Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 64

Search results for: capacitive deionization

64 Investigation on the Capacitive Deionization of Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes (F-CNTs) and Silver-Decorated F-CNTs for Water Softening

Authors: Khrizelle Angelique Sablan, Rizalinda De Leon, Jaeyoung Lee, Joey Ocon

Abstract:

The impending water shortage drives us to find alternative sources of water. One of the possible solutions is desalination of seawater. There are numerous processes by which it can be done and one if which is capacitive deionization. Capacitive deionization is a relatively new technique for water desalination. It utilizes the electric double layer for ion adsorption. Carbon-based materials are commonly used as electrodes for capacitive deionization. In this study, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were treated in a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acid. The silver addition was also facilitated to incorporate antimicrobial action. The acid-treated carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) and silver-decorated f-CNTs ([email protected]) were used as electrode materials for seawater deionization and compared with CNT and acid-treated CNT. The synthesized materials were characterized using TEM, EDS, XRD, XPS and BET. The electrochemical performance was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, and the deionization performance was tested on a single cell with water containing 64mg/L NaCl. The results showed that the synthesized [email protected] H could have better performance than CNT and a-CNT with a maximum ion removal efficiency of 50.22% and a corresponding adsorption capacity of 3.21 mg/g. It also showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli. However, the said material lacks stability as the efficiency decreases with repeated usage of the electrode.

Keywords: capacitive deionization, carbon nanotubes, desalination, acid functionalization, silver

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63 Effect of Electromagnetic Field on Capacitive Deionization Performance

Authors: Alibi Kilybay, Emad Alhseinat, Ibrahim Mustafa, Abdulfahim Arangadi, Pei Shui, Faisal Almarzooqi

Abstract:

In this work, the electromagnetic field has been used for improving the performance of the capacitive deionization process. The effect of electromagnetic fields on the efficiency of the capacitive deionization (CDI) process was investigated experimentally. The results showed that treating the feed stream of the CDI process using an electromagnetic field can enhance the electrosorption capacity from 20% up to 70%. The effect of the degree of time of exposure, concentration, and type of ions have been examined. The electromagnetic field enhanced the salt adsorption capacity (SAC) of the Ca²⁺ ions by 70%, while the SAC enhanced 20% to the Na⁺ ions. It is hypnotized that the electrometric field affects the hydration shell around the ions and thus reduces their effective size and enhances the mass transfer. This reduction in ion effective size and increase in mass transfer enhanced the electrosorption capacity and kinetics of the CDI process.

Keywords: capacitive deionization, desalination, electromagnetic treatment, water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
62 Preparation of 3D Graphene with Microwave-Hydrothermal Assistance for Ultrahigh Performance of Capacitive Deionization

Authors: Wahid Dianbudiyanto, Shou Heng Liu

Abstract:

Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a prospective desalination technology, which can be operated at low voltage, low temperature and potentially consume low energy for brackish water desalination. To obtain the optimal electrosorption, an electrode should possess high electrical conductivity, large surface area, good wettability, highly mesoporous structure which provide efficient pathways for ion distribution. In this work, a 3D structure graphene was fabricated using hydrothermal method which is assisted with microwave treatments to form 3D rGO (3DG-Mw-Hyd). The prepared samples have excellent specific capacitance (189.2 F / g) and ultrahigh electrosorption capacity (30 mg/g) for the desalination of 500 mg / l NaCl. These results are superior to the electrode which is fabricated only using the hydrothermal method without microwave assistance (3DG-Hyd) and traditional reflux method. Physical characterizations such as SEM, TEM, and XRD have been used to study the property difference of the materials. The preliminary results show that 3DG-Mw-Hyd is one of the promising electrodes for CDI in the practical applications.

Keywords: capacitive deionization, graphene, microwave, hydrothermal, electrosorption

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61 The Energy Efficient Water Reuse by Combination of Nano-Filtration and Capacitive Deionization Processes

Authors: Youngmin Kim, Jae-Hwan Ahn, Seog-Ku Kim, Hye-Cheol Oh, Bokjin Lee, Hee-Jun Kang

Abstract:

The high energy consuming processes such as advanced oxidation and reverse osmosis are used as a reuse process. This study aims at developing an energy efficient reuse process by combination of nanofiltration (NF) and capacitive deionization processes (CDI) processes. Lab scale experiments were conducted by using effluents from a wastewater treatment plant located at Koyang city in Korea. Commercial NF membrane (NE4040-70, Toray Ltd.) and CDI module (E40, Siontech INC.) were tested in series. The pollutant removal efficiencies were evaluated on the basis of Korean water quality criteria for water reuse. In addition, the energy consumptions were also calculated. As a result, the hybrid process showed lower energy consumption than conventional reverse osmosis process even though its effluent did meet the Korean standard. Consequently, this study suggests that the hybrid process is feasible for the energy efficient water reuse.

