Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3515

Search results for: visual reaction

3515 Evaluation of Hand Grip Strength and EMG Signal on Visual Reaction

Authors: Sung-Wook Shin, Sung-Taek Chung

Abstract:

Hand grip strength has been utilized as an indicator to evaluate the motor ability of hands, responsible for performing multiple body functions. It is, however, difficult to evaluate other factors (other than hand muscular strength) utilizing the hand grip strength only. In this study, we analyzed the motor ability of hands using EMG and the hand grip strength, simultaneously in order to evaluate concentration, muscular strength reaction time, instantaneous muscular strength change, and agility in response to visual reaction. In results, the average time (and their standard deviations) of muscular strength reaction EMG signal and hand grip strength was found to be 209.6 ± 56.2 ms and 354.3 ± 54.6 ms, respectively. In addition, the onset time which represents acceleration time to reach 90% of maximum hand grip strength, was 382.9 ± 129.9 ms.

Keywords: hand grip strength, EMG, visual reaction, endurance

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
3514 Effect of Common Yoga Protocol on Reaction Time of Football Players

Authors: Vikram Singh

Abstract:

The objective of the study was to study the effectiveness of common yoga protocol on reaction time (simple visual reaction time-SVRT measured in milliseconds/seconds) of male football players in the age group of 15 to 21 years. The 40 boys were randomly assigned into two groups i.e. control and experimental. SVRT for both the groups were measured on day-1 and post intervention (common yoga protocol here) was measured after 45 days of training to the experimental group only. One way ANOVA (Univariate analysis) and Independent t-test using SPSS 23 statistical package was applied to get and analyze the results. There was a significant difference after 45 days of yoga protocol in simple visual reaction time of experimental group (p = .032), t (33.05) = 3.881, p = .000 (two-tailed). Null hypothesis (that there would be no post measurement differences in reaction times of control and experimental groups) was rejected. Where p<.05. Therefore alternate hypothesis was accepted.

Keywords: footballers, t-test, yoga protocol, reaction time

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
3513 A Study of Effect of Yoga on Choice Visual Reaction Time of Soccer Players

Authors: Vikram Singh, Parmod Kumar Sethi

Abstract:

The objective of the study was to study the effectiveness of common yoga protocol on reaction time (choice visual reaction time, measured in milliseconds/seconds) of male football players in the age group of 16 to 21 years. The 40 boys were measured initially on parameters of years of experience, level of participation. They were randomly assigned into two groups i.e. control and experimental. CVRT for both the groups was measured on day-1 and post intervention (common yoga protocol here) was measured after 45 days of training to the experimental group after they had finished with their regular fitness and soccer skill training. One way ANOVA (Univariate analysis) and Independent t-test using SPSS 23 statistical package were applied to get and analyze the results. The experimental yoga protocol group showed a significant reduction in CVRT, whereas the insignificant difference in reaction times was observed for control group after 45 days. The effect size was more than 52% for CVRT indicating that the effect of treatment was large. Power of the study was also found to be high (> .80). There was a significant difference after 45 days of yoga protocol in choice visual reaction time of experimental group (p = .000), t (21.93) = 6.410, p = .000 (two-tailed). The null hypothesis (that there would be no difference in reaction times of control and experimental groups) was rejected. Where p< .05. Therefore alternate hypothesis was accepted.

Keywords: reaction time, yoga protocol, t-test, soccer players

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
3512 Task Distraction vs. Visual Enhancement: Which Is More Effective?

Authors: Huangmei Liu, Si Liu, Jia’nan Liu

Abstract:

The present experiment investigated and compared the effectiveness of two kinds of methods of attention control: Task distraction and visual enhancement. In the study, the effectiveness of task distractions to explicit features and of visual enhancement to implicit features of the same group of Chinese characters were compared based on their effect on the participants’ reaction time, subjective confidence rating, and verbal report. We found support that the visual enhancement on implicit features did overcome the contrary effect of training distraction and led to awareness of those implicit features, at least to some extent.

