Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: Afaf Djaghoubi

14 Impact of Unconventional Waters on Spirulina Production under Greenhouse Condition in Ouargla

Authors: Afaf Djaghoubi, Mustapha Daddi Bouhoun, Jr., Ali Seggai

Abstract:

The study of the habitat of Spirulina is the key to ensure the smooth running of its culture outside of its natural habitat. Our experimental work in the Ouargla basin which aims to study the Spirulina productivity cultivated under greenhouse in unconventional waters enriched and non-enriched, drainage and wastewater treated were used in the experiment. For this, we proceeded to measure the biomass concentration by the DO625. The high biomass concentration and productivity amount were in treated wastewater enriched with 2.49±1.09 and 0.12±0.57 respectively, while The high amount in drainage water were in medium enriched with 2.19 ± 0.85 g/l and 0.08±0.52 g/l/d respectively. In spite of the enrichment and the good productivity of these waters, the chemical and microbiological qualities remain to study for a better valuation.

Keywords: Algeria, Ouargla, production, Spirulina, unconventional water

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13 Evaluation of the Analgesic Activity of Defatted Methanol Extract of Capparis spinosa L. Root Barks

Authors: Asma Meddour, Mouloud Yahia, Afaf Benhouda, Souhila Benbia, Hachani Khadhraoui

Abstract:

Peripheral analgesic activity of defatted methanol extract of root barks of Capparis spinosa was tested orally at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg against pain induced by acetic acid in rats. The dose of 200 mg/kg presents significant analgesic effect with a percentage of inhibition of torsions of 88.51% compared to the positive control which is the acetylsalicylic acid which represents a percentage of inhibition of 92.55%. The dose of 100 mg/kg presents a percentage of inhibition of 81.68%.

Keywords: peripheral analgesic activity, Capparis spinosa, percentage of inhibition of torsions, chemical sciences

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12 Knowledge and Attitude of Final Year Undergraduate Nursing Students towards Prevention of Cervical Cancer

Authors: Afaf Abdallah, Moawia Elsadig

Abstract:

Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common women cancer among worldwide; representing 13% of female cancers. In Sudan, it ranks as the second most frequent cancer among women as other developing countries. Aim: Is to study awareness, attitude of nursing students towards cervical cancer prevention. The results: Most of the students were not aware of other screening methods than Pap smear test. However, half of the respondents showed positive attitudes towards HPV vaccination. More than two-thirds of respondents exhibited a positive attitude and were willing to undergo Pap smear in the future. Conclusion: The study shows that the majority of the participants have poor information, education would motivate nurses to participate actively in awareness raising, screening, and management.

Keywords: cervical cancer, knowledge, attitude, screening

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11 Hopes of out of School Children with Disabilities for Educational Inclusion

Authors: Afaf Manzoor, Abdul Hameed

Abstract:

Hopes to attend school is the most effective means to overcome the burden of disability and become a self-reliant, productive citizen. The objectives of the study were to develop a valid and reliable scale to measure hopes of out of school children with disabilities and find an association between hopes and various demographic factors such as type of disability, gender, socio-economic status, and locale, etc. Child Hope theory by Snyder (2003) was used as a framework to develop a measure for the hopes of children. According to this theory, hope is defined as a set of cognition that includes self- perception which establish routes to achieve desired goals (pathways) and motivation for achieving the goals (agency). By applying this theory, inclusion hope scale was developed and validated. The data were collected from 361 out of school children with disabilities living in three districts (Lahore, Sheikupura, Kasur) of Lahore Division by using the cluster sampling technique. Findings of the study indicated that children with intellectual challenges were more hopeless as compared to other types of disabilities. Similarly, children living in urban areas have better hopes for inclusion in school. However, no gender disparity was found in terms of being hopeful to attend schools. The study also includes recommendations to improve hopes for educational inclusion among out of school children with disabilities.