Keywords: capacitive deionization, energy efficient process, nanofiltration, water reuse

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
60 Capacitive Coupling Wireless Power Transfer System with 6.78 MHz Class D Inverter

Authors: Kang Hyun Yi

Abstract:

Wireless power transfer technologies are inductive coupling, magnetic resonance, and capacitive coupling methods, typically. Among them, the capacitive coupling wireless power transfer, also named Capacitive Coupling Wireless Power Transfer (CCWPT), has been researched to overcome the drawbacks of other approaches. The CCWPT has many advantages such as a simple structure, low standing power loss, reduced Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and the ability to transfer power through metal barriers. In this paper, the CCWPT system with 6.78MHz class D inverter is proposed and analyzed. The proposed system is consisted of the 6.78MHz class D inverter with the LC low pass filter, the capacitor between a transmitter and a receiver and impedance transformers. The system is verified with a prototype for charging mobile devices.

Keywords: wireless power transfer, capacitive coupling power transfer, class D inverter, 6.78MHz

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59 The Design, Development, and Optimization of a Capacitive Pressure Sensor Utilizing an Existing 9DOF Platform

Authors: Andrew Randles, Ilker Ocak, Cheam Daw Don, Navab Singh, Alex Gu

Abstract:

Nine Degrees of Freedom (9 DOF) systems are already in development in many areas. In this paper, an integrated pressure sensor is proposed that will make use of an already existing monolithic 9 DOF inertial MEMS platform. Capacitive pressure sensors can suffer from limited sensitivity for a given size of membrane. This novel pressure sensor design increases the sensitivity by over 5 times compared to a traditional array of square diaphragms while still fitting within a 2 mm x 2 mm chip and maintaining a fixed static capacitance. The improved design uses one large diaphragm supported by pillars with fixed electrodes placed above the areas of maximum deflection. The design optimization increases the sensitivity from 0.22 fF/kPa to 1.16 fF/kPa. Temperature sensitivity was also examined through simulation.

Keywords: capacitive pressure sensor, 9 DOF, 10 DOF, sensor, capacitive, inertial measurement unit, IMU, inertial navigation system, INS

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58 Flexible Capacitive Sensors Based on Paper Sheets

Authors: Mojtaba Farzaneh, Majid Baghaei Nejad

Abstract:

This article proposes a new Flexible Capacitive Tactile Sensors based on paper sheets. This method combines the parameters of sensor's material and dielectric, and forms a new model of flexible capacitive sensors. The present article tries to present a practical explanation of this method's application and advantages. With the use of this new method, it is possible to make a more flexibility and accurate sensor in comparison with the current models. To assess the performance of this model, the common capacitive sensor is simulated and the proposed model of this article and one of the existing models are assessed. The results of this article indicate that the proposed model of this article can enhance the speed and accuracy of tactile sensor and has less error in comparison with the current models. Based on the results of this study, it can be claimed that in comparison with the current models, the proposed model of this article is capable of representing more flexibility and more accurate output parameters for touching the sensor, especially in abnormal situations and uneven surfaces, and increases accuracy and practicality.

Keywords: capacitive sensor, paper sheets, flexible, tactile, uneven

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
57 Design and Simulation High Sensitive MEMS Capacitive Pressure Sensor with Small Size for Glaucoma Treatment

Authors: Yadollah Hezarjaribi, Mahdie Yari Esboi

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel MEMS capacitive pressure sensor with small size and high sensitivity is presented. This sensor has the separated clamped square diaphragm and the movable plate. The diaphragm material is polysilicon. The movable and fixed plates and mechanical coupling are gold. The substrate and diaphragm are pyrex glass and polysilicon, respectively. In capacitive sensor the sensitivity is proportional to deflection and capacitance changes with pressure for this reason with this design is improved the capacitance and sensitivity with small size. This sensor is designed for low pressure between 0-60 mmHg that is used for medical application such as treatment of an incurable disease called glaucoma. The size of this sensor is 350×350 µm2 and the thickness of the diaphragm is 2µm with 1μ air gap. This structure is designed by intellisuite software. In this MEMS capacitive pressure sensor the sensor sensitivity, diaphragm mechanical sensitivity for polysilicon diaphragm are 0.0469Pf/mmHg, 0.011 μm/mmHg, respectively. According to the simulating results for low pressure, the structure with polysilicon diaphragm has more change of the displacement and capacitance, this leads to high sensitivity than other diaphragms.

