Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1258

Search results for: solar desalination

1258 A Technical-Economical Study of a New Solar Tray Distillator

Authors: Abderrahmane Diaf, Assia Cherfa, Lamia Karadaniz

Abstract:

Multiple tray solar distillation offers an interesting alternative for small-scale desalination and production high quality distilled water at a competitive cost using solar energy. In this work, we present indoor/outdoor trial performance data of our multiple tray solar distillation as well as the results of cost estimation analysis.

Keywords: solar desalination, tray distillation, multi-étages solaire, solar distillation

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
1257 A Performance Analysis Study of an Active Solar Still Integrating Fin at the Basin Plate

Authors: O. Ansari, H. Hafs, A. Bah, M. Asbik, M. Malha, M. Bakhouya

Abstract:

Water is one of the most important and vulnerable natural resources due to human activities and climate change. Water-level continues declining year after year and it is primarily caused by sustained, extensive, and traditional usage methods. Improving water utilization becomes an urgent issue in order satisfy the increasing population needs. Desalination of seawater or brackish water could help in increasing water potential. However, a cost-effective desalination process is required. The most appropriate method for performing this desalination is solar-driven distillation, given its simplicity, low cost and especially the availability of the solar energy source. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate the influence of coupling integrated basin plate by fins with preheating by solar collector on the performance of solar still. The energy balance equations for the various elements of the solar still are introduced. A numerical example is used to show the efficiency of the proposed solution.

Keywords: active solar still, desalination, fins, solar collector

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
1256 A Levelized Cost Analysis for Solar Energy Powered Sea Water Desalination in the Arabian Gulf Region

Authors: Abdullah Kaya, Muammer Koc

Abstract:

A levelized cost analysis of solar energy powered seawater desalination in The Emirate of Abu Dhabi is conducted to show that clean and renewable desalination is economically viable. The Emirate heavily relies on seawater desalination for its freshwater needs due to limited freshwater resources available. This trend is expected to increase further due to growing population and economic activity, rapid decline in limited freshwater reserves, and aggravating effects of climate change. Seawater desalination in Abu Dhabi is currently done through thermal desalination technologies such as multi-stage flash (MSF) and multi-effect distillation (MED) which are coupled with thermal power plants known as co-generation. Our analysis indicates that these thermal desalination methods are inefficient regarding energy consumption and harmful to the environment due to CO₂ emissions and other dangerous byproducts. Therefore, utilization of clean and renewable desalination options has become a must for The Emirate for the transition to a sustainable future. The rapid decline in the cost of solar PV system for energy production and RO technology for desalination makes the combination of these two an ideal option for a future of sustainable desalination in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. A Levelized cost analysis for water produced by solar PV + RO system indicates that Abu Dhabi is well positioned to utilize this technological combination for cheap and clean desalination for the coming years. It has been shown that cap-ex cost of solar PV powered RO system has potential to go as low as to 101 million US $ (1111 $/m³) at best case considering the recent technological developments. The levelized cost of water (LCW) values fluctuate between 0.34 $/m³ for the baseline case and 0.27 $/m³ for the best case. Even the highly conservative case yields LCW cheaper than 100% from all thermal desalination methods currently employed in the Emirate. Exponential cost decreases in both solar PV and RO sectors along with increasing economic scale globally signal the fact that a cheap and clean desalination can be achieved by the combination of these technologies.

Keywords: solar PV, RO desalination, sustainable desalination, levelized cost of analysis, Emirate of Abu Dhabi

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
1255 Stand Alone Multiple Trough Solar Desalination with Heat Storage

Authors: Abderrahmane Diaf, Kamel Benabdellaziz

Abstract:

Remote arid areas of the vast expanses of the African deserts hold huge subterranean reserves of brackish water resources waiting for economic development. This work presents design guidelines as well as initial performance data of new autonomous solar desalination equipment which could help local communities produce their own fresh water using solar energy only and, why not, contribute to transforming desert lands into lush gardens. The output of solar distillation equipment is typically low and in the range of 3 l/m2/day on the average. This new design with an integrated, water-based, environmentally-friendly solar heat storage system produced 5 l/m2/day in early spring weather. Equipment output during summer exceeded 9 liters per m2 per day.

