Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1294

Search results for: multifunctional nanoparticles

1294 Multifunctional Bismuth-Based Nanoparticles as Theranostic Agent for Imaging and Radiation Therapy

Authors: Azimeh Rajaee, Lingyun Zhao, Shi Wang, Yaqiang Liu

Abstract:

In recent years many studies have been focused on bismuth-based nanoparticles as radiosensitizer and contrast agent in radiation therapy and imaging due to the high atomic number (Z = 82), high photoelectric absorption, low cost, and low toxicity. This study aims to introduce a new multifunctional bismuth-based nanoparticle as a theranostic agent for radiotherapy, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We synthesized bismuth ferrite (BFO, BiFeO3) nanoparticles by sol-gel method and surface of the nanoparticles were modified by Polyethylene glycol (PEG). After proved biocompatibility of the nanoparticles, the ability of them as contract agent in Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was investigated. The relaxation time rate (R2) in MRI and Hounsfield unit (HU) in CT imaging were increased with the concentration of the nanoparticles. Moreover, the effect of nanoparticles on dose enhancement in low energy was investigated by clonogenic assay. According to clonogenic assay, sensitizer enhancement ratios (SERs) were obtained as 1.35 and 1.76 for nanoparticle concentrations of 0.05 mg/ml and 0.1 mg/ml, respectively. In conclusion, our experimental results demonstrate that the multifunctional nanoparticles have the ability to employ as multimodal imaging and therapy to enhance theranostic efficacy.

Keywords: molecular imaging, nanomedicine, radiotherapy, theranostics

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1293 Quest for an Efficient Green Multifunctional Agent for the Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles with Highly Specified Structural Properties

Authors: Niharul Alam

Abstract:

The development of energy efficient, economic and eco-friendly synthetic protocols for metal nanoparticles (NPs) with tailor-made structural properties and biocompatibility is a highly cherished goal for researchers working in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. In this context, green chemistry is highly relevant and the 12 principles of Green Chemistry can be explored to develop such synthetic protocols which are practically implementable. One of the most promising green chemical synthetic methods which can serve the purpose is biogenic synthetic protocol, which utilizes non-toxic multifunctional reactants derived from natural, biological sources ranging from unicellular organisms to higher plants that are often characterized as “medicinal plants”. Over the past few years, a plethora of medicinal plants have been explored as the source of this kind of multifunctional green chemical agents. In this presentation, we focus on the syntheses of stable monometallic Au and Ag NPs and also bimetallic Au/Ag alloy NPs with highly efficient catalytic property using aqueous extract of leaves of Indian Curry leaf plat (Murraya koenigii Spreng.; Fam. Rutaceae) as green multifunctional agents which is extensively used in Indian traditional medicine and cuisine. We have also studied the interaction between the synthesized metal NPs and surface-adsorbed fluorescent moieties, quercetin and quercetin glycoside which are its chemical constituents. This helped us to understand the surface property of the metal NPs synthesized by this plant based biogenic route and to predict a plausible mechanistic pathway which may help in fine-tuning green chemical methods for the controlled synthesis of various metal NPs in future. We observed that simple experimental parameters e.g. pH and temperature of the reaction medium, concentration of multifunctional agent and precursor metal ions play important role in the biogenic synthesis of Au NPs with finely tuned structures.

Keywords: green multifunctional agent, metal nanoparticles, biogenic synthesis

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1292 Increasing Toughness of Oriented Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA)/Fe3O4 Nanocomposite

Authors: Mozhgan Chaichi, Farhad Sharif, Saeede Mazinani

Abstract:

Polymer nanocomposites are a new class of materials for fabricating future multifunctional and lightweight structures. To obtain good mechanical, thermal and electrical properties, it is essential to achieve uniform dispersion of nanoparticles in polymer matrix. Alignment of nanoparticles in matrix can enhance mechanical, thermal, electrical and barrier properties of nanocomposites in oriented direction. Fe3O4 nanoparticles have generated huge activity in many areas of science and engineering due to its magnetic properties. Magnetic nanoparticles have been investigated for a wide range of applications in sensors, magnetic energy storage, environmental remediation, heterogeneous catalysts and drug delivery. The magnetic response from the Fe3O4 nanoparticles can facilitate with the alignment of nanofillers in a polymer matrix under magnetic field, aiming at fabricating composites with directional properties and functions. Here we report oriented nanocomposites based on Fe3O4 nanoparticles and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA), which prepared via a facile aqueous solution by applying a low external magnetic field (750 G). A significant enhancement of mechanical properties, and especially toughness of nanofilms, of oriented PVA/ Fe3O4 nanocomposites is obtained at low nanoparticles loading. Orientation of nanoparticles can align polymer chains and enhance mechanical properties. For example, orientation of 0.1 wt. % Fe3O4 nanoparticles increase 31% toughness and 23% modulus of oriented nanocomposite in compare of pure films, which indicate good dispersion of nanoparticles and efficient load transfer between nanoparticles and matrix.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, nanocomposites, toughness, orientation

