Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 87

Search results for: Taipei LGBT parade

87 Toward a Methodology of Visual Rhetoric with Constant Reference to Mikhail Bakhtin’s Concept of “Chronotope”: A Theoretical Proposal and Taiwan Case Study

Authors: Hsiao-Yung Wang


This paper aims to elaborate methodology of visual rhetoric with constant reference to Mikhail Bakhtin’s concept of “chronotope”. First, it attempts to outline Ronald Barthes, the most representative scholar of visual rhetoric and structuralism, perspective on visual rhetoric and its time-space category by referring to the concurrent word-image, the symbolic systematicity, the outer dialogicity. Second, an alternative approach is explored for grasping the dynamics and functions of visual rhetoric by articulating Mikhail Bakhtin’s concept of “chronotope.” Furthermore, that visual rhetorical consciousness could be identified as “the meaning parabola which projects from word to image,” “the symbolic system which proceeds from sequence to disorder,” “the ideological environment which struggles from the local to the global.” Last but not least, primary vision of the 2014 Taipei LGBT parade would be analyzed preliminarily to evaluate the effectiveness and persuasiveness embodied by specific visual rhetorical strategies. How Bakhtin’s concept of “chronotope” to explain the potential or possible ideological struggle deployed by visual rhetoric might be interpreted empirically and extensively.

Keywords: barthes, chronotope, Mikhail Bakhtin, Taipei LGBT parade, visual rhetoric

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86 Toward a Radical/Populist Democracy from the Dialectical Tensions between Transgender Movement and Gay Movement in Taiwan: A Rhetorical Analysis

Authors: Hsiao-Yung Wang


This paper aims to elaborate the rhetorical strategies and its inherent dialectical tensions between transgender movement and gay movement in Taiwan; thereby, a radical/populist democratic model will be reproblematized for theorizing the internal dialogicity of the 'umbrella metaphor' of the so-called 'LGBT' label. Firstly, it examined how the representative gay community in Taiwan defined the category of 'LGBT' by its visual rhetoric of pride parade during the last two decades, and how the imaginary of 'transgender' was systematically precluded or even silenced by 'cisgender privilege' or 'cisnormativity' of the gay community in general. Secondly, it employed Laclau & Mouffe’s (1985) perspective of 'empty signifier' which derives from their radical democratic theorization and populist reason, to explore the rhetorical strategies and language tactics on which transgender activists relied for arguing or mapping both the cooperative and competitive relationship with cisgender allies intentionally. Based on research findings, this paper argued that a relationship between rather than an amalgamation of sexual orientation and gender identity should be recognized. Moreover, that resisting defining transgender as other and everyone else as normal could be the critical issue of LGBT community as a whole, especially while it proceeds toward to a radical/populist democracy.

Keywords: empty signifier, LGBT, populist reason, radical democracy, rhetoric, transgender

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85 Exploring the Visual Roots of Classical Rhetoric and Its Implication for Gender Politics: Reflection upon Roman Rhetoric from a Bakhtin's Perspective

Authors: Hsiao-Yung Wang


This study aims to explore the visual roots of classical rhetoric and its implication for gender politics by the constant reference to Mikhail Bakhtin’s theory of novelist time. First, it attempts to clarify the argument that “visuality always has been integral to rhetorical consciousness” by critically re-reading the rhetorical theories of roman rhetorician such as Cicero and Quintilian. Thereby, the vague clues of visuality would be realized from the so-called ‘five canons of rhetoric’ (invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery), which originally deriving from verbal and spoken rhetorical tradition. Drawing on Mikhail Bakhtin’s elaboration of novelist time in contrast to epic time, it addresses the specific timeline inherent in the dynamics of visual rhetoric involves the refusing the ‘absolute past’, the focusing on unfinalized contemporary reality, and the expecting for open future. Taking the primary visions of Taipei LGBT parade over the past 13 years as research cases, it mentions that visuality could not only activate the rhetorical functions of classical rhetoric, but also inspire gender politics in the contemporary era.

Keywords: classical rhetoric, gender politics, Mikhail Bakhtin, visuality

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84 Attitudes Towards Homosexuality, Bisexuality and Transgenderism among Medical Students of a Sri Lankan University

Authors: Rajapaksha J. S. R. L., Rajapaksha R. G. D. T., Ranawaka A. U. R., Rangalla R. D. M. P., Ranwala R. D. E. B., Chandratilake M. N.


Introduction: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients experience discrimination, insensitivity, and ignorance about LGBT-specific health needs among healthcare providers. Developing the correct attitudes among medical students towards LGBT may help provide them with optimal healthcare. Objectives: This study aimed at assessing the attitudes of medical students towards the LBGT community. Methodology: A cross-sectional descriptive study was among all the medical students in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka, using a validated online questionnaire. The questionnaire focused on eight areas. The data were descriptively analyzed, and the demographic groups were compared. Results: 358 students completed the survey. The response rate was 34.26%. Their attitudes on traditional gender roles and comfortability in interacting with LGBT people were moderate, and they disagreed with negative LGBT social beliefs. They knew less about the origin of sexuality/gender of LGBT. Although they accepted LGBT as a part of diversity, they discouraged normalizing the social practices of LGBT people. Their acceptance and association of LGBT were moderately positive. A minority has encountered LGBT in close social circles, and the majority of them were batch-mates. Although males’ knowledge about the origin of LGBT was higher, they favoured traditional gender roles more. The religious groups showed no differences. The favourability of attitudes towards LGBT reflected respondents’ political ideology. Conclusion: Although medical students’ knowledge on the sexuality/gender basis of LGBT is poor, they have moderately favourable attitudes towards them. They accept LGBT as a part of social diversity but not their social practices. Poor knowledge, lack of encounters, cultural influences, and political ideology may have influenced their attitudes.