Keywords: multiple trough distillation, solar desalination, solar distillation with heat storage, water based heat storage system

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
1254 A Theoretical Model for a Humidification Dehumidification (HD) Solar Desalination Unit

Authors: Yasser El-Henawy, M. Abd El-Kader, Gamal H. Moustafa

Abstract:

A theoretical study of a humidification dehumidification solar desalination unit has been carried out to increase understanding the effect of weather conditions on the unit productivity. A humidification-dehumidification (HD) solar desalination unit has been designed to provide fresh water for population in remote arid areas. It consists of solar water collector and air collector; to provide the hot water and air to the desalination chamber. The desalination chamber is divided into humidification and dehumidification towers. The circulation of air between the two towers is maintained by the forced convection. A mathematical model has been formulated, in which the thermodynamic relations were used to study the flow, heat and mass transfer inside the humidifier and dehumidifier. The present technique is performed in order to increase the unit performance. Heat and mass balance has been done and a set of governing equations has been solved using the finite difference technique. The unit productivity has been calculated along the working day during the summer and winter sessions and has compared with the available experimental results. The average accumulative productivity of the system in winter has been ranged between 2.5 to 4 kg/m2.day, while the average summer productivity has been found between 8 to 12 kg/m2 day.

Keywords: solar desalination, solar collector, humidification and dehumidification, simulation, finite difference, water productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
1253 A Technical and Economic Feasibility Study of the Use of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) in Desalination Plants on the Kenyan Coast

Authors: Kathy Mwende Kiema, Remember Samu, Murat Fahrioglu

Abstract:

Despite the implementation of a Feed in Tariff (FiT) for solar power plants in Kenya, the uptake and subsequent development of utility scale power plants has been slow. This paper, therefore, proposes a Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plant configuration that can supply both power to the grid and operate a sea water desalination plant, thus providing an economically viable alternative to Independent Power Producers (IPPs). The largest city on the coast, Mombasa, has a chronic water shortage and authorities are looking to employ desalination plants to supply a deficit of up to 100 million cubic meters of fresh water per day. In this study the desalination plant technology was selected based on an analysis of operational costs in $/m3 of plants that are already running. The output of the proposed CSP plant, Net Present Value (NPV), plant capacity factor, thermal efficiency and quantity of CO2 emission avoided were simulated using Greenius software (Green energy system analysis tool) developed by the institute of solar research at the German Aerospace Center (DLR). Data on solar irradiance were derived from the Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) for Kenya.

Keywords: desalination, feed in tariff, independent power producer, solar CSP

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
1252 Solar Aided Vacuum Desalination of Sea-Water

Authors: Miraz Hafiz Rossy

Abstract:

As part of planning to address shortfalls in fresh water supply for the world, Sea water can be a huge source of fresh water. But Desalinating sea water to get fresh water could require a lots of fossil fuels. To save the fossil fuel in terms of save the green world but meet the up growing need for fresh water, a very useful but energy efficient method needs to be introduced. Vacuum desalination of sea water using only the Renewable energy can be an effective solution to this issue. Taking advantage of sensitivity of water's boiling point to air pressure a vacuum desalination water treatment plant can be designed which would only use sea water as feed water and solar energy as fuel to produce fresh drinking water. The study indicates that reducing the air pressure to a certain value water can be boiled at very low temperature. Using solar energy to provide the condensation and the vacuum creation would be very useful and efficient. Compared to existing resources, desalination is considered to be expensive, but using only renewable energy the cost can be reduced significantly. Despite its very few drawbacks, it can be considered a possible solution to the world's fresh water shortages.

Keywords: desalination, scarcity of fresh water, water purification, water treatment

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1251 New Desiccant Solar Unit for Air Conditioning and Desalination: Study of the Compartments of Desalination and Water Condensation

Authors: Zied Guidara, Alexander Morgenstern, Aref Maalej

Abstract:

In this paper, a new desiccant solar unit for air conditioning and desalination is presented first. Secondly, a dynamic modelling study of the desiccant wheel is developed. After that, a simulation study and an experimental investigation of the behaviour of the desiccant wheel are developed. The experimental investigation is done in the chamber of commerce in Freiburg-Germany. Indeed, the variations of calculated and measured temperatures and specific humidity of dehumidified and rejected air are presented where a good agreement is found when comparing the model predictions with experimental data under the considered range of operating conditions. Finally, the study of the compartments of desalination and water condensation shows that the unit can produce an acceptable quantity of water at the same time of the air conditioning operation.

Keywords: air conditioning, desalination, condensation, design, desiccant wheel, modelling, experimental investigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
1250 Technologies for Solar Energy Storage and Utilization Using Mixture of Molten Salts and Polymers

Authors: Anteneh Mesfin Yeneneh, Abdul Shakoor, Jimoh Adewole, Safinaz Al Balushi, Sara Al Balushi

Abstract:

The research work focuses on exploring better technologies for solar energy storage. The research has the objective of substituting fossil fuels with renewable solar energy technology. This was the reason that motivated the research team to search for alternatives to develop an eco-friendly desalination process, which fully depends on the solar energy source. The Authors also investigated the potential of using different salt mixtures for better solar energy storage and better pure water productivity. Experiments were conducted to understand the impacts of solar energy collection and storage techniques on heat accumulation, heat storage capacity of various compositions of salt mixtures. Based on the experiments conducted, the economic and technical advantages of the integrated water desalination was assessed. Experiments also showed that the best salts with a higher storage efficiency of heat energy are NaCl, KNO3, and MgCl26H2O and polymers such as Poly Propylene and Poly Ethylene Terephthalate.