Keywords: glaucoma, MEMS capacitive pressure sensor, square clamped diaphragm, polysilicon

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56 Iterative Panel RC Extraction for Capacitive Touchscreen

Authors: Chae Hoon Park, Jong Kang Park, Jong Tae Kim

Abstract:

Electrical characteristics of capacitive touchscreen need to be accurately analyzed to result in better performance for multi-channel capacitance sensing. In this paper, we extracted the panel resistances and capacitances of the touchscreen by comparing measurement data and model data. By employing a lumped RC model for driver-to-receiver paths in touchscreen, we estimated resistance and capacitance values according to the physical lengths of channel paths which are proportional to the RC model. As a result, we obtained the model having 95.54% accuracy of the measurement data.

Keywords: electrical characteristics of capacitive touchscreen, iterative extraction, lumped RC model, physical lengths of channel paths

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
55 A Contactless Capacitive Biosensor for Muscle Activity Measurement

Authors: Charn Loong Ng, Mamun Bin Ibne Reaz

Abstract:

As elderly population grows globally, the percentage of people diagnosed with musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) increase proportionally. Electromyography (EMG) is an important biosignal that contributes to MSD’s clinical diagnose and recovery process. Conventional conductive electrode has many disadvantages in the continuous EMG measurement application. This research has design a new surface EMG biosensor based on the parallel-plate capacitive coupling principle. The biosensor is developed by using a double-sided PCB with having one side of the PCB use to construct high input impedance circuitry while the other side of the copper (CU) plate function as biosignal sensing metal plate. The metal plate is insulated using kapton tape for contactless application. The result implicates that capacitive biosensor is capable to constantly capture EMG signal without having galvanic contact to human skin surface. However, there are noticeable noise couple into the measured signal. Post signal processing is needed in order to present a clean and significant EMG signal. A complete design of single ended, non-contact, high input impedance, front end EMG biosensor is presented in this paper.

Keywords: contactless, capacitive, biosensor, electromyography

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54 Design and Simulation of MEMS-Based Capacitive Pressure Sensors

Authors: Kirankumar B. Balavalad, Bhagyashree Mudhol, B. G. Sheeparamatti

Abstract:

MEMS sensor have gained popularity in automotive, biomedical, and industrial applications. In this paper, the design and simulation of conventional, slotted, and perforated MEMS capacitive pressure sensor is proposed. Polysilicon material is used as diaphragm material that deflects due to applied pressure. Better sensitivity is the main advantage of conventional pressure sensor as compared with other two sensors and perforated pressure sensor achieves large operating pressure range. The proposed MEMS sensor demonstrated with diaphragm length 50um, gap depth 3um is being modelled. The simulation is carried out for different types of MEMS capacitive pressure sensor using COMSOL Multiphysics and Coventor ware.

Keywords: MEMS, conventional pressure sensor, slotted and perforated diaphragm, COMSOL multiphysics, coventor ware

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
53 Designing Equivalent Model of Floating Gate Transistor

Authors: Birinderjit Singh Kalyan, Inderpreet Kaur, Balwinder Singh Sohi

Abstract:

In this paper, an equivalent model for floating gate transistor has been proposed. Using the floating gate voltage value, capacitive coupling coefficients has been found at different bias conditions. The amount of charge present on the gate has been then calculated using the transient models of hot electron programming and Fowler-Nordheim Tunnelling. The proposed model can be extended to the transient conditions as well. The SPICE equivalent model is designed and current-voltage characteristics and Transfer characteristics are comparatively analysed. The dc current-voltage characteristics, as well as dc transfer characteristics, have been plotted for an FGMOS with W/L=0.25μm/0.375μm, the inter-poly capacitance of 0.8fF for both programmed and erased states. The Comparative analysis has been made between the present model and capacitive coefficient coupling methods which were already available.

Keywords: FGMOS, floating gate transistor, capacitive coupling coefficient, SPICE model

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52 Analog Voltage Inverter Drive for Capacitive Load with Adaptive Gain Control

Authors: Sun-Ki Hong, Yong-Ho Cho, Ki-Seok Kim, Tae-Sam Kang

Abstract:

Piezoelectric actuator is treated as RC load when it is modeled electrically. For some piezoelectric actuator applications, arbitrary voltage is required to actuate. Especially for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving like as sine wave, some special inverter with circuit that can charge and discharge the capacitive energy can be used. In this case, the difference between power supply level and the object voltage level for RC load is varied. Because the control gain is constant, the controlled output is not uniform according to the voltage difference. In this paper, for charge and discharge circuit for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving for piezoelectric actuator, the controller gain is controlled according to the voltage difference. With the proposed simple idea, the load voltage can have controlled smoothly although the voltage difference is varied. The appropriateness is proved from the simulation of the proposed circuit.