Keywords: medical students, attitude, LGBT, diversity

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83 Suicide, Help-Seeking and LGBT Youth: A Mixed Methods Study

Authors: Elizabeth McDermott, Elizabeth Hughes, Victoria Rawlings


Globally, suicide is the second leading cause of death among 15–29 year-olds. Young people who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) have elevated rates of suicide and self-harm. Despite the increased risk, there is a paucity of research on LGBT help-seeking and suicidality. This is the first national study to investigate LGBT youth help-seeking for suicidal feelings and self-harm. We report on a UK sequential exploratory mixed method study that employed face-to-face and online methods in two stages. Stage one involved 29 online (n=15) and face-to-face (n=14) semi-structured interviews with LGBT youth aged under 25 years old. Stage two utilized an online LGBT youth questionnaire employing a community-based sampling strategy (n=789). We found across the sample that LGBT youth who self-harmed or felt suicidal were reluctant to seek help. Results indicated that participants were normalizing their emotional distress and only asked for help when they reached crisis point and were no longer coping. Those who self-harmed (p<0.001, OR=2.82), had attempted or planned suicide (p<0.05, OR=1.48), or had experience of abuse related to their sexuality or gender (p<0.01, OR=1.80), were most likely to seek help. There were a number of interconnecting reasons that contributed to participants’ problems accessing help. The most prominent of these were: negotiating norms in relation to sexuality, gender, mental health and age; being unable to talk about emotions, and coping and self-reliance. It is crucial that policies and practices that aim to prevent LGBT youth suicide recognize that norms and normalizing processes connected to sexual orientation and gender identity are additional difficulties that LGBT youth have accessing mental health support.

Keywords: help-seeking, LGBT, suicide, youth

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82 Intersectional Bullying, LGBT Youth and the Construction of Power

Authors: Elle Hilke Dominski


This paper explores the impact of intersectional bullying of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) youth from a multi-layered experience perspective within bullying incidents at school. Present inclusionary measures at school may not be designed as a continuous process of finding better methods for responding to diversity, rather remain ‘fixed’ as singular solutions applied universally. This paper argues recognizing education through a lens of inclusion begins to realize most educational systems are poorly equipped to handle diversity.

Keywords: bullying, education, intersectional bullying, LGBT

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81 The Study on the Platform Strategy of Taipei City Urban Regeneration Station

Authors: Chao Jen-Chih, Kuo-Wei Hsu


Many venues and spaces in cities gradually become old and decayed as time goes by and develops. Urban regeneration is the critical strategy to promote local development, but the method of spatial reconstruction which is emphasized in the issue of urban regeneration is questioned for bringing cultural, social and economic impacts on old city areas. The idea of “Urban Regeneration Station (URS)” is proposed for Taipei City Government to introduce the entry and disturbance of communities and related groups with the concept of creative city. This study explored how an URS promotes local development again through the strength of communities and the energy of local residence community, and it established the Platform Strategy for URS. The research results are as follows: URS through the promotion of government agencies, experts, scholars and the third sector, to the selection of different types of units stationed in business, through exhibitions, seminars, and other activities to explore local development issues, vetting each stationed execution efficiency units, and different units stationed by URS establish URS overall network platform strategy.

Keywords: urban regeneration, platform strategy, creative city, Taipei city

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80 Social Construction of Sustainability and Quality of Life Indicators for Urban Passenger Transportation

Authors: Tzay-An Shiau, Kuan-Lin Ho


This study developed sustainability and quality of life indicators for urban passenger transportation by using Social Construction of Technology (SCOT). The initial indicators were proposed by referring to literatures and were summarized by using impact-based framework. Subsequently, the stakeholders were defined according to their interest, power and then classified into scientific, operational, policy making, policy monitoring and nonprofessional frames. The scientific frame consisted of nine scholars in transportation field. Ten representatives from Taipei Rapid Transit Corporation (TRTC), Taiwan Railways Administration (TRA) and bus operators were grouped into the operational frame. The policy making frame comprised of ten representatives from Department of Transportation, Taipei City Government (DOT, TCG), Department of Railways and Highways, Ministry of Transportation and Communication (DORH, MOTC), Directorate General of Highways, Ministry of Transportation and Communication (DGOH, MOTC) and Institute of Transportation, Ministry of Transportation and Communication (IOT, MOTC). The policy monitoring frame consisted of 15 representatives from Taipei City Councilor, legislator and reporter. The nonprofessional frame comprised of 72 Taipei citizens. The stakeholders were asked to evaluate the relative importance of indicators using Delphi survey method. Social construction of 14 transport sustainability indicators and 12 transport quality of life indicators were obtained.