Keywords: molten salts, desalination, solar energy storage and utilization, polymers

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
1249 Solar Seawater Desalination Still with Seawater Preheater Using Efficient Heat Transfer Oil: Numerical Investigation and Data Verification

Authors: Ahmed N. Shmroukh, Gamal Tag Abdel-Jaber, Rashed D. Aldughpassi

Abstract:

The feasibility of improving the performance of the proposed solar still unit which operated in very hot climate is investigated numerically and verified with experimental data. This solar desalination unit with proposed auxiliary device as seawater preheating system using petrol based textherm oil was used to produce pure fresh water from seawater. The effective evaporation area of basin is about 1 m2. The unit was tested in two main operation modes which are normal and with seawater preheating system. The results showed that, there is good agreement between the theoretical data and the experimental data; this means that the numerical model can be accurately dependable for predicting the proposed solar still performance and design parameters. The results also showed that the fresh water productivity of the solar still in the modified preheating case which is higher than normal case, leads to an increase in productivity of 42%.

Keywords: improving productivity, seawater desalination, solar stills, theoretical model

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
1248 A Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Performance of a Combined Solar Unit for Air Conditioning and Water Desalination

Authors: Zied Guidara, Alexander Morgenstern, Aref Younes Maalej

Abstract:

In this paper, a desiccant solar unit for air conditioning and desalination is presented first. Secondly, a dynamic modelling study of the desiccant wheel is developed. After that, a simulation study and an experimental investigation of the behaviour of desiccant wheel are developed. The experimental investigation is done in the chamber of commerce in Freiburg-Germany. Indeed, the variations of calculated and measured temperatures and specific humidity of dehumidified and rejected air are presented where a good agreement is found when comparing the model predictions with experimental data under the considered range of operating conditions. Finally, the study of the compartments of desalination and water condensation shows that the unit can produce an acceptable quantity of water at the same time of the air conditioning operation.

Keywords: air conditioning, desalination, condensation, design, desiccant wheel

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
1247 Solar Energy Applications in Seawater Distillation

Authors: Yousef Abdulaziz Almolhem

Abstract:

Geographically, the most Arabic countries locate in areas confined to arid or semiarid regions. For this reason, most of our countries have adopted the seawater desalination as a strategy to overcome this problem. For example, the water supply of AUE, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia is almost 100% from the seawater desalination plants. Many areas in Saudia Arabia and other countries in the world suffer from lack of fresh water which hinders the development of these areas, despite the availability of saline water and high solar radiation intensity. Furthermore, most developing countries do not have sufficient meteorological data to evaluate if the solar radiation is enough to meet the solar desalination. A mathematical model was developed to simulate and predict the thermal behavior of the solar still which used direct solar energy for distillation of seawater. Measurement data were measured in the Environment and Natural Resources Department, Faculty of Agricultural and Food sciences, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, in order to evaluate the present model. The simulation results obtained from this model were compared with the measured data. The main results of this research showed that there are slight differences between the measured and predicted values of the elements studied, which is resultant from the change of some factors considered constants in the model such as the sky clearance, wind velocity and the salt concentration in the water in the basin of the solar still. It can be concluded that the present model can be used to estimate the average total solar radiation and the thermal behavior of the solar still in any area with consideration to the geographical location.

Keywords: mathematical model, sea water, distillation, solar radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
1246 Desalination via Electrodialysis: A Newly Designed Fixed Bed Reactor Powered by Renewable Energy Source

Authors: Hend Mesbah, Yehia Youssef, Ibrahim Hassan, Shaaban Nosier, Ahmed El-Shazly, Ahmed Helal

Abstract:

The problem of drinking water shortage is becoming more crucial nowadays as a result of the increased demand due to the population growth and the rise in the standard living. In recent years, desalination using electrodialysis powered by solar energy (PV-ED) is being widely used to help provide treated water and reduce the scarcity in water supply. In the present study, a water desalination laboratory scale ED cell with a fixed bed circulation system was designed, developed, and tested. The effect of three parameters (namely, cell voltage , flowrate, and salt concentration) on the removal percentage of salt ions was studied. The cell voltage was adjusted at 3 , 4 and 6 V. A flow rate of 5, 10, and 20 ml/s and an initial salt concentration of 2000, 5000, and 7000 ppm were investigated. The maximum salt percentage removal obtained was 52.5% at the lowest initial concentration (2000 ppm) and at the highest cell voltage (6 V). There was no significant effect of the flow rate on the removal percentage. A model of PV module has also been developed to calculate the dimensions of a solar cell based on the amount of energy consumed and it was calculated from the Overall ED cell voltage.