Keywords: analog voltage inverter, capacitive load, gain control, dc-dc converter, piezoelectric, voltage waveform

Procedia PDF Downloads 449
51 An Approach For Evolving a Relaible Low Power Ultra Wide Band Transmitter with Capacitve Sensing

Authors: N.Revathy, C.Gomathi

Abstract:

This work aims for a tunable capacitor as a sensor which can vary the control voltage of a voltage control oscillator in a ultra wide band (UWB) transmitter. In this paper power consumption is concentrated. The reason for choosing a capacitive sensing is it give slow temperature drift, high sensitivity and robustness. Previous works report a resistive sensing in a voltage control oscillator (VCO) not aiming at power consumption. But this work aims for power consumption of a capacitive sensing in ultra wide band transmitter. The ultra wide band transmitter to be used is a direct modulation of pulses. The VCO which is the heart of pulse generator of UWB transmitter works on the principle of voltage to frequency conversion. The VCO has and odd number of inverter stages which works on the control voltage input this input is now from a variable capacitor and the buffer stages is reduced from the previous work to maintain the oscillating frequency. The VCO is also aimed to consume low power. Then the concentration in choosing a variable capacitor is aimed. A compact model of a capacitor with the transient characteristics is to be designed with a movable dielectric and multi metal membranes. Previous modeling of the capacitor transient characteristics is with a movable membrane and a fixed membrane. This work aims at a membrane with a wide tuning suitable for ultra wide band transmitter.This is used in this work because a capacitive in a ultra wide transmitter need to be tuned in such a way that all satisfies FCC regulations.

Keywords: capacitive sensing, ultra wide band transmitter, voltage control oscillator, FCC regulation

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50 An Automated Sensor System for Cochlear Implants Electrode Array Insertion

Authors: Lei Hou, Xinli Du, Nikolaos Boulgouris

Abstract:

A cochlear implant, referred to as a CI, is a small electronic device that can provide direct electrical stimulation to the auditory nerve. During cochlear implant surgery, atraumatic electrode array insertion is considered to be a crucial step. However, during implantation, the mechanical behaviour of an electrode array inside the cochlea is not known. The behaviour of an electrode array inside of the cochlea is hardly identified by regular methods. In this study, a CI electrode array capacitive sensor system is proposed. It is able to automatically determine the array state as a result of the capacitance variations. Instead of applying sensors to the electrode array, the capacitance information from the electrodes will be gathered and analysed. Results reveal that this sensing method is capable of recognising different states when fed into a pre-shaped model.

Keywords: cochlear implant, electrode, hearing preservation, insertion force, capacitive sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
49 A Study on Unidirectional Analog Output Voltage Inverter for Capacitive Load

Authors: Sun-Ki Hong, Nam-HeeByeon, Jung-Seop Lee, Tae-Sam Kang

Abstract:

For Common R or R-L load to apply arbitrary voltage, the bridge traditional inverters don’t have any difficulties by PWM method. However for driving some piezoelectric actuator, arbitrary voltage not a pulse but a steady voltage should be applied. Piezoelectric load is considered as R-C load and its voltage does not decrease even though the applied voltage decreases. Therefore it needs some special inverter with circuit that can discharge the capacitive energy. Especially for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving like as sine wave, it becomes more difficult problem. In this paper, a charge and discharge circuit for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving for piezoelectric actuator is proposed. The circuit has charging and discharging switches for increasing and decreasing output voltage. With the proposed simple circuit, the load voltage can have any unidirectional level with tens of bandwidth because the load voltage can be adjusted by switching the charging and discharging switch appropriately. The appropriateness is proved from the simulation of the proposed circuit.

Keywords: DC-DC converter, analog output voltage, sinusoidal drive, piezoelectric load, discharging circuit

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48 A Novel All-Solid-State Microsupercapacitor Based on Carbon Nanotube Sheets

Authors: Behnoush Dousti, Ye Choi, Gil S. Lee

Abstract:

Supercapacitors which are also known as ultra supercapacitors play a significant role in development of energy storage devices owing to their high power density and rate capability. Nobel research has been conducted on micro scale energy storage systems currently to address the demand for smaller wearable technology and portable devices. Improving the performance of these microsupercapacitors have been always a challenge. Here, we demonstrate a facile fabrication of a microsupercapacitor (MSC) with interdigitated electrodes using novel structure of carbon nanotube sheets which are spun directly from as-grown carbon nanotube forests. Stability and performance of the device was tested using an aqueous PVA-H3PO4 gel electrolyte that also offers desirable electrochemical capacitive properties. High Coulombic efficiency around 100%, great rate capability and excellent capacitance retention over 15,000 cycles were obtained. Capacitive performance greatly improved with surface modification with acid and nitrogen doping of the CNT sheets. The high power density and stable cycling performance make this microsupercapacitor a suitable candidate for verity of energy storage application.

