source camcorder, device identification, forgery detection

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1521 Analysis of Gas Disturbance Characteristics in Lunar Sample Storage

Authors: Lv Shizeng, Han Xiao, Zhang Yi, Ding Wenjing


The lunar sample storage device is mainly used for the preparation of the lunar samples, observation, physical analysis and other work. The lunar samples and operating equipment are placed directly inside the storage device. The inside of the storage device is a high purity nitrogen environment to ensure that the sample is not contaminated by the Earth's environment. In order to ensure that the water and oxygen indicators in the storage device meet the sample requirements, a dynamic gas cycle is required between the storage device and the external purification equipment. However, the internal gas disturbance in the storage device can affect the operation of the sample. In this paper, the storage device model is established, and the tetrahedral mesh is established by Tetra/Mixed method. The influence of different inlet position and gas flow on the internal flow field disturbance is calculated, and the disturbed flow area should be avoided during the sampling operation.

Keywords: lunar samples, gas disturbance, storage device, characteristic analysis

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1520 Product Design and Development of Wearable Assistant Device

Authors: Hao-Jun Hong, Jung-Tang Huang


The world is gradually becoming an aging society, and with the lack of laboring forces, this phenomenon is affecting the nation’s economy growth. Although nursing centers are booming in recent years, the lack of medical resources are yet to be resolved, thus creating an innovative wearable medical device could be a vital solution. This research is focused on the design and development of a wearable device which obtains a more precise heart failure measurement than products on the market. The method used by the device is based on the sensor fusion and big data algorithm. From the test result, the modified structure of wearable device can significantly decrease the MA (Motion Artifact) and provide users a more cozy and accurate physical monitor experience.

Keywords: big data, heart failure, motion artifact, sensor fusion, wearable medical device

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1519 Designing and Analyzing Sensor and Actuator of a Nano/Micro-System for Fatigue and Fracture Characterization of Nanomaterials

Authors: Mohammad Reza Zamani Kouhpanji


This paper presents a MEMS/NEMS device for fatigue and fracture characterization of nanomaterials. This device can apply static loads, cyclic loads, and their combinations in nanomechanical experiments. It is based on the electromagnetic force induced between paired parallel wires carrying electrical currents. Using this concept, the actuator and sensor parts of the device were designed and analyzed while considering the practical limitations. Since the PWCC device only uses two wires for actuation part and sensing part, its fabrication process is extremely easier than the available MEMS/NEMS devices. The total gain and phase shift of the MEMS/NEMS device were calculated and investigated. Furthermore, the maximum gain and sensitivity of the MEMS/NEMS device were studied to demonstrate the capability and usability of the device for wide range of nanomaterials samples. This device can be readily integrated into SEM/TEM instruments to provide real time study of the mechanical behaviors of nanomaterials as well as their fatigue and fracture properties, softening or hardening behaviors, and initiation and propagation of nanocracks.

Keywords: sensors and actuators, MEMS/NEMS devices, fatigue and fracture nanomechanical testing device, static and cyclic nanomechanical testing device

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1518 Blood Flow Estimator of the Left Ventricular Assist Device Based in Look-Up-Table: In vitro Tests

Authors: Tarcisio F. Leao, Bruno Utiyama, Jeison Fonseca, Eduardo Bock, Aron Andrade


This work presents a blood flow estimator based in Look-Up-Table (LUT) for control of Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD). This device has been used as bridge to transplantation or as destination therapy to treat patients with heart failure (HF). Destination Therapy application requires a high performance LVAD; thus, a stable control is important to keep adequate interaction between heart and device. LVAD control provides an adequate cardiac output while sustaining an appropriate flow and pressure blood perfusion, also described as physiologic control. Because thrombus formation and system reliability reduction, sensors are not desirable to measure these variables (flow and pressure blood). To achieve this, control systems have been researched to estimate blood flow. LVAD used in the study is composed by blood centrifugal pump, control, and power supply. This technique used pump and actuator (motor) parameters of LVAD, such as speed and electric current. Estimator relates electromechanical torque (motor or actuator) and hydraulic power (blood pump) via LUT. An in vitro Mock Loop was used to evaluate deviations between blood flow estimated and actual. A solution with glycerin (50%) and water was used to simulate the blood viscosity with hematocrit 45%. Tests were carried out with variation hematocrit: 25%, 45% and 58% of hematocrit, or 40%, 50% and 60% of glycerin in water solution, respectively. Test with bovine blood was carried out (42% hematocrit). Mock Loop is composed: reservoir, tubes, pressure and flow sensors, and fluid (or blood), beyond LVAD. Estimator based in LUT is patented, number BR1020160068363, in Brazil. Mean deviation is 0.23 ± 0.07 L/min for mean flow estimated. Larger mean deviation was 0.5 L/min considering hematocrit variation. This estimator achieved deviation adequate for physiologic control implementation. Future works will evaluate flow estimation performance in control system of LVAD.