Keywords: task distraction, visual enhancement, attention, awareness, learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
3511 The Contemporary Visual Spectacle: Critical Visual Literacy

Authors: Lai-Fen Yang

Abstract:

In this increasingly visual world, how can we best decipher and understand the many ways that our everyday lives are organized around looking practices and the many images we encounter each day? Indeed, how we interact with and interpret visual images is a basic component of human life. Today, however, we are living in one of the most artificial visual and image-saturated cultures in human history, which makes understanding the complex construction and multiple social functions of visual imagery more important than ever before. Themes regarding our experience of a visually pervasive mediated culture, here, termed visual spectacle.

Keywords: visual culture, contemporary, images, literacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
3510 Applications of Visual Ethnography in Public Anthropology

Authors: Subramaniam Panneerselvam, Gunanithi Perumal, KP Subin

Abstract:

The Visual Ethnography is used to document the culture of a community through a visual means. It could be either photography or audio-visual documentation. The visual ethnographic techniques are widely used in visual anthropology. The visual anthropologists use the camera to capture the cultural image of the studied community. There is a scope for subjectivity while the culture is documented by an external person. But the upcoming of the public anthropology provides an opportunity for the participants to document their own culture. There is a need to equip the participants with the skill of doing visual ethnography. The mobile phone technology provides visual documentation facility to everyone to capture the moments instantly. The visual ethnography facilitates the multiple-interpretation for the audiences. This study explores the effectiveness of visual ethnography among the tribal youth through public anthropology perspective. The case study was conducted to equip the tribal youth of Nilgiris in visual ethnography and the outcome of the experiment shared in this paper.

Keywords: visual ethnography, visual anthropology, public anthropology, multiple-interpretation, case study

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
3509 Association of Sensory Processing and Cognitive Deficits in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders – Pioneer Study in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Rana Zeina

Abstract:

Objective: The association between Sensory problems and cognitive abilities has been studied in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). In this study, we used a neuropsychological test to evaluate memory and attention in ASDs children with sensory problems compared to the ASDs children without sensory problems. Methods: Four visual memory tests of Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) including Big/Little Circle (BLC), Simple Reaction Time (SRT), Intra/Extra Dimensional Set Shift (IED), Spatial Recognition Memory (SRM), were administered to 14 ASDs children with sensory problems compared to 13 ASDs without sensory problems aged 3 to 12 with IQ of above 70. Results: ASDs Individuals with sensory problems performed worse than the ASDs group without sensory problems on comprehension, learning, reversal and simple reaction time tasks, and no significant difference between the two groups was recorded in terms of the visual memory and visual comprehension tasks. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that ASDs children with sensory problems are facing deficits in learning, comprehension, reversal, and speed of response to stimuli.

Keywords: visual memory, attention, autism spectrum disorders, CANTAB eclipse

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3508 Visual Identity Components of Tourist Destination

Authors: Petra Barisic, Zrinka Blazevic

Abstract:

In the world of modern communications, visual identity has predominant influence on the overall success of tourist destinations, but despite of these, the problem of designing thriving tourist destination visual identity and their components are hardly addressed. This study highlights the importance of building and managing the visual identity of tourist destination, and based on the empirical study of well-known Mediterranean destination of Croatia analyses three main components of tourist destination visual identity; name, slogan, and logo. Moreover, the paper shows how respondents perceive each component of Croatia’s visual identity. According to study, logo is the most important, followed by the name and slogan. Research also reveals that Croatian economy lags behind developed countries in understanding the importance of visual identity, and its influence on marketing goal achievements.

Keywords: components of visual identity, Croatia, tourist destination, visual identity

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
3507 To Estimate the Association between Visual Stress and Visual Perceptual Skills

Authors: Vijay Reena Durai, Krithica Srinivasan

Abstract:

Introduction: The two fundamental skills involved in the growth and wellbeing of any child can be categorized into visual motor and perceptual skills. Visual stress is a disorder which is characterized by visual discomfort, blurred vision, misspelling words, skipping lines, letters bunching together. There is a need to understand the deficits in perceptual skills among children with visual stress. Aim: To estimate the association between visual stress and visual perceptual skills Objective: To compare visual perceptual skills of children with and without visual stress Methodology: Children between 8 to 15 years of age participated in this cross-sectional study. All children with monocular visual acuity better than or equal to 6/6 were included. Visual perceptual skills were measured using test for visual perceptual skills (TVPS) tool. Reading speed was measured with the chosen colored overlay using Wilkins reading chart and pattern glare score was estimated using a 3cpd gratings. Visual stress was defined as change in reading speed of greater than or equal to 10% and a pattern glare score of greater than or equal to 4. Results: 252 children participated in this study and the male: female ratio of 3:2. Majority of the children preferred Magenta (28%) and Yellow (25%) colored overlay for reading. There was a significant difference between the two groups (MD=1.24±0.6) (p<0.04, 95% CI 0.01-2.43) only in the sequential memory skills. The prevalence of visual stress in this group was found to be 31% (n=78). Binary logistic regression showed that odds ratio of having poor visual perceptual skills was OR: 2.85 (95% CI 1.08-7.49) among children with visual stress. Conclusion: Children with visual stress are found to have three times poorer visual perceptual skills than children without visual stress.

Keywords: visual stress, visual perceptual skills, colored overlay, pattern glare

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
3506 The Effect of Visual Access to Greenspace and Urban Space on a False Memory Learning Task

Authors: Bryony Pound

Abstract:

This study investigated how views of green or urban space affect learning performance. It provides evidence of the value of visual access to greenspace in work and learning environments, and builds on the extensive research into the cognitive and learning-related benefits of access to green and natural spaces, particularly in learning environments. It demonstrates that benefits of visual access to natural spaces whilst learning can produce statistically significant faster responses than those facing urban views after only 5 minutes. The primary hypothesis of this research was that a greenspace view would improve short-term learning. Participants were randomly assigned to either a view of parkland or of urban buildings from the same room. They completed a psychological test of two stages. The first stage consisted of a presentation of words from eight different categories (four manmade and four natural). Following this a 2.5 minute break was given; participants were not prompted to look out of the window, but all were observed doing so. The second stage of the test involved a word recognition/false memory test of three types. Type 1 was presented words from each category; Type 2 was non-presented words from those same categories; and Type 3 was non-presented words from different categories. Participants were asked to respond with whether they thought they had seen the words before or not. Accuracy of responses and reaction times were recorded. The key finding was that reaction times for Type 2 words (highest difficulty) were significantly different between urban and green view conditions. Those with an urban view had slower reaction times for these words, so a view of greenspace resulted in better information retrieval for word and false memory recognition. Importantly, this difference was found after only 5 minutes of exposure to either view, during winter, and with a sample size of only 26. Greenspace views improve performance in a learning task. This provides a case for better visual access to greenspace in work and learning environments.

Keywords: benefits, greenspace, learning, restoration

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3505 Bag of Words Representation Based on Weighting Useful Visual Words

Authors: Fatma Abdedayem

Abstract:

The most effective and efficient methods in image categorization are almost based on bag-of-words (BOW) which presents image by a histogram of occurrence of visual words. In this paper, we propose a novel extension to this method. Firstly, we extract features in multi-scales by applying a color local descriptor named opponent-SIFT. Secondly, in order to represent image we use Spatial Pyramid Representation (SPR) and an extension to the BOW method which based on weighting visual words. Typically, the visual words are weighted during histogram assignment by computing the ratio of their occurrences in the image to the occurrences in the background. Finally, according to classical BOW retrieval framework, only a few words of the vocabulary is useful for image representation. Therefore, we select the useful weighted visual words that respect the threshold value. Experimentally, the algorithm is tested by using different image classes of PASCAL VOC 2007 and is compared against the classical bag-of-visual-words algorithm.

Keywords: BOW, useful visual words, weighted visual words, bag of visual words

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3504 Kinetic Study of 1-Butene Isomerization over Hydrotalcite Catalyst

Authors: Sirada Sripinun

Abstract:

This work studied the isomerization of 1-butene over hydrotalcite catalyst. The experiments were conducted at various gas hourly space velocity (GHSV), reaction temperature, and feed concentration. No catalyst deactivation was observed over the reaction time of 16 hours. Two major reaction products were trans-2-butene and cis-2-butene. The reaction temperature played an important role on the reaction selectivity. At high operating temperatures, the selectivity of trans-2-butene was higher than the selectivity of cis-2-butene while it was opposite at a lower reaction temperature. In the range of operating conditions, the maximum conversion of 1-butene was found at 74% when T = 673 K and GHSV = 4 m3/h/kg-cat with trans- and cis-2-butene selectivities of 54% and 46% respectively. Finally, the kinetic parameters of the reaction were determined.