Keywords: carbon nanotube sheet, energy storage, solid state electrolyte, supercapacitor

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47 Reliability Indices Evaluation of SEIG Rotor Core Magnetization with Minimum Capacitive Excitation for WECs

Authors: Lokesh Varshney, R. K. Saket

Abstract:

This paper presents reliability indices evaluation of the rotor core magnetization of the induction motor operated as a self-excited induction generator by using probability distribution approach and Monte Carlo simulation. Parallel capacitors with calculated minimum capacitive value across the terminals of the induction motor operating as a SEIG with unregulated shaft speed have been connected during the experimental study. A three phase, 4 poles, 50Hz, 5.5 hp, 12.3A, 230V induction motor coupled with DC Shunt Motor was tested in the electrical machine laboratory with variable reactive loads. Based on this experimental study, it is possible to choose a reliable induction machine operating as a SEIG for unregulated renewable energy application in remote area or where grid is not available. Failure density function, cumulative failure distribution function, survivor function, hazard model, probability of success and probability of failure for reliability evaluation of the three phase induction motor operating as a SEIG have been presented graphically in this paper.

Keywords: residual magnetism, magnetization curve, induction motor, self excited induction generator, probability distribution, Monte Carlo simulation

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46 Signal Integrity Performance Analysis in Capacitive and Inductively Coupled Very Large Scale Integration Interconnect Models

Authors: Mudavath Raju, Bhaskar Gugulothu, B. Rajendra Naik

Abstract:

The rapid advances in Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technology has resulted in the reduction of minimum feature size to sub-quarter microns and switching time in tens of picoseconds or even less. As a result, the degradation of high-speed digital circuits due to signal integrity issues such as coupling effects, clock feedthrough, crosstalk noise and delay uncertainty noise. Crosstalk noise in VLSI interconnects is a major concern and reduction in VLSI interconnect has become more important for high-speed digital circuits. It is the most effectively considered in Deep Sub Micron (DSM) and Ultra Deep Sub Micron (UDSM) technology. Increasing spacing in-between aggressor and victim line is one of the technique to reduce the crosstalk. Guard trace or shield insertion in-between aggressor and victim is also one of the prominent options for the minimization of crosstalk. In this paper, far end crosstalk noise is estimated with mutual inductance and capacitance RLC interconnect model. Also investigated the extent of crosstalk in capacitive and inductively coupled interconnects to minimizes the same through shield insertion technique.

Keywords: VLSI, interconnects, signal integrity, crosstalk, shield insertion, guard trace, deep sub micron

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
45 TiO₂ Nanotube Array Based Selective Vapor Sensors for Breath Analysis

Authors: Arnab Hazra

Abstract:

Breath analysis is a quick, noninvasive and inexpensive technique for disease diagnosis can be used on people of all ages without any risk. Only a limited number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can be associated with the occurrence of specific diseases. These VOCs can be considered as disease markers or breath markers. Selective detection with specific concentration of breath marker in exhaled human breath is required to detect a particular disease. For example, acetone (C₃H₆O), ethanol (C₂H₅OH), ethane (C₂H₆) etc. are the breath markers and abnormal concentrations of these VOCs in exhaled human breath indicates the diseases like diabetes mellitus, renal failure, breast cancer respectively. Nanomaterial-based vapor sensors are inexpensive, small and potential candidate for the detection of breath markers. In practical measurement, selectivity is the most crucial issue where trace detection of breath marker is needed to identify accurately in the presence of several interfering vapors and gases. Current article concerns a novel technique for selective and lower ppb level detection of breath markers at very low temperature based on TiO₂ nanotube array based vapor sensor devices. Highly ordered and oriented TiO₂ nanotube array was synthesized by electrochemical anodization of high purity tatinium (Ti) foil. 0.5 wt% NH₄F, ethylene glycol and 10 vol% H₂O was used as the electrolyte and anodization was carried out for 90 min with 40 V DC potential. Au/TiO₂ Nanotube/Ti, sandwich type sensor device was fabricated for the selective detection of VOCs in low concentration range. Initially, sensor was characterized where resistive and capacitive change of the sensor was recorded within the valid concentration range for individual breath markers (or organic vapors). Sensor resistance was decreased and sensor capacitance was increased with the increase of vapor concentration. Now, the ratio of resistive slope (mR) and capacitive slope (mC) provided a concentration independent constant term (M) for a particular vapor. For the detection of unknown vapor, ratio of resistive change and capacitive change at any concentration was same to the previously calculated constant term (M). After successful identification of the target vapor, concentration was calculated from the straight line behavior of resistance as a function of concentration. Current technique is suitable for the detection of particular vapor from a mixture of other interfering vapors.