Keywords: desalination, electrodialysis, solar desalination, photovoltaic electrodialysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
1245 Design, Construction, Technical and Economic Evaluation of a Solar Water Desalination Device with Two Heat Exchangers and a Photovoltaic System

Authors: Mehdi Bakhtiarzadeh, Reza Efatnejad, Kambiz Rezapour Rezapour

Abstract:

Due to the limited resources of fossil fuels and their harmful effects on the environment and human health, research on renewable energy applications in industrial and scientific communities has become particularly important. Only one percent of freshwater resources are available for use in the domestic, agricultural, and industrial sectors. On the other hand, the rapid growth of industry and the increase of population in most countries of the world, including Iran, have led to an increase in demand for freshwater. Among renewable energies, there is the potential of solar energy in Iran. As a result, solar distillation systems can be used as a solution to supply fresh water in remote rural areas. Therefore, in the present study, a solar water desalination device was designed and manufactured using two heat exchangers and a photovoltaic system. Its evaluation was done during September and October of 2020. During the evaluation of the device, environmental variables such as total solar radiation, ambient temperature and cooling tower temperature were recorded at intervals of one hour from 9 am to 5 pm. The effect of these variables on solar concentrator performance, heat exchanger, and daily freshwater production was evaluated. The results showed that using two heat exchangers and a photovoltaic system has led to the daily production of 5 liters of fresh water and 46% economic efficiency.

Keywords: solar water desalination, heat exchanger, photovoltaic system, technical and economic evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
1244 Indirect Solar Desalination: Value Engineering and Cost Benefit Analysis

Authors: Grace Rachid, Mutasem El Fadel, Mahmoud Al Hindi, Ibrahim Jamali, Daniel Abdel Nour

Abstract:

This study examines the feasibility of indirect solar desalination in oil producing countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. It relies on value engineering (VE) and cost-benefit with sensitivity analyses to identify optimal coupling configurations of desalination and solar energy technologies. A comparative return on investment was assessed as a function of water costs for varied plant capacities (25,000 to 75,000 m3/day), project lifetimes (15 to 25 years), and discount rates (5 to 15%) taking into consideration water and energy subsidies, land cost as well as environmental externalities in the form of carbon credit related to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction. The results showed reverse osmosis (RO) coupled with photovoltaic technologies (PVs) as the most promising configuration, robust across different prices for Brent oil, discount rates, as well as different project lifetimes. Environmental externalities and subsidies analysis revealed that a 16% reduction in existing subsidy on water tariffs would ensure economic viability. Additionally, while land costs affect investment attractiveness, the viability of RO coupled with PV remains possible for a land purchase cost < $ 80/m2 or a lease rate < $1/m2/yr. Beyond those rates, further subsidy lifting is required.

Keywords: solar energy, desalination, value engineering, CBA, carbon credit, subsidies

Procedia PDF Downloads 488
1243 Effects of Concentrator and Encapsulated Phase Change Material for Desalination: An Experimental Study

Authors: Arunkumar Thirugnanasambantham, Velraj Ramalingam

Abstract:

An experimental attempt has been made to study the effect of system integration by two different concentrator assisted desalting systems. The compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) and compound conical concentrator (CCC) are used in this research work. Two solar desalination systems, the single slope solar still (SSSS) and pyramid solar still (PSS), have been integrated with a CCC and compound parabolic concentrator-concentric circular tubular solar still (CPC-CCTSS). To study the effect of system integration, a thick cloth prevents the entry of sunlight into the solar still top. Additionally, the concentrator assisted desalting systems are equipped with phase change material (PCM) for enhancement. In CCC-SSSS, PCM has been filled inside copper balls and placed on the SSSS basin. The PCM is loaded in the specially designed circular trough of the tubular solar still. Here, the used concentrators and distillers are not the same. Two methodologies are followed here to produce the fresh water even while the distillers are blocked from the sunlight. They are (1) thermosyphon effect in CCC-SSSS and (2) waste heat recovery from CPC-CCTSS. The results showed that the productivity of CCC-SSSS, CCC-SSSS with PCM and CCC-SSSS (PCM) top cover shaded were found as 2680 ml / m² / day, 3240 ml / m² / day, and 1646 ml / m² / day. Similarly, the productivity of the CPC-CCTSS-PSS, CPC-CCTSS (PCM)-PSS and CPC-CCTSS (PCM)-PSS top cover shaded were found as 7160 ml / m² / day, 7346 ml / m² / day, and ml / m² / day. The productivity of the CCC-SSSS and CPC-CCTSS-PSS is examined, and conclusions are drawn such as the solar radiation blocked distillers productivity did not drop to zero.