Keywords: blood pump, flow estimator, left ventricular assist device, look-up-table

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1517 Developement of a New Wearable Device for Automatic Guidance Service

Authors: Dawei Cai


In this paper, we present a new wearable device that provide an automatic guidance servie for visitors. By combining the position information from NFC and the orientation information from a 6 axis acceleration and terrestrial magnetism sensor, the head's direction can be calculated. We developed an algorithm to calculate the device orientation based on the data from acceleration and terrestrial magnetism sensor. If visitors want to know some explanation about an exhibit in front of him, what he has to do is just lift up his mobile device. The identification program will automatically identify the status based on the information from NFC and MEMS, and start playing explanation content for him. This service may be convenient for old people or disables or children.

Keywords: wearable device, ubiquitous computing, guide sysem, MEMS sensor, NFC

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1516 Facts of Near Field Communication

Authors: Amin Hamrahi


Near Field Communication (NFC) is one of the latest wireless communication technologies. NFC enables electronic devices to communicate in short range using the radio waves. NFC offers safe yet simple communication between electronic devices. This technology provides the fastest way to communicate two device with in a fraction of second. With NFC technology, communication occurs when an NFC-compatible device is brought within a few centimeters of another NFC device. NFC is an open-platform technology that is being standardized in the NFC Forum. NFC is based on and extends on RFID. It operates on 13.56 MHz frequency.

Keywords: near field communication, NFC technology, wireless communication technologies, NFC-compatible device, NFC, communication

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1515 Enhancement of Light Out Efficiency of PLED Device Employing Designed Substrate Combined with Nano-Line Patterns

Authors: Ting-Ting Wen, H. C. Lin


This paper reports a study for the light outcoupling efficiency of the PLED device. In use of a designed substrate combined with nano-line patterns in PLED device, the light outcoupling efficiency can be significantly enhanced. The designed substrate was made by UV imprinting technology, such as triangular microlens arrays on the front and periodic corrugated patterns on the back surface. The nano-line patterns in PLED device was fabricated by advanced microstamping and ink-jet printing techniques. For high angles of observation with respect to the substrate surface normal, the light out intensity of the developed PLED device is increased from 0.05 (a.u.) up to 0.69 (a.u.) at the view angle 85 degree. The designed integration leads to 64% increase of the light out intensity compared with the conventional PLED device.

Keywords: triangular microlens, corrugation patterns, nano-line patterns, PLED device, UV imprinting technology, microstamping

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1514 Automatic Battery Charging for Rotor Wings Type Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Jeyeon Kim


This paper describes the development of the automatic battery charging device for the rotor wings type unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and the positioning method that can be accurately landed on the charging device when landing. The developed automatic battery charging device is considered by simple maintenance, durability, cost and error of the positioning when landing. In order to for the UAV accurately land on the charging device, two kinds of markers (a color marker and a light marker) installed on the charging device is detected by the camera mounted on the UAV. And then, the UAV is controlled so that the detected marker becomes the center of the image and is landed on the device. We conduct the performance evaluation of the proposal positioning method by the outdoor experiments at day and night, and show the effectiveness of the system.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle, automatic battery charging, positioning

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1513 Secure Transmission Scheme in Device-to-Device Multicast Communications

Authors: Bangwon Seo


In this paper, we consider multicast device-to-device (D2D) direct communication systems in cellular networks. In multicast D2D communications, nearby mobile devices exchanges, their data directly without going through a base station and a D2D transmitter send its data to multiple D2D receivers that compose of D2D multicast group. We consider wiretap channel where there is an eavesdropper that attempts to overhear the transmitted data of the D2D transmitter. In this paper, we propose a secure transmission scheme in D2D multicast communications in cellular networks. In order to prevent the eavesdropper from overhearing the transmitted data of the D2D transmitter, a precoding vector is employed at the D2D transmitter in the proposed scheme. We perform computer simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme. Through the simulation, we show that the secrecy rate performance can be improved by selecting an appropriate precoding vector.