Keywords: sustainability, quality of life, Social Construction of Technology (SCOT), stakeholder

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79 The Influence of Minority Stress on Depression among Thai Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adults

Authors: Priyoth Kittiteerasack, Alana Steffen, Alicia K. Matthews


Depression is a leading cause of the worldwide burden of disability and disease burden. Notably, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations are more likely to be a high-risk group for depression compared to their heterosexual and cisgender counterparts. To date, little is known about the rates and predictors of depression among Thai LGBT populations. As such, the purpose of this study was to: 1) measure the prevalence of depression among a diverse sample of Thai LGBT adults and 2) determine the influence of minority stress variables (discrimination, victimization, internalized homophobia, and identity concealment), general stress (stress and loneliness), and coping strategies (problem-focused, avoidance, and seeking social support) on depression outcomes. This study was guided by the Minority Stress Model (MSM). The MSM posits that elevated rates of mental health problems among LGBT populations stem from increased exposures to social stigma due to their membership in a stigmatized minority group. Social stigma, including discrimination and violence, represents unique sources of stress for LGBT individuals and have a direct impact on mental health. This study was conducted as part of a larger descriptive study of mental health among Thai LGBT adults. Standardized measures consistent with the MSM were selected and translated into the Thai language by a panel of LGBT experts using the forward and backward translation technique. The psychometric properties of translated instruments were tested and acceptable (Cronbach’s alpha > .8 and Content Validity Index = 1). Study participants were recruited using convenience and snowball sampling methods. Self-administered survey data were collected via an online survey and via in-person data collection conducted at a leading Thai LGBT organization. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses using multiple linear regression models were conducted to analyze study data. The mean age of participants (n = 411) was 29.5 years (S.D. = 7.4). Participants were primarily male (90.5%), homosexual (79.3%), and cisgender (76.6%). The mean score for depression of study participant was 9.46 (SD = 8.43). Forty-three percent of LGBT participants reported clinically significant levels of depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory. In multivariate models, the combined influence of demographic, stress, coping, and minority stressors explained 47.2% of the variance in depression scores (F(16,367) = 20.48, p < .001). Minority stressors independently associated with depression included discrimination (β = .43, p < .01) victimization (β = 1.53, p < .05), and identity concealment (β = -.54, p < .05). In addition, stress (β = .81, p < .001), history of a chronic disease (β = 1.20, p < .05), and coping strategies (problem-focused coping β = -1.88, p < .01, seeking social support β = -1.12, p < .05, and avoidance coping β = 2.85, p < .001) predicted depression scores. The study outcomes emphasized that minority stressors uniquely contributed to depression levels among Thai LGBT participants over and above typical non-minority stressors. Study findings have important implications for nursing practice and the development of intervention research.

Keywords: depression, LGBT, minority stress, sexual and gender minority, Thailand

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78 Gaybe-Boom TV: Reading Homonormative Fatherhood on Israeli Television

Authors: Itay Harlap


Over the past decade, LGBT figures have become increasingly visible on Israeli television in its various channels and genres. In recent years, however, the representation of gays on Israeli television has undergone an interesting shift, whereby many television texts feature gay people as fathers. These texts, mostly news items and documentaries, usually present gay parenthood as a positive phenomenon. The question in paper is whether LGBT parenting (in reality and as representation) fated to be part of the homonormativity that characterizes the LGBT community in Israel, or can it be an alternative to the hegemonic discourse? This paper embraces a dialectical position and explores the tension between mainstream and radical, or homonormativity and queer politics in the specific Israeli Jewish context through a textual and discursive reading of a selection of television programs that revolve principally around gay parenting in Israel. The first part of this lecture addresses the cultural and social context that generated these representations, dealing with three key Israeli areas: The fertility cult, the evolution of the LGBT community, and the evolution of local television. The second part offers a queer reading of these ‘positive’ representations (mainly in special reports on the news and programs labeled as ‘documentaries’ by broadcasters) and highlight the possible price of the ‘bear hug’ given by Israeli media to gay parents. The last part focuses on a single case study, the TV serial drama Ima Veabaz, and suggests that this drama exposes the performative aspect of parenting and the connection between ethnicity and fertility, and offers an alternative to normative displays of gay parenting.

Keywords: fatherhood, heteronormativity, Israel, queer theory, television

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77 Digital Athena – Contemporary Commentaries and Greek Mythology Explored through 3D Printing

Authors: Rose Lastovicka, Bernard Guy, Diana Burton


Greek myth and art acted as tools to think with, and a lens through which to explore complex topics as a form of social media. In particular, coins were a form of propaganda to communicate the wealth and power of the city-states they originated from as they circulated from person to person. From this, how can the application of 3D printing technologies explore the infusion of ancient forms with contemporary commentaries to promote discussion? The digital reconstruction of artifacts is a topic that has been researched by various groups all over the globe. Yet, the exploration of Greek myth through artifacts infused with contemporary issues is currently unexplored in this medium. Using the Stratasys J750 3D printer - a multi-material, full-colour 3D printer - a series of coins inspired by ancient Greek currency and myth was created to present commentaries on the adversities surrounding individuals in the LGBT+ community. Using the J750 as the medium for expression allows for complete control and precision of the models to create complex high-resolution iconography. The coins are printed with a hard, translucent material with coloured 3D visuals embedded into the coin to then be viewed in close contact by the audience. These coins as commentaries present an avenue for wider understanding by drawing perspectives not only from sources concerned with the contemporary LGBT+ community but also from sources exploring ancient homosexuality and the perception and regulation of it in antiquity. By displaying what are usually points of contention between anti- and pro-LGBT+ parties, this visual medium opens up a discussion to both parties, suggesting heritage can play a vital interpretative role in the contemporary world.

Keywords: 3D printing, design, Greek mythology, LGBT+ community

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76 Visibility as a Catalyst for Driving LGBT-Inclusive Growth in India: Rethinking the Diversity and Inclusion Model

Authors: Koel Chakraborty


This paper critically examines the role of ‘disclosure and visibility’ of sexual minorities in a heteronormative organizational setting. The paper wishes to comment on the importance of promoting ‘visibility’ as an important catalyst in increasing the efficacy of outreach programs as part of diversity management practices as well as increasing the efficacy of teams. The aim of the research is to assess the pitfalls of not bringing ‘one’s authentic or whole self’ to work. In doing so, it will address whether Inclusive Leadership at the top propels employees to come out. The paper finally discusses and recommends strategies that could be helpful toward attaining and improving the visibility factor at a cross-functional level. This is a qualitative research with interviews and surveys conducted in inclusive workplace environments across various private sector companies in India.