Keywords: out of school children, disability, hopes, inclusion

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10 Toxicological Study of Umbilicus rupesris L. Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies

Authors: Afaf Benhouda, Mouloud Yahia, Hachani Khadraoui, Asma Meddour, Souhila Benbia, Abdelmoudjib Ghecham, Djahida Benhouda

Abstract:

Umbilicus rupestris (UR) is an herbal medicine traditionally applied against the ignitions of the skin. The present paper aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity with orally administered methanolic leaves extract of Umbilicus rupestris L (URMeOH). In acute toxicity tests, four groups of rats (n = 6/group/female) were orally treated with doses of 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg, and general behaviour, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received URAMeOH by gavage at the doses of 100, 200 mg/kg/day (n = 6/group) for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney) were determined. URMeOH did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with URMeOH did not show any change in body weight, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed either in macroscopic or microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Umbilicus rupestris extract could be safe for human use.

Keywords: acute toxicity, biochemical parameters, hematological parameters, Umbilicus rupestris, subacute toxicity

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9 Improving Egg Production by Using Split-Phase Lighting Program

Authors: Hanan Al-Khalaifah, Afaf Al-Nasser

Abstract:

The egg shell quality and oviposition in laying hens are influenced by a range of factors including strain of birds, age, nutrition, water quality, general stress, heat stress, disease, and lighting program inside houses. A layer experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of split-phase lighting program on egg production efficiency. Four different feeds and average phosphorus (av. P) levels were tested. Diet A was a ration with an av. P level of 0.471%; Diet B was a ration with an av. P level of 0.510%; Diet C contained an av. P level of 0.293%; and Diet D contained an av. P level of 0.327%. The split-phase lighting program tested was one that inserted a 7-hour dark period from 9 am to 4 pm to reduce the heat produced by the feeding increment and physical activity of the hens. Diet B produced significantly more eggs than Diet C, or Diet D. Diet A was not significantly different from any of the other diets. Diet B also had the best feed efficiency with the other three diets in the same order and significance as for egg production. Diet D produced eggshells significantly thicker than either Diet A, or Diet B. Diet C produced thicker eggshells than Diet B, whose shells were significantly thinner than the other three diets. There were no differences in egg size. From these data, it is apparent that the minimal av. P level for the Lohmann strain of layer in Kuwait is above 0.327%. There was no difference in egg production or eggshell thickness between the split-phase light treatment and the standard light program. There was no difference in oviposition frequency. The split-phase light used 3.66% less feed, however, which was significant. The standard light produced eggs that were significantly heavier (66.30g vs. 65.73g). These results indicate that considerable savings in feed costs could be attained by using split-phase lighting, especially when cooling is not very efficient.

Keywords: egg, laying, nutrition, oviposition

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8 The Economic Impact Analysis of the Use of Probiotics and Prebiotics in Broiler Feed

Authors: Hanan Al-Khalaifah, Afaf Al-Nasser

Abstract:

Probiotics and prebiotics claimed to serve as effective alternatives to antibiotics in the poultry. This study aims to investigate the effect of different probiotics and prebiotics on the economic impact analysis of the use of probiotics and prebiotics in broiler feed. The study involved four broiler cycles, two during winter and two during summer. In the first two cycles (summer and winter), different types of prebiotics and probiotics were used. The probiotics were Bacillus coagulans (1 g/kg dried culture) and Lactobacillus (1 g/kg dried culture of 12 commercial strains), and prebiotics included fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) (5 g/kg) and mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (5 g/kg). Based on the results obtained, the best treatment was chosen to be FOS, from which different ratios were used in the last two cycles during winter and summer. The levels of FOS chosen were 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7% of the diet. From an economic point of view, it was generally concluded that in all dietary treatments, food was consumed less in cycle 1 than in cycle 2, the total body weight gain was more in cycle 1 than cycle 2, and the average feed efficiency was less in cycle l than cycle 2. This indicates that the weather condition affected better in cycle 1. Also, there were very small differences between the dietary treatments in each cycle. In cycle 1, the best total feed consumption was for the FOS treatment, the highest total body weight gain and average feed efficiency were for B. coagulans. In cycle 2, all performance was better in FOS treatment. FOS significantly reduced the Salmonella sp. counts in the intestine, where the environment was driven towards acidity. FOS was the best on the average taste panel study of the produced meat. Accordingly, FOS prebiotic was chosen to be the best treatment to be used in cycles 3 and 4. The economic impact analysis generally revealed that there were no big differences between the treatments in all of the studied indicators, but there was a difference between the cycles.