Keywords: compound conical concentrator, compound parabolic concentrator, desalination, system integration

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
1242 Experimental Evaluation of Stand Alone Solar Driven Membrane Distillation System

Authors: Mejbri Sami, Zhani Khalifa, Zarzoum Kamel, Ben Bacha Habib, Koschikowski Joachim, Pfeifle Daniel

Abstract:

Many places worldwide, especially arid and semi-arid remote regions, are suffering from the lack of drinkable water and the situation will be aggravated in the near future. Furthermore, remote areas are characterised by lack of conventional energy sources, skilled personnel and maintenance facilities. Therefore, the development of small to medium size, stand-alone and robust solar desalination systems is needed to provide independent fresh water supply in remote areas. This paper is focused on experimental studies on compact membrane distillation (MD) solar desalination prototype located at the Mechanical Engineering Department site, Kairouan University, Kairouan, Tunisia. The pilot system is designed and manufactured as a part of a research and development project funded by the MESRS/BMBF. The pilot system is totally autonomous. The electrical energy required to operate the unit is generated through a field of 4 m² of photovoltaic panels, and the heating of feed water is provided by a field of 6 m² of solar collectors. The Kairouan plant performance of the first few months of operation is presented. The highest freshwater production of 150 L/d is obtained on a sunny day in July of 633 W/m²d.

Keywords: experimental, membrane distillation, solar desalination, Permeat gap

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
1241 Desalination Technologies and Desalination Integrated with Renewable Energies – A Case Study

Authors: Ahmadali Shirazytabar, Hamidreza Namazi

Abstract:

As water resources are rapidly getting diminished, more and more interest is paid to the desalination of saline waters. Desalination has become a reliable and cost effective solution in provision of fresh water particularly in the arid areas of the world such as Middle East countries. However, the dramatic increase of utilizing desalination will cause a series of problems which are significantly related to energy consumption and environment impacts. The use of renewable energy sources to provide energy required by desalination processes is a feasible and simultaneously environmental friendly solution. In this study an attempt has been made to present a review on desalination technologies, desalination integrated with renewable energies, in brief, and practical progresses made during recent years particularly in the field of desalination by wind energy which is the most common form of renewable energies. Moreover, an economic analysis of a wind powered RO desalination system comprising of 10×2.5 MW wind turbines is done, and the results will be compared to those of a cogeneration system comprising of one 25 MW gas turbines, heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) and MED-TVC desalination.

Keywords: wind turbine, desalination, RO, MED, cogeneration, gas turbine, HRSG

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1240 Performance Evaluation of Hemispherical Basin Type Solar Still

Authors: Husham Mahmood Ahmed

Abstract:

For so many reasons, fresh water scarcity is one of major problems facing the world and in particularly in the third world in the Northern Africa, the Middle East, the Southwest of Asia, and many other desert areas. Solar distillation offers one of the most promising solutions of renewable energy to this aggravated situation. The main obstacle hindering the spread of the use of solar technology for fresh water production is its low efficiency. Therefore, enhancing the solar stills performances by studying the parameters affecting their productivity and implementing new ideas and a different design are the main goals of the investigators in recent years. The present research is experimental work that tests a new design of solar still with a hemispherical top cover for water desalination with and without external reflectors under the climate of the Kingdom of Bahrain during the autumn season. The hemispherical cover has a base diameter of 1m and a depth of 0.4m, die cast from a 6 mm thick Lexan plastic sheet. The net effective area was 0.785 m2. It has been found that the average daily production rate obtained from the hemispherical top cover solar still is 3.610 liter/day. This yield is 11.1% higher than the yield of a conventional simple type single slope solar still having 20ᴼ slope glass cover and a larger effective area of 1 m2 obtained in previous research under similar climatic conditions. It has also been found that adding 1.2m long by 0.15 curved reflectors increased the yield of the hemispherical solar still by 5.5 %, while the 1.2 long by 0.3m curved reflector increased the yield by about 8%.