Keywords: LGBT, diversity, organisation, leadership

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75 Experiences of Homophobia, Machismo and Misogyny in Tourist Destinations: A Netnography in a Facebook Community of LGBT Backpackers

Authors: Renan De Caldas Honorato, Ana Augusta Ferreira De Freitas


Homosexuality is still criminalized in a large number of countries. In some of them, being gay or lesbian can even be punished by death. Added to this context, the experiences of social discrimination faced by the LGBT population, including homophobia, machismo and misogyny, cause numerous restrictions throughout their lives. The possibility of confronting these challenges in moments that should be pleasant, such as on a trip or on vacation, is unpleasant, to say the least. In the current scenario of intensifying the use of Social network sites (SNSs) to search for information, including in the tourist area, this work aims to analyze the sharing of tourist experiences with situations of confrontation and perceptions of homophobia, machismo and misogyny, and restrictions suffered in tourist destinations. The fieldwork is a community of LGBT backpackers based on Facebook. Netnography was the core method adopted. A qualitative approach was conducted and 463 publications posted from January to December 2020 were assessed through the computer-mediated discourse analysis (CMDA). The results suggest that these publications exist to identify the potential exposure to these offensive behaviors while traveling. Individuals affirm that the laws, positive or not, in relation to the LGBT public are not the only factors for a place to be defined as safe or not for gay travelers. The social situation of a country and its laws are quite different and this is the main target of these publications. The perception of others about the chosen destination is more important than knowing your rights and the legal status of each country and it also lessens uncertainty, even when they are never totally confident when choosing a travel destination. In certain circumstances, sexual orientation also needs to be protected from the judgment of hosts and residents. The systemic treatment of homophobic behavior and the construction of a more inclusive society are urgent.

Keywords: homophobia, hospitality, machismo, misogyny

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74 Lesbians, Gays and Bisexuals of Botswana: Progressive Steps by the Botswana Court of Appeal towards Recognition and Advancement of Fundamental Human Rights of the Most Vulnerable within Society

Authors: Tashwill Esterhuizen


Throughout Africa, several countries continue to have laws which criminalise same-sex sexual activities, which increases the vulnerability of the LGBT community to stigma, discrimination, and persecution. These criminal provisions often form the basis upon which states deny LGBT activists the right to freely associate with other like-minded individuals and form organizations that protect their interests and advocate for the rights and aspirations of the LGBT community. Over the past year, however, there has been significant progress in the advancement of universal, fundamental rights of LGBT persons throughout Africa. In many instances, these advancements came about through the bravery of activists who have publically insisted (in environments where same-sex sexual practices are criminalised) that their rights should be respected. Where meaningful engagement with the State was fruitless, activists took their plight to the judiciary and have successfully sought to uphold the fundamental rights of LGBT persons, paving the way for a more inclusive and tolerant society. Litigation Progress: Botswana is a prime example. For several years, the State denied a group of LGBT activists their right to freely associate and form their organisation Lesbians, Gays, and Bisexuals of Botswana (LEGABIBO), which aimed to promote the interests of the LGBT community in Botswana. In March 2016, the Botswana Court of Appeal found that the government’s refusal to register LEGABIBO violated the activists’ right to associate freely. The Court held that the right freedom of association applies to all persons regardless of their sexual orientation or gender identity. It does not matter that the views of the organisation are unpopular or unacceptable amongst the majority. In particular, the Court rejected the government of Botswana’s contention that registering LEGABIBO would disturb public peace and is contrary to public morality. Quite remarkably, the Court of Appeal recognised that while LGBT individuals are a minority group within the country, they are nonetheless persons entitled to constitutional protections of their dignity, regardless of whether they are unacceptable to others on religious or any other grounds. Furthermore, the Court held that human rights and fundamental freedoms are granted to all, including criminals or social outcasts because the denial of an individual’s humanity is the denial of their human dignity. This is crucial observation by the Court of Appeal, as once it is accepted that human rights apply to all human beings, then it becomes much easier for vulnerable groups to assert their own rights. Conclusion: The Botswana Court of Appeal decision, therefore, represents significant progress in the promotion of the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons. The judgment has broader implications for many other countries which do not provide recognition of sexual minorities. It highlights the State’s duty to uphold basic rights and to ensure dignity, tolerance, and acceptance for marginalised persons.

Keywords: acceptance, freedom of association, freedom of expression, fundamental rights and freedoms, gender identity, human rights are universal, inclusive, inherent human dignity, progress, sexual orientation, tolerance

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73 A Phenomenological Inquiry on the Spirituality of Young Filipino Gay Men Living with HIV

Authors: Dela Cruz Abraham, Bachoco Janine


Spirituality plays a central role among patients dealing with HIV mostly on the LGBT community in the world today particularly in the Philippines. This study seeks to contribute to the growing body of knowledge in LGBT psychology particularly on gay men living with HIV and their spiritual aspect. In line with this, the researchers aim to describe (1) how young Filipino gay men relate their experiences as an HIV-positive in relations to their self and significant others (partners, family, friends and community); (2) how young Filipino gay men make sense of their experiences as an HIV-positive, in connection to God, this also includes their meaning making and purpose of their life experiences. To recruit participants, the researchers will employ purposive sampling using snowball technique, and conduct a semi-structured interview. Verbatim transcriptions of the participant will be analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis.