Keywords: antibiotic, economic impact, prebiotic, probiotic, broiler

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7 Efficacy of Biofeedback-Assisted Pelvic Floor Muscle Training on Postoperative Stress Urinary Incontinence

Authors: Asmaa M. El-Bandrawy, Afaf M. Botla, Ghada E. El-Refaye, Hassan O. Ghareeb

Abstract:

Background: Urinary incontinence is a common problem among adults. Its incidence increases with age and it is more frequent in women. Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is the first-line therapy in the treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) either alone or combined with biofeedback-assisted PFMT. The aim of the work: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of biofeedback-assisted PFMT in postoperative stress urinary incontinence. Settings and Design: A single blind controlled trial design was. Methods and Material: This study was carried out in 30 volunteer patients diagnosed as severe degree of stress urinary incontinence and they were admitted to surgical treatment. They were divided randomly into two equal groups: (Group A) consisted of 15 patients who had been treated with post-operative biofeedback-assisted PFMT and home exercise program (Group B) consisted of 15 patients who had been treated with home exercise program only. Assessment of all patients in both groups (A) and (B) was carried out before and after the treatment program by measuring intra-vaginal pressure in addition to the visual analog scale. Results: At the end of the treatment program, there was a highly statistically significant difference between group (A) and group (B) in the intra-vaginal pressure and the visual analog scale favoring the group (A). Conclusion: biofeedback-assisted PFMT is an effective method for the symptomatic relief of post-operative female stress urinary incontinence.

Keywords: stress urinary incontinence, pelvic floor muscles, pelvic floor exercises, biofeedback

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6 Perceptions About the Academic Performance of Autistic Students

Authors: Afaf Alhusayni, Elizabeth Sheppard, Asiyya Jaffrani, Peter Mitchell, Lauren Marsh

Abstract:

Introduction: Previous research has found that people make systematic judgments about others based on small glimpses of their behavior. Furthermore, autistic people are consistently judged more negatively than non-autistic people in terms of favourability and approachability. Objectives: This project focuses on a hitherto unstudied type of judgment that is highly relevant within a university context, judgments about academic performance. This is particularly important as autistic university students are less likely to complete their degrees than neurotypical students. Methods: Twenty-five neurotypical perceivers (21 females - 4 males) viewed a series of 4s video clips featuring an individual ‘target’ displaying natural behavior. Nine of these targets were autistic and nine were neurotypical. Perceivers were asked to rate each target on four aspects related to university life (motivation, success, grades, and happiness). Results: Autistic targets were judged more negatively on all aspects compared to neurotypical targets. Conclusions: This study concludes that neurotypical perceivers negatively judge the academic performance of autistic students. This suggests that autistic university students face unfavorable scrutiny and judgment, which may negatively impact their academic success. Implications: These initial findings provide important evidence that autistic people are negatively stigmatized within education environments. Further work is needed to ascertain the extent to which these negative judgments may feed into attainment gaps for autistic students. This information is useful for the education department, government, and social care organizations, enabling change in the provision of support for autistic students.

Keywords: autistic person perception, academic performance, stigma and judgment, higher education

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5 Protective Effect of Rosemary Extract against Toxicity Induced by Egyptian Naja haje Venom

Authors: Walaa H. Salama, Azza M. Abdel-Aty, Afaf S. Fahmy

Abstract:

Background: Egyptian Cobra; Naja haje (Elapidae) is one of most common snakes, widely distributed in Egypt and its envenomation causes multi-organ failure leading to rapid death. Thus, Different medicinal plants showed a protective effect against venom toxicity and may complement the conventional antivenom therapy. Aim: The present study was designed to assess both the antioxidant capacity of methanolic extract of rosemary leaves and evaluate the neutralizing ability of the extract against hepatotoxicity induced by Naja haje venom. Methods: The total phenolic and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant capacity of the methanolic rosemary extract were estimated by DPPH and ABTS Scavenging methods. In addition, the rosemary extract were assessed for anti-venom properties under in vitro and in vivo standard assays. Results: The rosemary extract had high total phenolic and flavonoid content as 12 ± 2 g of gallic acid equivalent per 100 gram of dry weight (g GAE/100g dw) and 5.5 ± 0.8 g of catechin equivalent per 100 grams of dry weight (g CE/100g dw), respectively. In addition, the rosemary extract showed high antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, The rosemary extract were inhibited in vitro the enzymatic activities of phospholipase A₂, L-amino acid oxidase, and hyaluronidase of the venom in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, indirect hemolytic activity, hepatotoxicity induced by venom were completely neutralized as shown by histological studies. Conclusion: The phenolic compounds of rosemary extract with potential antioxidant activity may be considered as a promising candidate for future therapeutics in snakebite therapy.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, neutralization, phospholipase A₂ enzyme, snake venom

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4 Elite Child Athletes Are Our Future: Cardiac Adaptation to Monofin Training in Prepubertal Egyptian Athletes

Authors: Magdy Abouzeid, Nancy Abouzeid, Afaf Salem

Abstract:

Background: The elite child athletes are one who has superior athletic talent. Monofin (a single surface swim fin) swimming already proved to be the most efficient method of swimming for human being. This is a novel descriptive study examining myocardial function indices in prepubertal monofin children. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of long-term monofin training (LTMT), 36 weeks, 6 times per week, 90 min per unit on Myocardial function adaptation in elite child monofin athletes. Methods: 14 elite monofin children aged 11.95 years (± 1.09 yr) took part for (LTMT). All subjects underwent two-dimension, M-mode, and Doppler echocardiography before and after training to evaluate cardiac dimensions and function; septal and posterior wall thickness. Statistical methods of SPSS, means ± SD and paired t test, % of improvement were used. Findings: There was significant difference (p<0.01) and % improvement for all echocardiography parameter after (LTMT). Inter ventricular septal thickness in diastole and in systole increased by 27.9 % and 42.75 %. Left ventricular end systolic dimension and diastole increased by 16.81 % and 42.7 % respectively. Posterior wall thickness in systole very highly increased by 283.3 % and in diastole increased by 51.78 %. Left ventricular mass in diastole and in systole increased by 44.8 % and 40.1 % respectively. Stroke volume (SV) and resting heart rate (HR) significant changed (sv) 25 %, (HR) 14.7 %. Interpretation: the unique swim fin tool and create propulsion and overcome resistance. Further researches are needed to determine the effects of monofin training on right ventricular in child athletes.

Keywords: prepubertal, monofin training, heart athlete's, elite child athlete, echocardiography

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3 Toxicity, Analgesic, and Anti-Pyretic Activities of Methanolic Extract from Hyoscyamus albus’ Leaves in Albinos Rats

Authors: Yahia Massinissa, Afaf Benhouda, Mouloud Yahia

Abstract:

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity; analgesic and anti-pyretic properties of standardized HA methanolic extract (HAMeOH) in vivo. Methods: The acute toxicity study was performed on rats while adopting the OECD-420 Guidelines (fixed dose procedure). Assessment of analgesic activity was performed in rats with two analgesic models. One was acetic acid induced writhing response and the other formalin-induced paw licking. The anti-pyretic effect was tested by Brewer’s yeast induced fever in rats. Results: For the acute toxicity test, the higher dose administration of 2000 mg/kg bw. of H.albus did not produce any toxic signs or deaths in rats. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the body and organ weights between control and treated groups. The (LD50) of 'H. albus' was higher than 2000 g/kg bw. In subacute toxicity study, no mortality and toxic signs were observed with the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg bw. of extracts of for 28 consecutive days. These analgesic experimental results indicated that HAMeOH (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) decreased the acetic acid-induced writhing responses and HAMeOH (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) decreased the licking time in the second phase of the formalin test. Moreover, in the model of yeast-induced elevation of the body temperature HAMeOH showed dose-dependent lowering of the body temperature up to 3h at both the doses these results obtained, were comparable to that of paracetamol. Conclusion: The present findings indicate that the leaves of Hyoscyamus albus L. possess potent analgesic and antipyretic activity.