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
1291 Magnetic Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Sachinkumar Patil, Sonali Patil, Shitalkumar Patil

Abstract:

Nanoparticles played important role in the biomedicine. New advanced methods having great potential apllication in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Now a day’s magnetic nanoparticles used in cancer therapy. Cancer is the major disease causes death. Magnetic nanoparticles show response to the magnetic field on the basis of this property they are used in cancer therapy. Cancer treated with hyperthermia by using magnetic nanoparticles it is unconventional but more safe and effective method. Magnetic nanoparticles prepared by using different innovative techniques that makes particles in uniform size and desired effect. Magnetic nanoparticles already used as contrast media in magnetic resonance imaging. A magnetic nanoparticle has been great potential application in cancer diagnosis and treatment as well as in gene therapy. In this review we will discuss the progress in cancer therapy based on magnetic nanoparticles, mainly including magnetic hyperthermia, synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles, mechanism of magnetic nanoparticles and application of magnetic nanoparticles.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, synthesis, characterization, cancer therapy, hyperthermia, application

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1290 Hibiscus Sabdariffa Extracts: A Sustainable and Eco-Friendly Resource for Multifunctional Cellulosic Fibers

Authors: Mohamed Rehan, Gamil E. Ibrahim, Mohamed S. Abdel-Aziz, Shaimaa R. Ibrahim, Tawfik A. Khattab

Abstract:

The utilization of natural products in finishing textiles toward multifunctional applications without side effects is an extremely motivating goal. Hibiscus sabdariffa usually has been used for many traditional medicine applications. To develop an additional use for Hibiscus sabdariffa, an extraction of bioactive compounds from Hibiscus sabdariffa followed by finishing on cellulosic fibers was designed to cleaner production of the value-added textiles fibers with multifunctional applications. The objective of this study is to explore, identify, and evaluate the bioactive compound extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa by different solvent via ultrasonic technique as a potential eco-friendly agent for multifunctional cellulosic fabrics via two approaches. In the first approach, Hibiscus sabdariffa extract was used as a source of sustainable eco-friendly for simultaneous coloration and multi-finishing of cotton fabrics via in situ incorporations of nanoparticles (silver and metal oxide). In the second approach, the micro-capsulation of Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts was followed by coating onto cotton gauze to introduce multifunctional healthcare applications. The effect of the solvent type was accelerated by ultrasonic on the phytochemical, antioxidant, and volatile compounds of Hibiscus sabdariffa. The surface morphology and elemental content of the treated fabrics were explored using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The multifunctional properties of treated fabrics, including coloration, sensor properties and protective properties against pathogenic microorganisms and UV radiation as well as wound healing property were evaluated. The results showed that the water, as well as ethanol/water, was selected as a solvent for the extraction of natural compounds from Hibiscus Sabdariffa with high in extract yield, total phenolic contents, flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activity. These natural compounds were utilized to enhance cellulosic fibers functionalization by imparting faint/dark red color, antimicrobial against different organisms, and antioxidants as well as UV protection properties. The encapsulation of Hibiscus Sabdariffa extracts, as well as wound healing, is under consideration and evaluation. As a result, the current study presents a sustainable and eco-friendly approach to design cellulosic fabrics for multifunctional medical and healthcare applications.