Keywords: interpretative phenomenological analysis, living with HIV, spirituality, young Filipino gay men

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72 High School Transgender Students in Brazil: The Difficulties of Staying in School and the Psychological Implications in a Hostile School Environment

Authors: Aline Giardin, Maria Rosa Chitolina


Our research conducted in 8 different schools in the city of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, we can clearly see that, even in modern times, where the search for equality between men and women is already over 60 years of struggle in this world where you show Much more than two genres and in this world that is proving that sex is not just biological, are confronted with sexist and phallocentric situations in our Schools, and among our students. The sample consisted of 503 students with a mean age between 13 and 21 years. 107 students identified themselves as gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgender. The remainder was identified as heterosexual or none at all. Compared to LGBT students, transgender students faced the school's more hostile climates, while non-transgender female students were less likely to experience anti-LGBT victimization. In addition, transgender students experienced more negative experiences at school compared to students whose gender expression adhered to traditional gender norms. Transgender students were more likely to feel insecure at school, with 80.0% of transgender students reporting that they felt insecure at school because of their gender identity. Female students in our research reported lower frequencies of victimization based on sexual orientation and gender identity and were less likely to feel insecure at school. In all indicators of discrimination in school, high school students have outperformed elementary school students and have had fewer resources and supports related to LGBT. High school students reported higher rates of victimization on sexual orientation and gender expression than elementary school students. For example, about one-third (35.5%) of high school students suffered regular physical Very often) based on their sexual orientation, compared to less than a quarter (21.4%) of primary school students. The whole premise here is to perceive the phallocentrism and sexism hidden in our schools. Opposition between the sexes is not reflexive or articulates a biological fact, but a social construction.

Keywords: transgender students, school, psychological implications, discrimination

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71 A History of Taiwan’s Secret Nuclear Program

Authors: Hsiao-ting Lin


This paper analyzes the history of Taiwan’s secret program to develop its nuclear weapons during the Cold War. In July 1971, US President Richard Nixon shocked the world when he announced that his national security adviser Henry Kissinger had made a secret trip to China and that he himself had accepted an invitation to travel to Beijing. This huge breakthrough in the US-PRC relationship was followed by Taipei’s loss of political legitimacy and international credibility as a result of its UN debacle in the fall that year. Confronted with the Nixon White House’s opening to the PRC, leaders in Taiwan felt being betrayed and abandoned, and they were obliged to take countermeasures for the sake of national interest and regime survival. Taipei’s endeavor to create an effective nuclear program, including the possible development of nuclear weapons capabilities, fully demonstrates the government’s resolution to pursue its own national policy, even if such a policy was guaranteed to undermine its relations with the United States. With hindsight, Taiwan’s attempt to develop its own nuclear weapons did not succeed in sabotaging the warming of US-PRC relations. Worse, it was forced to come to a full stop when, in early 1988, the US government pressured Taipei to close related facilities and programs on the island. However, Taiwan’s abortive attempt to develop its nuclear capability did influence Washington’s and Beijing’s handling of their new relationship. There did develop recognition of a common American and PRC interest in avoiding a nuclearized Taiwan. From this perspective, Beijing’s interests would best be served by allowing the island to remain under loose and relatively benign American influence. As for the top leaders on Taiwan, such a policy choice demonstrated how they perceived the shifting dynamics of international politics in the 1960s and 1970s and how they struggled to break free and pursue their own independent national policy within the rigid framework of the US-Taiwan alliance during the Cold War.

Keywords: taiwan, richard nixon, nuclear program, chiang Kai-shek, chiang ching-kuo

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70 Narratives of the Body: Significance and Meanings of Tattoos of Selected Filipino LGBTs

Authors: Generoso Pamittan Jr., Freddielyn Pontemayor


Through the years, the purpose of tattoos in the Philippines, has changed from being tribal and traditional-ritualistic to personal and individualistic. Hence it is interesting to know the stories and meanings behind tattoos of particular individuals. Using the frames of Anabela Pereira’s concept of ‘body art’ as ‘visual language’, this paper scrutinizes the tattoos of selected Filipino LGBTs to (1) unfold the stories behind their body symbols, (2) describe the meanings and significance of their tattoos, and (3) determine the dominant themes that are common among the tattoos of the selected LGBTs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with selected respondents to obtain in-depth information about the tattoos. Photos of tattoos were also taken, with respondents’ consent, to describe and analyze the details of tattoos’ patterns/ designs. Based on the interviews and analysis, most of the immediate relatives of the selected LGBTs were initially against the idea of having tattoos because of social stigma. However, the LGBT respondents considered their tattoos as symbols of their penchant for something (arts, cooking, etc.), expression of their personality and life’s aspirations, assertion of their identity amidst heteronormative tendencies and symbols that constantly remind them of the significant people and milestones in their lives.

Keywords: body art, body tattoo, gender, identity, LGBT, tattoo

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69 Influence Analysis of Macroeconomic Parameters on Real Estate Price Variation in Taipei, Taiwan

Authors: Li Li, Kai-Hsuan Chu


It is well known that the real estate price depends on a lot of factors. Each house current value is dependent on the location, room number, transportation, living convenience, year and surrounding environments. Although, there are different experienced models for housing agent to estimate the price, it is a case by case study without overall dynamic variation investigation. However, many economic parameters may more or less influence the real estate price variation. Here, the influences of most macroeconomic parameters on real estate price are investigated individually based on least-square scheme and grey correlation strategy. Then those parameters are classified into leading indices, simultaneous indices and laggard indices. In addition, the leading time period is evaluated based on least square method. The important leading and simultaneous indices can be used to establish an artificial intelligent neural network model for real estate price variation prediction. The real estate price variation of Taipei, Taiwan during 2005 ~ 2017 are chosen for this research data analysis and validation. The results show that the proposed method has reasonable prediction function for real estate business reference.