Keywords: Hyoscyamus albus, Umbilicus rupestris, secondary metabolites, NMR with protons, pharmacobiologic activities, methanolic extract

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2 A Case Study on Expanding Access to Higher Education of Students with Hearing Impairment

Authors: Afaf Manzoor, Abdul Hameed

Abstract:

Children with hearing impairment face several challenges in accessing primary and secondary education in general and higher education in particular in Pakistan. A large number of these children are excluded from formal education system through segregated special institutions. The enrollment rate of these children at school level is very low and it continues decreasing as they move on the ladder of education. Negligible number of students with hearing impairment gets any chance to be enrolled at tertiary or higher education institutes. The segregated system of education at primary and secondary level makes it even more difficult to adjust in an inclusive classroom at a higher level not only for students with hearing impairment but for their teachers and peers as well. A false belief of teachers and parents about low academic profile of students with hearing impairment is one of the major challenges to overcome for their participation at higher education. This case study was conducted to document an innovative step taken by the Department of Special Education Needs, University of Management & Technology, Lahore Pakistan. The prime objective of this study was to assess the satisfaction level of students with hearing impairment in BS 4 Years and MA Special Education programs at Lahore campus. Structured interviews were of 40 students with hearing impairment to assess the satisfaction on service delivery (admission process, classroom pedagogy, content, assessment/results, access to other services centers i.e. library, cafeteria, hostel, co-curricular activities) and campus life. Their peers without disabilities were also interviewed to assess their acceptance level. The findings of the study revealed positive results about their educational as well as social inclusion in the university. The students also shared their fears at the time of admission and how fear eventually faded out with the passage of time due to the proper academic support system. The findings of the study will be shared in detail with the audience during the presentation.

Keywords: students with hearing impairment, higher education, inclusive education, marginalization

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1 Process Optimization for 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel by Laser Metal Deposition

Authors: Siri Marthe Arbo, Afaf Saai, Sture Sørli, Mette Nedreberg

Abstract:

This work aims to establish a reliable approach for optimizing a Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) process for a critical maritime component, based on the material properties and structural performance required by the maritime industry. The component of interest is a water jet impeller, for which specific requirements for material properties are defined. The developed approach is based on the assessment of the effects of LMD process parameters on microstructure and material performance of standard AM 2205 duplex stainless steel powder. Duplex stainless steel offers attractive properties for maritime applications, combining high strength, enhanced ductility and excellent corrosion resistance due to the specific amounts of ferrite and austenite. These properties are strongly affected by the microstructural characteristics in addition to microstructural defects such as porosity and welding defects, all strongly influenced by the chosen LMD process parameters. In this study, the influence of deposition speed and heat input was evaluated. First, the influences of deposition speed and heat input on the microstructure characteristics, including ferrite/austenite fraction, amount of porosity and welding defects, were evaluated. Then, the achieved mechanical properties were evaluated by standard testing methods, measuring the hardness, tensile strength and elongation, bending force and impact energy. The measured properties were compared to the requirements of the water jet impeller. The results show that the required amounts of ferrite and austenite can be achieved directly by the LMD process without post-weld heat treatments. No intermetallic phases were observed in the material produced by the investigated process parameters. A high deposition speed was found to reduce the ductility due to the formation of welding defects. An increased heat input was associated with reduced strength due to the coarsening of the ferrite/austenite microstructure. The microstructure characterizations and measured mechanical performance demonstrate the great potential of the LMD process and generate a valuable database for the optimization of the LMD process for duplex stainless steels.

Keywords: duplex stainless steel, laser metal deposition, process optimization, microstructure, mechanical properties

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