Keywords: cellulosic fibers, Hibiscus sabdariffa extract, multifunctional application, nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
1289 Development of Superhydrophobic Cotton Fabrics and Their Functional Properties

Authors: Muhammad Zaman Khan, Vijay Baheti, Jiri Militky

Abstract:

The present study is focused on the development of multifunctional cotton fabric while having good physiological comfort properties. The functional properties developed include superhydrophobicity (Lotus effect) and UV protection. For this, TiO₂ nanoparticles along with fluorocarbon and organic-inorganic binder have been used to optimize the multifunctional properties. Deposition of TiO₂ nanoparticles with water repellent finish on cotton fabric has been carried out using the pad dry cure method at fix parameters. The morphology and elemental composition of as-deposited particles have been studied by using SEM and EDS. The chemical composition of nanoparticles was determined using energy dispersive spectroscopy. The treated samples exhibited excellent water repellency and UV protection factor. The study of the comfort properties of fabric showed that it had excellent physiological comfort properties. Optimized concentration of water repellent chemical (50g/l) was used in formulations with TiO₂ nanoparticles and organic-inorganic binder. Four formulations were prepared according to the design of the experiment. The formulations were applied to the cotton fabric by roller padding at room temperature (15–20°C). Surface morphology was investigated via SEM images. EDS analysis was also carried out to analyze the composition and atomic percentage of elements. The water contact angle (WCA) of cotton fabric increases with increase in TiO₂ nanoparticles concentration and reaches its maximum value (157°) when the concentration of TiO₂ is 20g/l. The water sliding angle (WSA) decreases and gains minimum value at the same concentration of TiO₂ at which WCA is highest. It was seen samples treated with formulations of TiO₂ nanoparticles exhibits excellent UPF, UV-A and UV-B blocking. However, there was no significant deterioration of air permeability. The water vapor permeability was also slightly decreased (4%) but is acceptable. It can be concluded that there is no significant change in both air and water vapor permeability after nanoparticles coating on the surface of the cotton fabric. The coated cotton fabric has little effect on the stiffness. The stiffness of coated samples was not increased significantly; thus comfort of cotton fabric is not decreased. This functionalized cotton fabric also exhibits good physiological comfort properties. ''The authors are also thankful to student grant competition 21312 provided at Technical University of Liberec''.

Keywords: comfort, functional, nanoparticles, UV protective

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1288 Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Daucus carota Extract

Authors: M. R. Bindhu, M. Umadevi

Abstract:

Silver nanoparticles have been synthesized by Daucus carota extract as reducing agent was reported here. The involvement of phytochemicals in the Daucus carota extract in the reduction and stabilization of silver nanoparticles has been established using XRD and UV-vis studies. The UV-vis spectrum of the prepared silver nanoparticles showed surface plasmon absorbance peak at 450 nm. The obtained silver nanoparticles were almost spherical in shape with the average size of 15 nm. Crystalline nature of the nanoparticles was evident from bright spots in the SAED pattern and peaks in the XRD pattern. This new, simple and natural method for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles offers a valuable contribution in the area of green synthesis and nanotechnology avoiding the presence of hazardous and toxic solvents and waste.

Keywords: Daucus carota, green synthesis, silver nanoparticles, surface plasmon resonance

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1287 Targeted Delivery of Sustained Release Polymeric Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Jamboor K. Vishwanatha

Abstract:

Among the potent anti-cancer agents, curcumin has been found to be very efficacious against various cancer cells. Despite multiple medicinal benefits of curcumin, poor water solubility, poor physiochemical properties and low bioavailability continue to pose major challenges in developing a formulation for clinical efficacy. To improve its potential application in the clinical area, we formulated poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles. The PLGA nanoparticles were formulated using solid-oil/water emulsion solvent evaporation method and then characterized for percent yield, encapsulation efficiency, surface morphology, particle size, drug distribution within nanoparticles and drug polymer interaction. Our studies showed the successful formation of smooth and spherical curcumin loaded PLGA nanoparticles with a high percent yield of about 92.01±0.13% and an encapsulation efficiency of 90.88±0.14%. The mean particle size of the nanoparticles was found to be 145nm. The in vitro drug release profile showed 55-60% drug release from the nanoparticles over a period of 24 hours with continued sustained release over a period of 8 days. Exposure to curcumin loaded nanoparticles resulted in reduced cell viability of cancer cells compared to normal cells. We used a novel non-covalent insertion of a homo-bifunctional spacer for targeted delivery of curcumin to various cancer cells. Functionalized nanoparticles for antibody/targeting agent conjugation was prepared using a cross-linking ligand, bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS3), which has reactive carboxyl group to conjugate efficiently to the primary amino groups of the targeting agents. In our studies, we demonstrated successful conjugation of antibodies, Annexin A2 or prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), to curcumin loaded PLGA nanoparticles for targeting to prostate and breast cancer cells. The percent antibody attachment to PLGA nanoparticles was found to be 92.8%. Efficient intra-cellular uptake of the targeted nanoparticles was observed in the cancer cells. These results have emphasized the potential of our multifunctional curcumin nanoparticles to improve the clinical efficacy of curcumin therapy in patients with cancer.