Keywords: breath marker, vapor sensors, selective detection, TiO₂ nanotube array

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44 Ground Short Circuit Contributions of a MV Distribution Line Equipped with PWMSC

Authors: Mohamed Zellagui, Heba Ahmed Hassan

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new approach for the calculation of short-circuit parameters in the presence of Pulse Width Modulated based Series Compensator (PWMSC). PWMSC is a newly Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) device that can modulate the impedance of a transmission line through applying a variation to the duty cycle (D) of a train of pulses with fixed frequency. This results in an improvement of the system performance as it provides virtual compensation of distribution line impedance by injecting controllable apparent reactance in series with the distribution line. This controllable reactance can operate in both capacitive and inductive modes and this makes PWMSC highly effective in controlling the power flow and increasing system stability in the system. The purpose of this work is to study the impact of fault resistance (RF) which varies between 0 to 30 Ω on the fault current calculations in case of a ground fault and a fixed fault location. The case study is for a medium voltage (MV) Algerian distribution line which is compensated by PWMSC in the 30 kV Algerian distribution power network. The analysis is based on symmetrical components method which involves the calculations of symmetrical components of currents and voltages, without and with PWMSC in both cases of maximum and minimum duty cycle value for capacitive and inductive modes. The paper presents simulation results which are verified by the theoretical analysis.

Keywords: pulse width modulated series compensator (pwmsc), duty cycle, distribution line, short-circuit calculations, ground fault, symmetrical components method

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43 Open Reading Frame Marker-Based Capacitive DNA Sensor for Ultrasensitive Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Potable Water

Authors: Rehan Deshmukh, Sunil Bhand, Utpal Roy

Abstract:

We report the label-free electrochemical detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895) in potable water using a DNA probe as a sensing molecule targeting the open reading frame marker. Indium tin oxide (ITO) surface was modified with organosilane and, glutaraldehyde was applied as a linker to fabricate the DNA sensor chip. Non-Faradic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) behavior was investigated at each step of sensor fabrication using cyclic voltammetry, impedance, phase, relative permittivity, capacitance, and admittance. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed significant changes in surface topographies of DNA sensor chip fabrication. The decrease in the percentage of pinholes from 2.05 (Bare ITO) to 1.46 (after DNA hybridization) suggested the capacitive behavior of the DNA sensor chip. The results of non-Faradic EIS studies of DNA sensor chip showed a systematic declining trend of the capacitance as well as the relative permittivity upon DNA hybridization. DNA sensor chip exhibited linearity in 0.5 to 25 pg/10mL for E. coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895). The limit of detection (LOD) at 95% confidence estimated by logistic regression was 0.1 pg DNA/10mL of E. coli O157:H7 (equivalent to 13.67 CFU/10mL) with a p-value of 0.0237. Moreover, the fabricated DNA sensor chip used for detection of E. coli O157:H7 showed no significant cross-reactivity with closely and distantly related bacteria such as Escherichia coli MTCC 3221, Escherichia coli O78:H11 MTCC 723 and Bacillus subtilis MTCC 736. Consequently, the results obtained in our study demonstrated the possible application of developed DNA sensor chips for E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895 in real water samples as well.

Keywords: capacitance, DNA sensor, Escherichia coli O157:H7, open reading frame marker

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42 Estimation of Mobility Parameters and Threshold Voltage of an Organic Thin Film Transistor Using an Asymmetric Capacitive Test Structure

Authors: Rajesh Agarwal

Abstract:

Carrier mobility at the organic/insulator interface is essential to the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFT). The present work describes estimation of field dependent mobility (FDM) parameters and the threshold voltage of an OTFT using a simple, easy to fabricate two terminal asymmetric capacitive test structure using admittance measurements. Conventionally, transfer characteristics are used to estimate the threshold voltage in an OTFT with field independent mobility (FIDM). Yet, this technique breaks down to give accurate results for devices with high contact resistance and having field dependent mobility. In this work, a new technique is presented for characterization of long channel organic capacitor (LCOC). The proposed technique helps in the accurate estimation of mobility enhancement factor (γ), the threshold voltage (V_th) and band mobility (µ₀) using capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement in OTFT. This technique also helps to get rid of making short channel OTFT or metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures for making C-V measurements. To understand the behavior of devices and ease of analysis, transmission line compact model is developed. The 2-D numerical simulation was carried out to illustrate the correctness of the model. Results show that proposed technique estimates device parameters accurately even in the presence of contact resistance and field dependent mobility. Pentacene/Poly (4-vinyl phenol) based top contact bottom-gate OTFT’s are fabricated to illustrate the operation and advantages of the proposed technique. Small signal of frequency varying from 1 kHz to 5 kHz and gate potential ranging from +40 V to -40 V have been applied to the devices for measurement.