Keywords: hydrotalcite, isomerization, kinetic, 1-butene

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3503 The Involvement of Visual and Verbal Representations Within a Quantitative and Qualitative Visual Change Detection Paradigm

Authors: Laura Jenkins, Tim Eschle, Joanne Ciafone, Colin Hamilton

Abstract:

An original working memory model suggested the separation of visual and verbal systems in working memory architecture, in which only visual working memory components were used during visual working memory tasks. It was later suggested that the visuo spatial sketch pad was the only memory component at use during visual working memory tasks, and components such as the phonological loop were not considered. In more recent years, a contrasting approach has been developed with the use of an executive resource to incorporate both visual and verbal representations in visual working memory paradigms. This was supported using research demonstrating the use of verbal representations and an executive resource in a visual matrix patterns task. The aim of the current research is to investigate the working memory architecture during both a quantitative and a qualitative visual working memory task. A dual task method will be used. Three secondary tasks will be used which are designed to hit specific components within the working memory architecture – Dynamic Visual Noise (visual components), Visual Attention (spatial components) and Verbal Attention (verbal components). A comparison of the visual working memory tasks will be made to discover if verbal representations are at use, as the previous literature suggested. This direct comparison has not been made so far in the literature. Considerations will be made as to whether a domain specific approach should be employed when discussing visual working memory tasks, or whether a more domain general approach could be used instead.

Keywords: semantic organisation, visual memory, change detection

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3502 Reaction Rate Behavior of a Methane-Air Mixture over a Platinum Catalyst in a Single Channel Catalytic Reactor

Authors: Doo Ki Lee, Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

Catalytic combustion is an environmentally friendly technique to combust fuels in gas turbines. In this paper, the behavior of surface reaction rate on catalytic combustion is studied with respect to the heterogeneous oxidation of methane-air mixture in a catalytic reactor. Plug flow reactor (PFR), the simplified single catalytic channel assists in investigating the catalytic combustion phenomenon over the Pt catalyst by promoting the desired chemical reactions. The numerical simulation with multi-step elementary surface reactions is governed by the availability of free surface sites onto the catalytic surface and thereby, the catalytic combustion characteristics are demonstrated by examining the rate of the reaction for lean fuel mixture. Further, two different surface reaction mechanisms are adopted and compared for surface reaction rates to indicate the controlling heterogeneous reaction for better fuel conversion. The performance of platinum catalyst under heterogeneous reaction is analyzed under the same temperature condition, where the catalyst with the higher kinetic rate of reaction would have a maximum catalytic activity for enhanced methane catalytic combustion.

Keywords: catalytic combustion, heterogeneous reaction, plug flow reactor, surface reaction rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
3501 A Comparison of Anger State and Trait Anger Among Adolescents with and without Visual Impairment

Authors: Sehmus Aslan, Sibel Karacaoglu, Cengiz Sevgin, Ummuhan Bas Aslan

Abstract:

Objective: Anger expression style is an important moderator of the effects on the person and person’s environment. Anger and anger expression have become important constructs in identifying individuals at high risk for psychological difficulties. To our knowledge, there is no information about anger and anger expression of adolescents with visual impairment. The aim of this study was to compare anger and anger expression among adolescents with and without visual impairment. Methods: Thirty-eight adolescents with visual impairment (18 female, 20 male) and 44 adolescents without visual impairment (22 female, 24 male), in totally 84 adolescents aged between 12 to 15 years, participated in the study. Anger and anger expression of the participants assessed with The State-Trait Anger Scale (STAS). STAS, a self-report questionnaire, is designed to measure the experience and expression of anger. STAS has four subtitles including continuous anger, anger in, anger out and anger control. Reliability and validity of the STAS have been well established among adolescents. Mann-Whitney U Test was used for statistical analysis. Results: No significant differences were found in the scores of continuous anger and anger out between adolescents with and without visual impairment (p < 0.05). On the other hand, there were differences in scores of anger control and anger in between adolescents with and without visual impairment (p>0.05). The score of anger control in adolescents with visual impairment were higher compared with adolescents without visual impairment. Meanwhile, the adolescents with visual impairment had lower score for anger in compared with adolescents without visual impairment. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that there is no difference in anger level among adolescents with and without visual impairment meanwhile there is difference in anger expression.