Keywords: polymeric nanoparticles, cancer therapy, sustained release, curcumin

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1286 Preparation and Characterization of Nickel-Tungsten Nanoparticles Using Microemulsion Mediated Synthesis

Authors: S. Pal, R. Singh, S. Sivakumar, D. Kunzru

Abstract:

AOT stabilized reverse micelles of deionized water, dispersed in isooctane have been used to synthesize bimetallic nickel tungsten nanoparticles. Prepared nanoparticles were supported on γ-Al2O3 followed by calcination at 500oC. Characterizations of the nanoparticles were done by TEM, XRD, FTIR, XRF, TGA and BET. XRF results showed that this method gave good composition control with W/Ni weight ratio equal to 3.2. TEM images showed particle size of 5-10 nm. Removal of surfactant after calcination was confirmed by TGA and FTIR.

Keywords: nanoparticles, reverse micelles, nickel, tungsten

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1285 Ta-doped Nb2O5: Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity

Authors: Mahendrasingh J. Pawar, M. D. Gaoner

Abstract:

Ta-doped Nb2O5 (Ta content 0.5-2% mole fraction) nanoparticles in the range of 20-40 nm were synthesized by combustion technique. The crystalline phase, morphology and size of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The specific surface area of the nanoparticles was measured by nitrogen adsorption (BET analysis). The undoped Nb2O5 nanoparticles were found to have the particles size in the range of 50−80 nm. The photocatalytic performance of the samples was characterized by degrading 20 mg/L toluene under UV−Vis irradiation. The results show that the Ta-doped Nb2O5 nanoparticles exhibit a significant increase in photocatalytic performance over the undoped Nb2O5 nanoparticles, and the Nb2O5 nanoparticles doped with 1.5% Ta and calcined at 450°C show the best photocatalytic performance.

Keywords: Nb2O5, Ta-doped Nb2O5, photodegradation of Toluene, combustion method

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1284 Ecotoxicity Evaluation and Suggestion of Remediation Method of ZnO Nanoparticles in Aqueous Phase

Authors: Hyunsang Kim, Younghun Kim, Younghee Kim, Sangku Lee

Abstract:

We investigated ecotoxicity and performed an experiment for removing ZnO nanoparticles in water. Short-term exposure of hatching test using fertilized eggs (O. latipes) showed deformity in 5 ppm of ZnO nanoparticles solution, and in 10ppm ZnO nanoparticles solution delayed hatching was observed. Herein, chemical precipitation method was suggested for removing ZnO nanoparticles in water. The precipitated ZnO nanoparticles showed the form of ZnS after addition of Na2S, and the form of Zn3(PO4)2 for Na2HPO4. The removal efficiency of ZnO nanoparticles in water was closed to 100% for two case. In ecotoxicity evaluation of as-precipitated ZnS and Zn3(PO4)2, they did not cause any acute toxicity for D. magna. It is noted that this precipitation treatment of ZnO is effective to reduce the potential cytotoxicity.

Keywords: ZnO nanopraticles, ZnS, Zn3(PO4)2, ecotoxicity evaluation, chemical precipitation

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1283 Metal Nanoparticles Caused Death of Metastatic MDA-MB-231 Cells

Authors: O. S. Adeyemi, C. G. Whiteley

Abstract:

The present study determined the toxic potential of metal nanoparticles in cell culture system. Silver and gold nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized following established "green" protocols. The synthesized nanoparticles, in varying concentrations ranging from 0.1–100 µM were evaluated for toxicity in metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. The nanoparticles promoted a generation of reactive oxygen species and reduced cell viability to less than 50% in the demonstration of cellular toxicity. The nanoparticles; gold and the silver-gold mixture had IC50 values of 56.65 and 18.44 µM respectively. The IC50 concentration for silver nanoparticles could not be determined. Furthermore, the probe of the cell death using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy revealed the partial involvement of apoptosis as well as necrosis. Our results revealed cellular toxicity caused by the nanoparticles but the mechanism remains yet undefined.