Keywords: hemispherical solar still, solar desalination, solar energy, the Northern Africa

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1239 Design of a Small Mobile PV Driven RO Water Desalination Plant to be Deployed at the North West Coast of Egypt

Authors: Hosam A. Shawky, Amr A. Abdel Fatah, Moustafa M. S. Abo ElFad, Abdel Hameed M. El-Aassar

Abstract:

Water desalination projects based on reverse osmosis technology are being introduced in Egypt to combat drinking water shortage in remote areas. Reverse osmosis (RO) desalination is a pressure driven process. This paper focuses on the design of an integrated brackish water and seawater RO desalination and solar Photovoltaic (PV) technology. A small Mobile PV driven RO desalination plant prototype without batteries is designed and tested. Solar-driven reverse osmosis desalination can potentially break the dependence of conventional desalination on fossil fuels, reduce operational costs, and improve environmental sustainability. Moreover, the innovative features incorporated in the newly designed PV-RO plant prototype are focusing on improving the cost effectiveness of producing drinkable water in remote areas. This is achieved by maximizing energy yield through an integrated automatic single axis PV tracking system with programmed tilting angle adjustment. An autonomous cleaning system for PV modules is adopted for maximizing energy generation efficiency. RO plant components are selected so as to produce 4-5 m3/day of potable water. A basic criterion in the design of this PV-RO prototype is to produce a minimum amount of fresh water by running the plant during peak sun hours. Mobility of the system will provide potable water to isolated villages and population as well as ability to provide good drinking water to different number of people from any source that is not drinkable.

Keywords: design, reverse osmosis, photovoltaic, energy, desalination, Egypt

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1238 Optimization of Water Desalination System Powered by High Concentrated Photovoltaic Panels in Kuwait Climate Conditions

Authors: Adel A. Ghoneim

Abstract:

Desalination using solar energy is an interesting option specifically at regions with abundant solar radiation since such areas normally have scarcity of clean water resources. Desalination is the procedure of eliminating dissolved minerals from seawater or brackish water to generate fresh water. In this work, a simulation program is developed to determine the performance of reverse osmosis (RO) water desalination plant powered by high concentrated photovoltaic (HCPV) panels in Kuwait climate conditions. The objective of such a photovoltaic thermal system is to accomplish a double output, i.e., co-generation of both electricity and fresh water that is applicable for rural regions with high solar irradiation. The suggested plan enables to design an RO plant that does not depend on costly batteries or additional land and significantly reduce the government costs to subsidize the water generation cost. Typical weather conditions for Kuwait is employed as input to the simulation program. The simulation program is utilized to optimize the system efficiency as well as the distillate water production. The areas and slopes of HCPV modules are varied to attain maximum yearly power production. Maximum yearly distillate production and HCPV energy generation are found to correspond to HCPV facing south with tilt of 27° (Kuwait latitude-3°). The power needed to produce 1 l of clean drinking water ranged from 2 to 8 kW h/m³, based on the salinity of the feed water and the system operating conditions. Moreover, adapting HCPV systems achieve an avoided greenhouse gases emission by about 1128 ton CO₂ annually. Present outcomes certainly illustrate environmental advantages of water desalination system powered by high concentrated photovoltaic systems in Kuwait climate conditions.

Keywords: desalination, high concentrated photovoltaic systems, reverse osmosis, solar radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
1237 Future trends of MED-TVC Desalination Technology

Authors: Irfan Wazeer

Abstract:

Desalination has become one of the major water treatment process in several countries around the world where shortage of water is a serious problem. Energy consumption is a vital economic factor in selecting the type of desalination processes because current desalination processes require large amount of energy which is costly. Multi-effect desalination system with thermal vapor compression (MED-TVC) is particularly more attractive than other thermal desalination systems due to its low energy consumption. MED-TVC is characterized by high performance ratio (PR), easier operation, low maintenance requirements and simple geometry. These attractive features make MED-TVC highly competitive to other well established desalination techniques that include the reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-stage flash desalination (MSF). The primary goal of this paper is to present a preview of some aspects related with the theory of the technology, parametric study of the MED-TVC systems and its development. It will analyzed the current and future aspects of the MED-TVC technology in view of latest installed plants.

Keywords: MED-TVC, parallel feed, performance ratio, GOR

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1236 Design and Integration of a Renewable Energy Based Polygeneration System with Desalination for an Industrial Plant

Authors: Lucero Luciano, Cesar Celis, Jose Ramos

Abstract:

Polygeneration improves energy efficiency and reduce both energy consumption and pollutant emissions compared to conventional generation technologies. A polygeneration system is a variation of a cogeneration one, in which more than two outputs, i.e., heat, power, cooling, water, energy or fuels, are accounted for. In particular, polygeneration systems integrating solar energy and water desalination represent promising technologies for energy production and water supply. They are therefore interesting options for coastal regions with a high solar potential, such as those located in southern Peru and northern Chile. Notice that most of the Peruvian and Chilean mining industry operations intensive in electricity and water consumption are located in these particular regions. Accordingly, this work focus on the design and integration of a polygeneration system producing industrial heating, cooling, electrical power and water for an industrial plant. The design procedure followed in this work involves integer linear programming modeling (MILP), operational planning and dynamic operating conditions. The technical and economic feasibility of integrating renewable energy technologies (photovoltaic and solar thermal, PV+CPS), thermal energy store, power and thermal exchange, absorption chillers, cogeneration heat engines and desalination technologies is particularly assessed. The polygeneration system integration carried out seek to minimize the system total annual cost subject to CO2 emissions restrictions. Particular economic aspects accounted for include investment, maintenance and operating costs.