Keywords: adolescent, anger, impaired, visual

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3500 Visual Improvement with Low Vision Aids in Children with Stargardt’s Disease

Authors: Anum Akhter, Sumaira Altaf

Abstract:

Purpose: To study the effect of low vision devices i.e. telescope and magnifying glasses on distance visual acuity and near visual acuity of children with Stargardt’s disease. Setting: Low vision department, Alshifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods: 52 children having Stargardt’s disease were included in the study. All children were diagnosed by pediatrics ophthalmologists. Comprehensive low vision assessment was done by me in Low vision clinic. Visual acuity was measured using ETDRS chart. Refraction and other supplementary tests were performed. Children with Stargardt’s disease were provided with different telescopes and magnifying glasses for improving far vision and near vision. Results: Out of 52 children, 17 children were males and 35 children were females. Distance visual acuity and near visual acuity improved significantly with low vision aid trial. All children showed visual acuity better than 6/19 with a telescope of higher magnification. Improvement in near visual acuity was also significant with magnifying glasses trial. Conclusions: Low vision aids are useful for improvement in visual acuity in children. Children with Stargardt’s disease who are having a problem in education and daily life activities can get help from low vision aids.

Keywords: Stargardt, s disease, low vision aids, telescope, magnifiers

Procedia PDF Downloads 456
3499 Effect of Dimensional Reinforcement Probability on Discrimination of Visual Compound Stimuli by Pigeons

Authors: O. V. Vyazovska

Abstract:

Behavioral efficiency is one of the main principles to be successful in nature. Accuracy of visual discrimination is determined by the attention, learning experience, and memory. In the experimental condition, pigeons’ responses to visual stimuli presented on the screen of the monitor are behaviorally manifested by pecking or not pecking the stimulus, by the number of pecking, reaction time, etc. The higher the probability of rewarding is, the more likely pigeons will respond to the stimulus. We trained 8 pigeons (Columba livia) on a stagewise go/no-go visual discrimination task.16 visual stimuli were created from all possible combinations of four binary dimensions: brightness (dark/bright), size (large/small), line orientation (vertical/horizontal), and shape (circle/square). In the first stage, we presented S+ and 4 S-stimuli: the first that differed in all 4-dimensional values from S+, the second with brightness dimension sharing with S+, the third sharing brightness and orientation with S+, the fourth sharing brightness, orientation and size. Then all 16 stimuli were added. Pigeons rejected correctly 6-8 of 11 new added S-stimuli at the beginning of the second stage. The results revealed that pigeons’ behavior at the beginning of the second stage was controlled by probabilities of rewarding for 4 dimensions learned in the first stage. More or fewer mistakes with dimension discrimination at the beginning of the second stage depended on the number S- stimuli sharing the dimension with S+ in the first stage. A significant inverse correlation between the number of S- stimuli sharing dimension values with S+ in the first stage and the dimensional learning rate at the beginning of the second stage was found. Pigeons were more confident in discrimination of shape and size dimensions. They made mistakes at the beginning of the second stage, which were not associated with these dimensions. Thus, the received results help elucidate the principles of dimensional stimulus control during learning compound multidimensional visual stimuli.

Keywords: visual go/no go discrimination, selective attention, dimensional stimulus control, pigeon

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3498 The Visual Side of Islamophobia: A Social-Semiotic Analysis

Authors: Carmen Aguilera-Carnerero

Abstract:

Islamophobia, the unfounded hostility towards Muslims and Islam, has been deeply studied in the last decades from different perspectives ranging from anthropology, sociology, media studies, and linguistics. In the past few years, we have witnessed how the birth of social media has transformed formerly passive audiences into an active group that not only receives and digests information but also creates and comments publicly on any event of their interest. In this way, average citizens now have been entitled with the power of becoming potential opinion leaders. This rise of social media in the last years gave way to a different way of Islamophobia, the so called ‘cyberIslamophobia’. Considerably less attention, however, has been given to the study of islamophobic images that accompany the texts in social media. This paper attempts to analyse a corpus of 300 images of islamophobic nature taken from social media (from Twitter and Facebook) from the years 2014-2017 to see: a) how hate speech is visually constructed, b) how cyberislamophobia is articulated through images and whether there are differences/similarities between the textual and the visual elements, c) the impact of those images in the audience and their reaction to it and d) whether visual cyberislamophobia has undergone any process of permeating popular culture (for example, through memes) and its real impact. To carry out this task, we have used Critical Discourse Analysis as the most suitable theoretical framework that analyses and criticizes the dominant discourses that affect inequality, injustice, and oppression. The analysis of images was studied according to the theoretical framework provided by the visual framing theory and the visual design grammar to conclude that memes are subtle but very powerful tools to spread Islamophobia and foster hate speech under the guise of humour within popular culture.

Keywords: cyberIslamophobia, visual grammar, social media, popular culture

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3497 Development of Visual Element Design Guidelines for Consumer Products Based on User Characteristics

Authors: Taezoon Park, Wonil Hwang

Abstract:

This study aims to build a design guideline for the effective visual display used for consumer products considering user characteristics; gender and age. Although a number of basic experiments identified the limits of human visual perception, the findings remain fragmented and many times in an unfriendly form. This study compiled a design cases along with tables aggregated from the experimental result of visual perception; brightness/contrast, useful field of view, color sensitivity. Visual design elements commonly used for consumer product, were selected and appropriate guidelines were developed based on the experimental result. Since the provided data with case example suggests a feasible design space, it will save time for a product designer to find appropriate design alternatives.

Keywords: design guideline, consumer product, visual design element, visual perception, emotional design

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3496 In silico Model of Transamination Reaction Mechanism

Authors: Sang-Woo Han, Jong-Shik Shin

Abstract:

w-Transaminase (w-TA) is broadly used for synthesizing chiral amines with a high enantiopurity. However, the reaction mechanism of w-TA has been not well studied, contrary to a-transaminase (a-TA) such as AspTA. Here, we propose in silico model on the reaction mechanism of w-TA. Based on the modeling results which showed large free energy gaps between external aldimine and quinonoid on deamination (or ketimine and quinonoid on amination), withdrawal of Ca-H seemed as a critical step which determines the reaction rate on both amination and deamination reactions, which is consistent with previous researches. Hyperconjugation was also observed in both external aldimine and ketimine which weakens Ca-H bond to elevate Ca-H abstraction.

Keywords: computational modeling, reaction intermediates, w-transaminase, in silico model

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3495 Visual Impairment Through Contextualized Lived Experiences: The Story of James

Authors: Jentel Van Havermaet, Geert Van Hove, Elisabeth De Schauwer

Abstract:

This study re-conceptualizes visual impairment in the interdependent context of James, his family, and allies. Living with a visual impairment is understood as an entanglement of assemblages, dynamics, disablism, systems… We narrated this diffractively into two meaningful events: decisions and processes on (inclusive) education and hinderances in connecting with others. We entangled and (un)raveled lived experiences in assemblages in which the contextualized meaning of visual impairment became more clearly. The contextualized narrative of James interwove complex intra-actions; showed the complexity and contextualization of entangled relationalities.

Keywords: disability studies, contextualization, visual impairment, assemblage, entanglement, lived experiences

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3494 Reaction Kinetics of Biodiesel Production from Refined Cottonseed Oil Using Calcium Oxide

Authors: Ude N. Callistus, Amulu F. Ndidi, Onukwuli D. Okechukwu, Amulu E. Patrick

Abstract:

Power law approximation was used in this study to evaluate the reaction orders of calcium oxide, CaO catalyzed transesterification of refined cottonseed oil and methanol. The kinetics study was carried out at temperatures of 45, 55 and 65 oC. The kinetic parameters such as reaction order 2.02 and rate constant 2.8 hr-1g-1cat, obtained at the temperature of 65 oC best fitted the kinetic model. The activation energy, Ea obtained was 127.744 KJ/mol. The results indicate that the transesterification reaction of the refined cottonseed oil using calcium oxide catalyst is approximately second order reaction.