Keywords: device-to-device communications, wiretap channel, secure transmission, precoding

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1512 The Development of the Prototype of Bamboo Shading Device

Authors: Nuanwan Tuaycharoen, Wanarat Konisranukul


The main aim of this research was to investigate the prototype of bamboo shading device. There were two objectives of this study. The first objective was to investigate the effect of non-chemical treatments on damage of bamboo shading device by powder-post beetle and fungi. The second aim of this study was to develop a prototype of bamboo shading device. The study of the effect of non-chemical treatments on damage of bamboo shading device by powder-post beetle in laboratory showed that, among seven treatments tested, wood vinegar treatment can protect powder-post beetle better than the original method up to 92.91%. It was also found that wood vinegar treatment can show the best performance in fungi protection and work better than the original method up to 40%. The second experiment was carried out by constructing four bamboo shading devices and installing them on a building for 28 days. All aspects of shading device were investigated in terms of their beauty, durability, and ease of construction and assembly. The final prototype was developed from the lessons drawn from these tested options. In conclusion this study showed the effectiveness of some natural preservatives against insect and fungi damage. It also illustrated the characteristics of the prototype of bamboo shading device that can constructed by rural workers within one week.

Keywords: bamboo, shading device, energy conservation, alternative material

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1511 Bluetooth Piconet System for Child Care Applications

Authors: Ching-Sung Wang, Teng-Wei Wang, Zhen-Ting Zheng


This study mainly concerns a safety device designed for child care. When children are out of sight or the caregivers cannot always pay attention to the situation, through the functions of this device, caregivers can immediately be informed to make sure that the children do not get lost or hurt, and thus, ensure their safety. Starting from this concept, a device is produced based on the relatively low-cost Bluetooth piconet system and a three-axis gyroscope sensor. This device can transmit data to a mobile phone app through Bluetooth, in order that the user can learn the situation at any time. By simply clipping the device in a pocket or on the waist, after switching on/starting the device, it will send data to the phone to detect the child’s fall and distance. Once the child is beyond the angle or distance set by the app, it will issue a warning to inform the phone owner.

Keywords: children care, piconet system, three-axis gyroscope, distance detection, falls detection

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1510 Transient Performance Analysis of Gate Inside Junctionless Transistor (GI-JLT)

Authors: Sangeeta Singh, Pankaj Kumar, P. N. Kondekar


In this paper, the transient device performance analysis of n-type Gate Inside Junctionless Transistor (GIJLT)has been evaluated. 3-D Bohm Quantum Potential (BQP)transport device simulation has been used to evaluate the delay and power dissipation performance. GI-JLT has a number of desirable device parameters such as reduced propagation delay, dynamic power dissipation, power and delay product, intrinsic gate delay and energy delay product as compared to Gate-all-around transistors GAA-JLT. In addition to this, various other device performance parameters namely, on/off current ratio, short channel effects (SCE), transconductance Generation Factor(TGF) and unity gain cut-off frequency (fT) and subthreshold slope (SS) of the GI-JLT and Gate-all-around junctionless transistor(GAA-JLT) have been analyzed and compared. GI-JLT shows better device performance characteristics than GAA-JLT for low power and high frequency applications, because of its larger gate electrostatic control on the device operation.

Keywords: gate-inside junctionless transistor GI-JLT, gate-all-around junctionless transistor GAA-JLT, propagation delay, power delay product

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1509 The Effect of Microgrid on Power System Oscillatory Stability

Authors: Burak Yildirim, Muhsin Tunay Gencoglu


This publication shows the effects of Microgrid (MG) integration on the power systems oscillating stability. Generated MG model power systems were applied to the IEEE 14 bus test system which is widely used in stability studies. Stability studies were carried out with the help of eigenvalue analysis over linearized system models. In addition, Hopf bifurcation point detection was performed to show the effect of MGs on the system loadability margin. In the study results, it is seen that MGs affect system stability positively by increasing system loadability margin and has a damper effect on the critical modes of the system and the electromechanical local modes, but they make the damping amount of the electromechanical interarea modes reduce.