Keywords: capacitance, mobility, organic, thin film transistor

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41 Comparison of a Capacitive Sensor Functionalized with Natural or Synthetic Receptors Selective towards Benzo(a)Pyrene

Authors: Natalia V. Beloglazova, Pieterjan Lenain, Martin Hedstrom, Dietmar Knopp, Sarah De Saeger

Abstract:

In recent years polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which represent a hazard to humans and entire ecosystem, have been receiving an increased interest due to their mutagenic, carcinogenic and endocrine disrupting properties. They are formed in all incomplete combustion processes of organic matter and, as a consequence, ubiquitous in the environment. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is on the priority list published by the Environmental Agency (US EPA) as the first PAH to be identified as a carcinogen and has often been used as a marker for PAHs contamination in general. It can be found in different types of water samples, therefore, the European Commission set up a limit value of 10 ng L–1 (10 ppt) for BAP in water intended for human consumption. Generally, different chromatographic techniques are used for PAHs determination, but these assays require pre-concentration of analyte, create large amounts of solvent waste, and are relatively time consuming and difficult to perform on-site. An alternative robust, stand-alone, and preferably cheap solution is needed. For example, a sensing unit which can be submerged in a river to monitor and continuously sample BaP. An affinity sensor based on capacitive transduction was developed. Natural antibodies or their synthetic analogues can be used as ligands. Ideally the sensor should operate independently over a longer period of time, e.g. several weeks or months, therefore the use of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was discussed. MIPs are synthetic antibodies which are selective for a chosen target molecule. Their robustness allows application in environments for which biological recognition elements are unsuitable or denature. They can be reused multiple times, which is essential to meet the stand-alone requirement. BaP is a highly lipophilic compound and does not contain any functional groups in its structure, thus excluding non-covalent imprinting methods based on ionic interactions. Instead, the MIPs syntheses were based on non-covalent hydrophobic and π-π interactions. Different polymerization strategies were compared and the best results were demonstrated by the MIPs produced using electropolymerization. 4-vinylpyridin (VP) and divinylbenzene (DVB) were used as monomer and cross-linker in the polymerization reaction. The selectivity and recovery of the MIP were compared to a non-imprinted polymer (NIP). Electrodes were functionalized with natural receptor (monoclonal anti-BaP antibody) and with MIPs selective towards BaP. Different sets of electrodes were evaluated and their properties such as sensitivity, selectivity and linear range were determined and compared. It was found that both receptor can reach the cut-off level comparable to the established ML, and despite the fact that the antibody showed the better cross-reactivity and affinity, MIPs were more convenient receptor due to their ability to regenerate and stability in river till 7 days.

Keywords: antibody, benzo(a)pyrene, capacitive sensor, MIPs, river water

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40 The Implantable MEMS Blood Pressure Sensor Model With Wireless Powering And Data Transmission

Authors: Vitaliy Petrov, Natalia Shusharina, Vitaliy Kasymov, Maksim Patrushev, Evgeny Bogdanov

Abstract:

The leading worldwide death reasons are ischemic heart disease and other cardiovascular illnesses. Generally, the common symptom is high blood pressure. Long-time blood pressure control is very important for the prophylaxis, correct diagnosis and timely therapy. Non-invasive methods which are based on Korotkoff sounds are impossible to apply often and for a long time. Implantable devices can combine longtime monitoring with high accuracy of measurements. The main purpose of this work is to create a real-time monitoring system for decreasing the death rate from cardiovascular diseases. These days implantable electronic devices began to play an important role in medicine. Usually implantable devices consist of a transmitter, powering which could be wireless with a special made battery and measurement circuit. Common problems in making implantable devices are short lifetime of the battery, big size and biocompatibility. In these work, blood pressure measure will be the focus because it’s one of the main symptoms of cardiovascular diseases. Our device will consist of three parts: the implantable pressure sensor, external transmitter and automated workstation in a hospital. The Implantable part of pressure sensors could be based on piezoresistive or capacitive technologies. Both sensors have some advantages and some limitations. The Developed circuit is based on a small capacitive sensor which is made of the technology of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The Capacitive sensor can provide high sensitivity, low power consumption and minimum hysteresis compared to the piezoresistive sensor. For this device, it was selected the oscillator-based circuit where frequency depends from the capacitance of sensor hence from capacitance one can calculate pressure. The external device (transmitter) used for wireless charging and signal transmission. Some implant devices for these applications are passive, the external device sends radio wave signal on internal LC circuit device. The external device gets reflected the signal from the implant and from a change of frequency is possible to calculate changing of capacitance and then blood pressure. However, this method has some disadvantages, such as the patient position dependence and static using. Developed implantable device doesn’t have these disadvantages and sends blood pressure data to the external part in real-time. The external device continuously sends information about blood pressure to hospital cloud service for analysis by a physician. Doctor’s automated workstation at the hospital also acts as a dashboard, which displays actual medical data of patients (which require attention) and stores it in cloud service. Usually, critical heart conditions occur few hours before heart attack but the device is able to send an alarm signal to the hospital for an early action of medical service. The system was tested with wireless charging and data transmission. These results can be used for ASIC design for MEMS pressure sensor.