Keywords: real estate price, least-square, grey correlation, macroeconomics

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68 A Study of the Adaptive Reuse for School Land Use Strategy: An Application of the Analytic Network Process and Big Data

Authors: Wann-Ming Wey


In today's popularity and progress of information technology, the big data set and its analysis are no longer a major conundrum. Now, we could not only use the relevant big data to analysis and emulate the possible status of urban development in the near future, but also provide more comprehensive and reasonable policy implementation basis for government units or decision-makers via the analysis and emulation results as mentioned above. In this research, we set Taipei City as the research scope, and use the relevant big data variables (e.g., population, facility utilization and related social policy ratings) and Analytic Network Process (ANP) approach to implement in-depth research and discussion for the possible reduction of land use in primary and secondary schools of Taipei City. In addition to enhance the prosperous urban activities for the urban public facility utilization, the final results of this research could help improve the efficiency of urban land use in the future. Furthermore, the assessment model and research framework established in this research also provide a good reference for schools or other public facilities land use and adaptive reuse strategies in the future.

Keywords: adaptive reuse, analytic network process, big data, land use strategy

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67 Maximum Deformation Estimation for Reinforced Concrete Buildings Using Equivalent Linearization Method

Authors: Chien-Kuo Chiu


In the displacement-based seismic design and evaluation, equivalent linearization method is one of the approximation methods to estimate the maximum inelastic displacement response of a system. In this study, the accuracy of two equivalent linearization methods are investigated. The investigation consists of three soil condition in Taiwan (Taipei Basin 1, 2, and 3) and five different heights of building (H_r= 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 m). The first method is the Taiwan equivalent linearization method (TELM) which was proposed based on Japanese equivalent linear method considering the modification factor, α_T= 0.85. On the basis of Lin and Miranda study, the second method is proposed with some modification considering Taiwan soil conditions. From this study, it is shown that Taiwanese equivalent linearization method gives better estimation compared to the modified Lin and Miranda method (MLM). The error index for the Taiwanese equivalent linearization method are 16%, 13%, and 12% for Taipei Basin 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Furthermore, a ductility demand spectrum of single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system is presented in this study as a guide for engineers to estimate the ductility demand of a structure.

Keywords: displacement-based design, ductility demand spectrum, equivalent linearization method, RC buildings, single-degree-of-freedom

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66 Integrated Safety Net Program for High-Risk Families in New Taipei City

Authors: Peifang Hsieh


New Taipei city faces increasing number of migrant families, in which the needs of children are sometimes neglected due to insufficient support from communities. Moreover, the traditional mindset of disengagement discourages citizens from preemptively identifying families in need in their communities, resulting in delay of prompt intervention from authorities concerned. To safeguard these vulnerable families, New Taipei city develops the 'Integrated Safety-Net Program for High-Risk Families' from 2011 by implementing the following measures: (A) New attitude and action: Instead of passively receiving reported case of high-risk families, the program takes proactive and preemptive approach to detect and respond at early stage, so the cases are prevented from worsening. In addition, cross-departmental integration mechanism is established to meet multiple needs of high-risk families. The children number added to the government care network is greatly increased to over 10,000, which is around 4.4 times the original number before the program. (B) New service points: 2000 city-wide convenience stores are added as service stations so that children in less privileged families can go to any of 24-hour convenience stores across the city to pick up free meals. This greatly increases the approachability to high-risk families. Moreover, the social welfare institutes will be notified with information left in convenience stores by children and follow up with further assistance, greatly enhancing chances of less privileged families being identified. (C) New Key Figures: Mobilize community officers and volunteers to detect and offer on-site assistance. Volunteer organizations within communities are connected to report and offer follow-up services in a more active manner. In total, from 2011 to 2015, 54,789 cases are identified through active care, benefiting 82,124 children. In addition, 87.49% family-cases in the program receiving comprehensive social assistance are no longer at high risk.

Keywords: cross department, high-risk families, public-private partnership, integrated safety net

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65 Challenging Hegemonic Masculinity in Nigerian Hip Hop: An Evaluation of Gender Representation in Falz the Bahd Guy’s Moral Instruction Album

Authors: Adelaja O. Oriade


The Nigerian hip-hop music genre, like the African American scene where it was adopted from, is riddled with musical lyrics that amplify and normalize hypermasculinity, homophobia, sexism, and objectification of women. Several factors are responsible for this anomaly; however, the greatest factor is the urge of hip-hop musicians to achieve the commercial success that is dependent on selling records and appealing to the established societal accepted norm for hip-hop music. Consequently, this paper presents a counter-narrative of this gender representation within the Nigerian hip-hop industry. This study analyzed the musical lyrics of the ‘Hypocrisy’ track on the 2019 album of famous Nigerian rapper, Falz the Bahd Guy; and argued that Falz in this album challenged the predominant ideas of hegemonic masculinity by singing in favor of LGBT people and women. Also, based on the success of this album, this paper argues that a hip-hop album can achieve commercial success without aligning with predominant hip-hop parameters of gender representation. The study recommends that future studies should evaluate the reactions of Nigerians to these gender presentations by Falz the Bahd guy.