Keywords: refined cottonseed oil, transesterification, CaO, heterogeneous catalysts, kinetic model

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3493 Theoretical Study of Acetylation of P-Methylaniline Catalyzed by Cu²⁺ Ions

Authors: Silvana Caglieri

Abstract:

Theoretical study of acetylation of p-methylaniline catalyzed by Cu2+ ions from the analysis of intermediate of the reaction was carried out. The study of acetylation of amines is of great interest by the utility of its products of reaction and is one of the most frequently used transformations in organic synthesis as it provides an efficient and inexpensive means for protecting amino groups in a multistep synthetic process. Acetylation of amine is a nucleophilic substitution reaction. This reaction can be catalyzed by Lewis acid, metallic ion. In reaction mechanism, the metallic ion formed a complex with the oxygen of the acetic anhydride carbonyl, facilitating the polarization of the same and the successive addition of amine at the position to form a tetrahedral intermediate, determining step of the rate of the reaction. Experimental work agreed that this reaction takes place with the formation of a tetrahedral intermediate. In the present theoretical work were investigated the structure and energy of the tetrahedral intermediate of the reaction catalyzed by Cu2+ ions. Geometries of all species involved in the acetylation were made and identified. All of the geometry optimizations were performed by the method at the DFT/B3LYP level of theory and the method MP2. Were adopted the 6-31+G* basis sets. Energies were calculated using the Mechanics-UFF method. Following the same procedure it was identified the geometric parameters and energy of reaction intermediate. The calculations show 61.35 kcal/mol of energy for the tetrahedral intermediate and the energy of activation for the reaction was 15.55 kcal/mol.

Keywords: amides, amines, DFT, MP2

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3492 Synthesis and Characterization of Zeolite/Fe3O4 Nanocomposite Material and Investigation of Its Catalytic Reaction

Authors: Mojgan Zendehdel, Safura Molla Mohammad Zamani

Abstract:

In this paper, Fe3O4/NaY zeolite nanocomposite with different molar ratio were successfully synthesized and characterized using FT-IR, XRD, TGA, SEM and VSM techniques. The SEM graphs showed that much of Fe3O4 was successfully coated by the NaY zeolite layer. Also, the results show that the magnetism of the products is stable with added zeolite. The catalytic effect of nanocomposite investigated for esterification reaction under solvent-free conditions. Hence, the effect of the catalyst amount, reaction time, reaction temperature and reusability of catalyst were considered and nanocomposite that created from zeolite and 16.6 percent of Fe3O4 showed the highest yield. The catalyst can be easily separated from reaction with the magnet and it can also be used for several times.

Keywords: zeolite, magnetic, nanocompsite, esterification

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3491 An Efficient and Green Procedure for the Synthesis of Highly Substituted Polyhydronaphthalene Derivatives via a One-Pot, Multi-Component Reaction in Aqueous Media

Authors: Adeleh Moshtaghi Zonouz, Issa Eskandari

Abstract:

A simple, efficient, and green one-pot, four-component synthesis of highly substituted polyhydronaphthalenes in aqueous media is described. The method has such advantages as short reaction times, high yields, mild reaction conditions, operational simplicity and environmentally benign.

Keywords: polyhydronaphthalene, 2, 6-dicyanoanilines, multi-component reaction, aqueous media

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3490 Reproduction of New Media Art Village around NTUT: Heterotopia of Visual Culture Art Education

Authors: Yu Cheng-Yu

Abstract:

‘Heterotopia’, ‘Visual Cultural Art Education’ and ‘New Media’ of these three subjects seemingly are irrelevant. In fact, there are synchronicity and intertextuality inside. In addition to visual culture, art education inspires students the ability to reflect on popular culture image through visual culture teaching strategies in school. We should get involved in the community to construct the learning environment that conveys visual culture art. This thesis attempts to probe the heterogeneity of space and value from Michel Foucault and to research sustainable development strategy in ‘New Media Art Village’ heterogeneity from Jean Baudrillard, Marshall McLuhan's media culture theory and social construction ideology. It is possible to find a new media group that can convey ‘Visual Culture Art Education’ around the National Taipei University of Technology in this commercial district that combines intelligent technology, fashion, media, entertainment, art education, and marketing network. Let the imagination and innovation of ‘New Media Art Village’ become ‘implementable’ and new media Heterotopia of inter-subjectivity with the engagement of big data and digital media. Visual culture art education will also bring aesthetics into the community by New Media Art Village.