Keywords: desalination, design and integration, polygeneration systems, renewable energy

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1235 The Technics of Desalination Water in Algeria

Authors: H. Aburideh, Z.Tigrine, D. Ziou, S. Hout, R. Bellatreche, D. Belhout, Z. Belgroun, M. Abbas

Abstract:

Faced with climate hazards in recent decades and the constant increase of the population, Algeria is making considerable efforts to provide water resources and water availability, both for its nascent industry, agriculture and for the drinking water supply of cities and arid region of the country. Following a remarkable worldwide technological breakthrough in seawater and brackish water desalination, known in recent years, the specialists have seen that the use of desalination of sea water in Algeria is a promising alternative as long as it has a coastline of 1200 km. Seawater is clean and virtually inexhaustible resource; mainly for population and industry that have high water consumption and are close to the sea. The purpose of this work is to present information on the number of sea water desalination stations and demineralization plants existing in Algeria. The constraints related to the operation of certain stations; those which are operational, those that are not operational as well as the seawater desalination program that was hired to cover 49 desalination plants across the country at the end of 2019 with the aim of increasing and diversifying water resources.

Keywords: desalination, water, membrane, demineralization

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1234 Technical and Economical Evaluation of Electricity Generation and Seawater Desalination Using Nuclear Energy

Authors: A. Hany A. Khater, G. M. Mostafa, M. R. Badawy

Abstract:

The techno-economic analysis of the nuclear desalination is a very important tool that enables studying of the mutual effects between the nuclear power plant and the coupled desalination plant under different operating conditions, and hence investigating the feasibility of safe and economical production of potable water. For this purpose, a comprehensive model for both technical and economic performance evaluation of the nuclear desalination has been prepared. The developed model has the capability to be used in performing a parametric study for the performance measuring parameters of the nuclear desalination system. Also a sensitivity analysis of varying important factors such as interest/discount rate, power plant availability, fossil fuel prices, purchased electricity price, nuclear fuel cost, and specific base cost for both power and water plant has been conducted.

Keywords: uclear desalination, PWR, MED, MED-TVC, MSF, RO

Procedia PDF Downloads 581
1233 Feasibility of Small Autonomous Solar-Powered Water Desalination Units for Arid Regions

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed M. Azab

Abstract:

The shortage of fresh water is a major problem in several areas of the world such as arid regions and coastal zones in several countries of Arabian Gulf. Fortunately, arid regions are exposed to high levels of solar irradiation most the year, which makes the utilization of solar energy a promising solution to such problem with zero harmful emission (Green System). The main objective of this work is to conduct a feasibility study of utilizing small autonomous water desalination units powered by photovoltaic modules as a green renewable energy resource to be employed in different isolated zones as a source of drinking water for some scattered societies where the installation of huge desalination stations are discarded owing to the unavailability of electric grid. Yanbu City is chosen as a case study where the Renewable Energy Center exists and equipped with all sensors to assess the availability of solar energy all over the year. The study included two types of available water: the first type is brackish well water and the second type is seawater of coastal regions. In the case of well water, two versions of desalination units are involved in the study: the first version is based on day operation only. While the second version takes into consideration night operation also, which requires energy storage system as batteries to provide the necessary electric power at night. According to the feasibility study results, it is found that utilization of small autonomous desalinations unit is applicable and economically accepted in the case of brackish well water. While in the case of seawater the capital costs are extremely high and the cost of desalinated water will not be economically feasible unless governmental subsidies are provided. In addition, the study indicated that, for the same water production, the utilization of energy storage version (day-night) adds additional capital cost for batteries, and extra running cost for their replacement, which makes the unit price not only incompetent with day-only unit but also with conventional units powered by diesel generator (fossil fuel) owing to the low prices of fuel in the kingdom. However, the cost analysis shows that the price of the produced water per cubic meter of day-night unit is similar to that produced from the day-only unit provided that the day-night unit operates theoretically for a longer period of 50%.