Keywords: Eigenvalue analysis, microgrid, Hopf bifurcation, oscillatory stability

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1508 Improving Research Collaborations in Medical Device Development in Korea from an SMEs’ Perspective

Authors: Yoon Chung Kim


In this coming aging society, medical device industry is expected to become one of the major industries. Since developing medical devices usually requires technology convergence, research collaboration is important, especially for some small and medium enterprises (SMEs) that do not have enough R&D resources in each related field. Collaboration in medical device development has some unique properties. Since it requires convergence technology, collaboration with different fields, and different types of people are often required. Since it requires clinical test, the development process usually takes longer and collaboration with hospitals is also required. However, despite these importance and uniqueness, collaboration in medical device development has not yet been widely studied. Thus, our research focuses on investigating collaborations in medical device development. For our research, we conducted surveys and interviews, especially with SMEs’ perspective in Korea. The result and discussion will be presented with a major impact factors for collaboration result, as well as future strategies that will improve and strengthen collaboration process in medical devices.

Keywords: medical device, SME, research collaboration, development, clinical

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1507 Photoplethysmography-Based Device Designing for Cardiovascular System Diagnostics

Authors: S. Botman, D. Borchevkin, V. Petrov, E. Bogdanov, M. Patrushev, N. Shusharina


In this paper, we report the development of the device for diagnostics of cardiovascular system state and associated automated workstation for large-scale medical measurement data collection and analysis. It was shown that optimal design for the monitoring device is wristband as it represents engineering trade-off between accuracy and usability. The monitoring device is based on the infrared reflective photoplethysmographic sensor, which allows collecting multiple physiological parameters, such as heart rate and pulsing wave characteristics. Developed device use BLE interface for medical and supplementary data transmission to the coupled mobile phone, which process it and send it to the doctor's automated workstation. Results of this experimental model approbation confirmed the applicability of the proposed approach.

Keywords: cardiovascular diseases, health monitoring systems, photoplethysmography, pulse wave, remote diagnostics

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1506 A Highly Sensitive Dip Strip for Detection of Phosphate in Water

Authors: Hojat Heidari-Bafroui, Amer Charbaji, Constantine Anagnostopoulos, Mohammad Faghri


Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plant life which is most frequently found as phosphate in water. Once phosphate is found in abundance in surface water, a series of adverse effects on an ecosystem can be initiated. Therefore, a portable and reliable method is needed to monitor the phosphate concentrations in the field. In this paper, an inexpensive dip strip device with the ascorbic acid/antimony reagent dried on blotting paper along with wet chemistry is developed for the detection of low concentrations of phosphate in water. Ammonium molybdate and sulfuric acid are separately stored in liquid form so as to improve significantly the lifetime of the device and enhance the reproducibility of the device’s performance. The limit of detection and quantification for the optimized device are 0.134 ppm and 0.472 ppm for phosphate in water, respectively. The device’s shelf life, storage conditions, and limit of detection are superior to what has been previously reported for the paper-based phosphate detection devices.

Keywords: phosphate detection, paper-based device, molybdenum blue method, colorimetric assay

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1505 Design and Manufacture Detection System for Patient's Unwanted Movements during Radiology and CT Scan

Authors: Anita Yaghobi, Homayoun Ebrahimian


One of the important tools that can help orthopedic doctors for diagnose diseases is imaging scan. Imaging techniques can help physicians in see different parts of the body, including the bones, muscles, tendons, nerves, and cartilage. During CT scan, a patient must be in the same position from the start to the end of radiation treatment. Patient movements are usually monitored by the technologists through the closed circuit television (CCTV) during scan. If the patient makes a small movement, it is difficult to be noticed by them. In the present work, a simple patient movement monitoring device is fabricated to monitor the patient movement. It uses an electronic sensing device. It continuously monitors the patient’s position while the CT scan is in process. The device has been retrospectively tested on 51 patients whose movement and distance were measured. The results show that 25 patients moved 1 cm to 2.5 cm from their initial position during the CT scan. Hence, the device can potentially be used to control and monitor patient movement during CT scan and Radiography. In addition, an audible alarm situated at the control panel of the control room is provided with this device to alert the technologists. It is an inexpensive, compact device which can be used in any CT scan machine.

Keywords: CT scan, radiology, X Ray, unwanted movement

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