Keywords: MEMS sensor, RF power, wireless data, oscillator-based circuit

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39 Electric Models for Crosstalk Predection: Analysis and Performance Evaluation

Authors: Kachout Mnaouer, Bel Hadj Tahar Jamel, Choubani Fethi

Abstract:

In this paper, three electric equivalent models to evaluate crosstalk between three-conductor transmission lines are proposed. First, electric equivalent models for three-conductor transmission lines are presented. Secondly, rigorous equations to calculate the per-unit length inductive and capacitive parameters are developed. These models allow us to calculate crosstalk between conductors. Finally, to validate the presented models, we compare the theoretical results with simulation data. Obtained results show that proposed models can be used to predict crosstalk performance.

Keywords: near-end crosstalk, inductive parameter, L, Π, T models

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38 An 8-Bit, 100-MSPS Fully Dynamic SAR ADC for Ultra-High Speed Image Sensor

Authors: F. Rarbi, D. Dzahini, W. Uhring

Abstract:

In this paper, a dynamic and power efficient 8-bit and 100-MSPS Successive Approximation Register (SAR) Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) is presented. The circuit uses a non-differential capacitive Digital-to-Analog (DAC) architecture segmented by 2. The prototype is produced in a commercial 65-nm 1P7M CMOS technology with 1.2-V supply voltage. The size of the core ADC is 208.6 x 103.6 µm2. The post-layout noise simulation results feature a SNR of 46.9 dB at Nyquist frequency, which means an effective number of bit (ENOB) of 7.5-b. The total power consumption of this SAR ADC is only 1.55 mW at 100-MSPS. It achieves then a figure of merit of 85.6 fJ/step.

Keywords: CMOS analog to digital converter, dynamic comparator, image sensor application, successive approximation register

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37 Stabilization Technique for Multi-Inputs Voltage Sense Amplifiers in Node Sharing Converters

Authors: Sanghoon Park, Ki-Jin Kim, Kwang-Ho Ahn

Abstract:

This paper discusses the undesirable charge transfer through the parasitic capacitances of the input transistors in a multi-inputs voltage sense amplifier. Its intrinsic rail-to-rail voltage transitions at the output nodes inevitably disturb the input sides through the capacitive coupling between the outputs and inputs. Then, it can possible degrade the stabilities of the reference voltage levels. Moreover, it becomes more serious in multi-channel systems by altering them for other channels, and so degrades the linearity of the overall systems. In order to alleviate the internal node voltage transition, the internal node stabilization techniques are proposed. It achieves 45% and 40% improvements for node stabilization and input referred disturbance, respectively.

Keywords: voltage sense amplifier, multi-inputs, voltage transition, node stabilization, biasing circuits

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36 Mixed Frequency Excitation of an Electrostatically Actuated Resonator

Authors: Abdallah H. Ramini, Alwathiqbellah I. Ibrahim, Mohammad I. Younis

Abstract:

We investigate experimentally and theoretically the dynamics of a capacitive resonator under mixed frequency excitation of two AC harmonic signals. The resonator is composed of a proof mass suspended by two cantilever beams. Experimental measurements are conducted using a laser Doppler Vibrometer to reveal the interesting dynamics of the system when subjected to two-source excitation. A nonlinear single-degree-of-freedom model is used for the theoretical investigation. The results reveal combination resonances of additive and subtractive type, which are shown to be promising to increase the bandwidth of the resonator near primary resonance frequency. Our results also demonstrate the ability to shift the combination resonances to much lower or much higher frequency ranges. We also demonstrate the dynamic pull-in instability under mixed frequency excitation.

Keywords: electrostatically actuated resonator, multi-frequency excitation, nonlinear dynamics, AC harmonic signals

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35 Development of MEMS Based 3-Axis Accelerometer for Hand Movement Monitoring

Authors: Zohra Aziz Ali Manjiyani, Renju Thomas Jacob, Keerthan Kumar

Abstract:

This project develops a hand movement monitoring system, which feeds the data into the computer and gives the 3D image rotation according to the direction of the tilt and hence monitoring the movement of the hand in context to its tilt. Advancement of MEMS Technology has enabled us to get very small and low-cost accelerometer ICs which is based on capacitive principle. Accelerometer based Tilt sensor ADXL335 is used in this paper, based on MEMS technology and the project emphasis on the development of the MEMS-based accelerometer to measure the tilt, interfacing the hardware with the LabVIEW and showing the 3D rotation to the user, which is in his understandable form and tilt data can be saved in the computer. It provides an experience of working on emerging technologies like MEMS and design software like LabVIEW.

Keywords: MEMS accelerometer, tilt sensor ADXL335, LabVIEW simulation, 3D animation

Procedia PDF Downloads 273