Keywords: hegemonic masculinity, hypermasculinity, LGBT, misogyny, sexism

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64 The Impacts of Land Use Change and Extreme Precipitation Events on Ecosystem Services

Authors: Szu-Hua Wang


Urban areas contain abundant potential biochemical storages and renewable and non-renewable flows. Urban natural environments for breeding natural assets and urban economic development for maintaining urban functions can be analyzed form the concept of ecological economic system. Land use change and ecosystem services change are resulting from the interactions between human activities and environments factually. Land use change due to human activities is the major cause of climate change, leading to serious impacts on urban ecosystem services, including provisioning services, regulating services, cultural services and supporting services. However, it lacks discussion on the interactions among urban land use change, ecosystem services change, and extreme precipitation events. Energy synthesis can use the same measure standard unit, solar energy, for different energy resources (e.g. sunlight, water, fossil fuels, minerals, etc.) and analyze contributions of various natural environmental resources on human economic systems. Therefore, this research adopts the concept of ecological, economic systems and energy synthesis for analyzing dynamic spatial impacts of land use change on ecosystem services, using the Taipei area as a case study. The analysis results show that changes in land use in the Taipei area, especially the conversion of natural lands and agricultural lands to urban lands, affect the ecosystem services negatively. These negative effects become more significant during the extreme precipitation events.

Keywords: urban ecological economic system, extreme precipitation events, ecosystem services, energy

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63 The Research of the Relationship between Triathlon Competition Results with Physical Fitness Performance

Authors: Chen Chan Wei


The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of swim 1500m, 10000m run, VO2 max, and body fat on Olympic distance triathlon competition performance. The subjects were thirteen college triathletes with endurance training, with an average age, height and weight of 20.61±1.04 years (mean ± SD), 171.76±8.54 cm and 65.32±8.14 kg respectively. All subjects were required to take the tests of swim 1500m, run 10000m, VO2 max, body fat, and participate in the Olympic distance triathlon competition. First, the swim 1500m test was taken in the standardized 50m pool, with a depth of 2m, and the 10000m run test on the standardized 400m track. After three days, VO2 max was tested with the MetaMax 3B and body fat was measured with the DEXA machine. After two weeks, all 13 subjects joined the Olympic distance triathlon competition at the 2016 New Taipei City Asian Cup. The relationships between swim 1500m, 10000m run, VO2 max, body fat test, and Olympic distance triathlon competition performance were evaluated using Pearson's product-moment correlation. The results show that 10000m run and body fat had a significant positive correlation with Olympic distance triathlon performance (r=.830, .768), but VO2 max has a significant negative correlation with Olympic distance triathlon performance (r=-.735). In conclusion, for improved non-draft Olympic distance triathlon performance, triathletes should focus on running than swimming training and can be measure VO2 max to prediction triathlon performance. Also, managing body fat can improve Olympic distance triathlon performance. In addition, swimming performance was not significantly correlated to Olympic distance triathlon performance, possibly because the 2016 New Taipei City Asian Cup age group was not a drafting competition. The swimming race is the shortest component of Olympic distance triathlons. Therefore, in a non-draft competition, swimming ability is not significantly correlated with overall performance.

Keywords: triathletes, olympic, non-drafting, correlation

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62 Spatial Analysis of Flood Vulnerability in Highly Urbanized Area: A Case Study in Taipei City

Authors: Liang Weichien


Without adequate information and mitigation plan for natural disaster, the risk to urban populated areas will increase in the future as populations grow, especially in Taiwan. Taiwan is recognized as the world's high-risk areas, where an average of 5.7 times of floods occur per year should seek to strengthen coherence and consensus in how cities can plan for flood and climate change. Therefore, this study aims at understanding the vulnerability to flooding in Taipei city, Taiwan, by creating indicators and calculating the vulnerability of each study units. The indicators were grouped into sensitivity and adaptive capacity based on the definition of vulnerability of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The indicators were weighted by using Principal Component Analysis. However, current researches were based on the assumption that the composition and influence of the indicators were the same in different areas. This disregarded spatial correlation that might result in inaccurate explanation on local vulnerability. The study used Geographically Weighted Principal Component Analysis by adding geographic weighting matrix as weighting to get the different main flood impact characteristic in different areas. Cross Validation Method and Akaike Information Criterion were used to decide bandwidth and Gaussian Pattern as the bandwidth weight scheme. The ultimate outcome can be used for the reduction of damage potential by integrating the outputs into local mitigation plan and urban planning.

Keywords: flood vulnerability, geographically weighted principal components analysis, GWPCA, highly urbanized area, spatial correlation

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61 Pneumoperitoneum Creation Assisted with Optical Coherence Tomography and Automatic Identification

Authors: Eric Yi-Hsiu Huang, Meng-Chun Kao, Wen-Chuan Kuo


For every laparoscopic surgery, a safe pneumoperitoneumcreation (gaining access to the peritoneal cavity) is the first and essential step. However, closed pneumoperitoneum is usually obtained by blind insertion of a Veress needle into the peritoneal cavity, which may carry potential risks suchas bowel and vascular injury.Until now, there remains no definite measure to visually confirm the position of the needle tip inside the peritoneal cavity. Therefore, this study established an image-guided Veress needle method by combining a fiber probe with optical coherence tomography (OCT). An algorithm was also proposed for determining the exact location of the needle tip through the acquisition of OCT images. Our method not only generates a series of “live” two-dimensional (2D) images during the needle puncture toward the peritoneal cavity but also can eliminate operator variation in image judgment, thus improving peritoneal access safety. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Taipei Veterans General Hospital (Taipei VGH IACUC 2020-144). A total of 2400 in vivo OCT images, independent of each other, were acquired from experiments of forty peritoneal punctures on two piglets. Characteristic OCT image patterns could be observed during the puncturing process. The ROC curve demonstrates the discrimination capability of these quantitative image features of the classifier, showing the accuracy of the classifier for determining the inside vs. outside of the peritoneal was 98% (AUC=0.98). In summary, the present study demonstrates the ability of the combination of our proposed automatic identification method and OCT imaging for automatically and objectively identifying the location of the needle tip. OCT images translate the blind closed technique of peritoneal access into a visualized procedure, thus improving peritoneal access safety.