Keywords: social construction, heterogeneity, new media, big data, visual culture art education

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3489 Synthesis of TiO2 Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel and Sonochemical Combination

Authors: Sabriye Piskin, Sibel Kasap, Muge Sari Yilmaz

Abstract:

Nanocrystalline TiO2 particles were successfully synthesized via sol-gel and sonochemical combination using titanium tetraisopropoxide as a precursor at lower temperature for a short time. The effect of the reaction parameters (hydrolysis media, acid media, and reaction temperatures) on the synthesis of TiO2 particles were investigated in the present study. Characterizations of synthesized samples were prepared by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. It was shown that the reaction parameters played a significant role in the synthesis of TiO2 particles.

Keywords: crystalline TiO2, sonochemical mechanism, sol-gel reaction, XRD

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3488 The Effect of Visual Fluency and Cognitive Fluency on Access Rates of Web Pages

Authors: Xiaoying Guo, Xiangyun Wang

Abstract:

Access rates is a key indicator of reflecting the popularity of web pages. Having high access rates are very important for web pages, especially for news web pages, online shopping sites and searching engines. In this paper, we analyzed the influences of visual fluency and cognitive fluency on access rates of Chinese web pages. Firstly, we conducted an experiment of scoring the web pages. Twenty-five subjects were invited to view top 50 web pages of China, and they were asked to give a score in a 5-point Likert-scale from four aspects, including complexity, comfortability, familiarity and usability. Secondly, the obtained results was analyzed by correlation analysis and factor analysis in R. By factor analysis; we analyzed the contributions of visual fluency and cognitive fluency to the access rates. The results showed that both visual fluency and cognitive fluency affect the access rate of web pages. Compared to cognitive fluency, visual fluency play a more important role in user’s accessing of web pages.

Keywords: visual fluency, cognitive fluency, visual complexity, usability

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3487 Reaction Kinetics for the Pyrolysis of Urea Phosphate

Authors: P. A. Broodryk, A. F. Van Der Merwe, H. W. J. P. Neomagus

Abstract:

The production of the clear liquid fertilizer ammonium polyphosphate (APP) is best achieved by the pyrolysis of urea phosphate, as it produces a product that is free from any of the impurities present in the raw phosphoric acid it was made from. This is a multiphase, multi-step reaction that produces carbon dioxide and ammonia as gasses and ammonium polyphosphate as liquid products. The polyphosphate chain length affects the solubility and thus the applicability of the product as liquid fertiliser, thus proper control of the reaction conditions is thus required for the use of this reaction in the production of fertilisers. This study investigates the reaction kinetics of the aforementioned reaction, describing a mathematical model for the kinetics of the reaction along with the accompanying rate constants. The reaction is initially exothermic, producing only carbon dioxide as a gas product and ammonium diphosphate, at higher temperatures the reaction becomes endothermic, producing ammonia gas as an additional by-product and longer chain polyphosphates, which when condensed too far becomes highly water insoluble. The aim of this study was to (i) characterise the pyrolysis reaction of urea phosphate by determining the mechanisms and the associated kinetic constants, and (ii) to determine the optimum conditions for ammonium diphosphate production. A qualitative investigation was also done to find the rate of hydrolysis of APP as this provides an estimate of the shelf life of an APP clear liquid fertiliser solution.

Keywords: ammonium polyphosphate, kinetics, pyrolysis, urea phosphate

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3486 Fuzzy Inference Based Modelling of Perception Reaction Time of Drivers

Authors: U. Chattaraj, K. Dhusiya, M. Raviteja

Abstract:

Perception reaction time of drivers is an outcome of human thought process, which is vague and approximate in nature and also varies from driver to driver. So, in this study a fuzzy logic based model for prediction of the same has been presented, which seems suitable. The control factors, like, age, experience, intensity of driving of the driver, speed of the vehicle and distance of stimulus have been considered as premise variables in the model, in which the perception reaction time is the consequence variable. Results show that the model is able to explain the impacts of the control factors on perception reaction time properly.

Keywords: driver, fuzzy logic, perception reaction time, premise variable

Procedia PDF Downloads 215