Keywords: solar energy, water desalination, reverse osmosis, arid regions

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1232 Thermodynamic Evaluation of Coupling APR-1400 with a Thermal Desalination Plant

Authors: M. Gomaa Abdoelatef, Robert M. Field, Lee, Yong-Kwan

Abstract:

Growing human populations have placed increased demands on water supplies and a heightened interest in desalination infrastructure. Key elements of the economics of desalination projects are thermal and electrical inputs. With growing concerns over the use of fossil fuels to (indirectly) supply these inputs, coupling of desalination with nuclear power production represents a significant opportunity. Individually, nuclear and desalination technologies have a long history and are relatively mature. For desalination, Reverse Osmosis (RO) has the lowest energy inputs. However, the economically driven output quality of the water produced using RO, which uses only electrical inputs, is lower than the output water quality from thermal desalination plants. Therefore, modern desalination projects consider that RO should be coupled with thermal desalination technologies (MSF, MED, or MED-TVC) with attendant steam inputs to permit blending to produce various qualities of water. A large nuclear facility is well positioned to dispatch large quantities of both electrical and thermal power. This paper considers the supply of thermal energy to a large desalination facility to examine heat balance impact on the nuclear steam cycle. The APR1400 nuclear plant is selected as prototypical from both a capacity and turbine cycle heat balance perspective to examine steam supply and the impact on electrical output. Extraction points and quantities of steam are considered parametrically along with various types of thermal desalination technologies to form the basis for further evaluations of economically optimal approaches to the interface of nuclear power production with desalination projects. In our study, the thermodynamic evaluation will be executed by DE-TOP which is the IAEA desalination program, it is approved to be capable of analyzing power generation systems coupled to desalination systems through various steam extraction positions, taking into consideration the isolation loop between the APR-1400 and the thermal desalination plant for safety concern.

Keywords: APR-1400, desalination, DE-TOP, IAEA, MSF, MED, MED-TVC, RO

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1231 Mathematical Model for Output Yield Obtained by Single Slope Solar Still

Authors: V. Nagaraju, G. Murali, Nagarjunavarma Ganna, Atluri Pavan Kalyan, N. Sree Sai Ganesh, V. S. V. S. Badrinath

Abstract:

The present work focuses on the development of a mathematical model for the yield obtained by single slope solar still incorporated with cylindrical pipes filled with sand. The mathematical results obtained were validated with the experimental results for the 3 cm of water level at the basin. The mathematical model and results obtained with the experimental investigation are within 11% of deviation. The theoretical model to predict the yield obtained due to the capillary effect was proposed first. And then, to predict the total yield obtained, the thermal effect model was integrated with the capillary effect model. With the obtained results, it is understood that the yield obtained is more in the case of solar stills with sand-filled cylindrical pipes when compared to solar stills without sand-filled cylindrical pipes. And later model was used for predicting yield for 1 cm and 2 cm of water levels at the basin. And it is observed that the maximum yield was obtained for a 1 cm water level at the basin. It means solar still produces better yield with the lower depth of water level at the basin; this may be because of the availability of more space in the sand for evaporation.

Keywords: solar still, cylindrical pipes, still efficiency, mathematical modeling, capillary effect model, yield, solar desalination

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1230 Enhancement Performance of Desalination System Using Humidification and Dehumidification Processes

Authors: Zeinab Syed Abdel Rehim

Abstract:

Water shortage is considered as one of the huge problems the world encounter now. Water desalination is considered as one of the more suitable methods governments can use to substitute the increased need for potable water. The humidification-dehumidification process for water desalination is viewed as a promising technique for small capacity production plants. The process has several attraction features which include the use of sustainable energy sources, low technology, and low-temperature dehumidification. A pilot experimental set-up plant was constructed with the conventional HVAC components such as air blower that supplies air to an air duct inside which air preheater, steam injector and cooling coil of a small refrigeration unit are placed. The present work evaluates the characteristics of humidification-dehumidification process for water desalination as a function of air flow rate, total power input and air inlet temperature in order to study the optimum conditions required to produce distilled water.

Keywords: condensation, dehumidification, evaporation, humidification, water desalination

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
1229 Integration of Multi Effect Desalination with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Power Cycle

Authors: Mousa Meratizaman, Sina Monadizadeh, Majid Amidpour

Abstract:

One of the most favorable thermal desalination methods used widely today is Multi Effect Desalination. High energy consumption in this method causes coupling it with high temperature power cycle like gas turbine. This combination leads to higher energy efficiency. One of the high temperature power systems which have cogeneration opportunities is Solid Oxide Fuel Cell / Gas Turbine. Integration of Multi Effect Desalination with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell /Gas Turbine power cycle in a range of 300-1000 kW is considered in this article. The exhausted heat of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell /Gas Turbine power cycle is used in Heat Recovery Steam Generator to produce needed motive steam for Desalination unit. Thermodynamic simulation and parametric studies of proposed system are carried out to investigate the system performance.

Keywords: solid oxide fuel cell, thermodynamic simulation, multi effect desalination, gas turbine hybrid cycle

Procedia PDF Downloads 221