Keywords: pneumoperitoneum, optical coherence tomography, automatic identification, veress needle

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60 Temperature Control and Comfort Level of Elementary School Building with Green Roof in New Taipei City, Taiwan

Authors: Ying-Ming Su, Mei-Shu Huang


To mitigate the urban heat island effect has become a global issue facing the challenge of climate change. Through literature reviews, plant photosynthesis can reduce the carbon dioxide and mitigate the urban heat island effect relatively. Because there are not enough open space and park, green roof has become an important policy in Taiwan. We selected elementary school buildings in northern New Taipei City as research subjects since elementary school is asked priority to build green roof and important educational place to promote green roof concept. Testo 175-H1 recording device was used to record the temperature and humidity difference between roof surface and interior space below roof with and without green roof for the long-term. We also use questionnaire to investigate the awareness of comfort level of green roof and sensation of teachers and students of the elementary school. The results indicated the temperature of roof without greening was higher than that with greening about 2°C. But sometimes during noontime, the temperature of green roof was higher than that of non-green roof related to the character of the accumulation and dissipation of heat of greening probably. The temperature of interior space below green roof was normally lower than that without green roof about 1°C showed that green roof could lower the temperature. The humidity of the green roof was higher than the one without greening also indicated that green roof retained water better. Teachers liked to combine green roof concept in the curriculum, students wished all classes can take turns to maintain the green roof. Teachers and students that school had integrated green roof concept in the curriculum were more willing to participate in the maintenance work of green roof. Teachers and students who may access and touch the green roof can be more aware of the green roof benefit. We suggest architect to increase the accessibility and visibility of green roof, such as a part of the activity space. This idea can be a reference of the green roof curriculum design.

Keywords: comfort level, elementary school, green roof, heat island effect

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59 A Mixed Methods Research Design for the Development of the Xenia Higher Education Institutions' Inclusiveness Index

Authors: Achilles Kameas, Eleni Georgakakou, Anna Lisa Amodeo, Aideen Quilty, Aisling Malone, Roberta Albertazzi, Moises Carmona, Concetta Esposito, Ruben David Fernandez Carrasco, Carmela Ferrara, Francesco Garzillo, Mojca Pusnik, Maria Cristina Scarano


While researchers, especially in academia, study and research the phenomena of inclusion of sexual minority and gender marginalized groups, seldom the European Higher Education Institutions (HEI) act on lowering the cultural and educational barriers to their proactive inclusion. The challenge in European HEIs is that gender, and sexual orientation discrimination remains an issue not adequately addressed. Following a mixed methods research design of quantitative and qualitative research techniques and tools, which is applied in five (5) European countries (Italy, Greece, Ireland, Slovenia, and Spain) and that combines desk research, evaluation, and weighting processes for a Matrix-based on Objective indicators and Survey for students and staff of the HEI to gauge the perception of inclusiveness in the HEI context, XENIA HEI Inclusiveness Index is an instrument that will allow universities to gauge and assess their inclusiveness in the domain of discrimination and exclusion based on gender identity and sexual orientation. The index will allow capturing the depth and reach of policies, programmes, and initiatives of HEIs in tackling the phenomena and dynamics of exclusion of LGBT+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and other marginalized groups on the basis of gender and sexual identity) and cisgender women exposed to the risk of discrimination.

Keywords: gender identity, higher education, LGBT+ rights, XENIA inclusiveness index

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58 Measuring the Unmeasurable: A Project of High Risk Families Prediction and Management

Authors: Peifang Hsieh


The prevention of child abuse has aroused serious concerns in Taiwan because of the disparity between the increasing amount of reported child abuse cases that doubled over the past decade and the scarcity of social workers. New Taipei city, with the most population in Taiwan and over 70% of its 4 million citizens are migrant families in which the needs of children can be easily neglected due to insufficient support from relatives and communities, sees urgency for a social support system, by preemptively identifying and outreaching high-risk families of child abuse, so as to offer timely assistance and preventive measure to safeguard the welfare of the children. Big data analysis is the inspiration. As it was clear that high-risk families of child abuse have certain characteristics in common, New Taipei city decides to consolidate detailed background information data from departments of social affairs, education, labor, and health (for example considering status of parents’ employment, health, and if they are imprisoned, fugitives or under substance abuse), to cross-reference for accurate and prompt identification of the high-risk families in need. 'The Service Center for High-Risk Families' (SCHF) was established to integrate data cross-departmentally. By utilizing the machine learning 'random forest method' to build a risk prediction model which can early detect families that may very likely to have child abuse occurrence, the SCHF marks high-risk families red, yellow, or green to indicate the urgency for intervention, so as to those families concerned can be provided timely services. The accuracy and recall rates of the above model were 80% and 65%. This prediction model can not only improve the child abuse prevention process by helping social workers differentiate the risk level of newly reported cases, which may further reduce their major workload significantly but also can be referenced for future policy-making.

Keywords: child abuse, high-risk families, big data analysis, risk prediction model

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