Keywords: cell death, nanomedicine, nanotoxicology, toxicity

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1282 Mechanical and Long Term Ageing Properties of PMMA Silica Nanoparticles

Authors: M. Khlifa, A. Youssef. M. Almakki

Abstract:

The addition of silica nanoparticles to poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) can influence its mechanical and aging properties. Dispersed PMMA in colloidal and aggregated silica revealed considerable increase in modulus above the glass transition temperature when aggregated silica nanoparticles were used, whereas colloidally dispersed silica nanoparticles showed only a marginal improvement. In addition, Dispersed PMMA in both aggregated and colloidally silica nanoparticles accelerated physical ageing.

Keywords: nanoparticles, physical aging, PMMA, chemical and molecular engineering

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1281 Study of Dispersion of Silica and Chitosan Nanoparticles into Gelatin Film

Authors: Mohit Batra, Noel Sarkar, Jayeeta Mitra

Abstract:

In this study silica nanoparticles were synthesized using different methods and different silica sources namely Tetraethyl ortho silicate (TEOS), Sodium Silicate, Rice husk while chitosan nanoparticles were prepared with ionic gelation method using Sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). Size and texture of silica nanoparticles were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) along with the effect of change in concentration of various reagents in different synthesis processes. Size and dispersion of Silica nanoparticles prepared from TEOS using stobber’s method were found better than other methods while nanoparticles prepared using rice husk were cheaper than other ones. Catalyst found to play a very significant role in controlling the size of nanoparticles in all methods.

Keywords: silica nanoparticles, gelatin, bio-nanocomposites, SEM, TEM, chitosan

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1280 Green Approach towards Synthesis of Chitosan Nanoparticles for in vitro Release of Quercetin

Authors: Dipali Nagaonkar, Mahendra Rai

Abstract:

Chitosan, a carbohydrate polymer at nanoscale level has gained considerable momentum in drug delivery applications due to its inherent biocompatibility and non-toxicity. However, conventional synthetic strategies for chitosan nanoparticles mainly rely upon physicochemical techniques, which often yield chitosan microparticles. Hence, there is an emergent need for development of controlled synthetic protocols for chitosan nanoparticles within the nanometer range. In this context, we report the green synthesis of size controlled chitosan nanoparticles by using Pongamia pinnata (L.) leaf extract. Nanoparticle tracking analysis confirmed formation of nanoparticles with mean particle size of 85 nm. The stability of chitosan nanoparticles was investigated by zetasizer analysis, which revealed positive surface charged nanoparticles with zeta potential 20.1 mV. The green synthesized chitosan nanoparticles were further explored for encapsulation and controlled release of antioxidant biomolecule, quercetin. The resulting drug loaded chitosan nanoparticles showed drug entrapment efficiency of 93.50% with drug-loading capacity of 42.44%. The cumulative in vitro drug release up to 15 hrs was achieved suggesting towards efficacy of green synthesized chitosan nanoparticles for drug delivery applications.

Keywords: Chitosan nanoparticles, green synthesis, Pongamia pinnata, quercetin

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1279 Beijerinckia indica Extracellular Extract Mediated Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles with Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Clinical Pathogens

Authors: Gopalu Karunakaran, Matheswaran Jagathambal, Nguyen Van Minh, Evgeny Kolesnikov, Denis Kuznetsov

Abstract:

This work investigated the use of Beijerinckia indica extracellular extract for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using AgNO3. The formation of nanoparticles was confirmed by different methods, such as UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, EDX, and TEM analysis. The formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was confirmed by the change in color from light yellow to dark brown. The absorbance peak obtained at 430 nm confirmed the presence of silver nanoparticles. The XRD analysis showed the cubic crystalline phase of the synthesized nanoparticles. FTIR revealed the presence of groups that acts as stabilizing and reducing agents for silver nanoparticles formation. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were generally found to be spherical in shape with size ranging from 5 to 20 nm, as evident by TEM analysis. These nanoparticles were found to inhibit pathogenic bacterial strains. This work proved that the bacterial extract is a potential eco-friendly candidate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles with promising antibacterial and antioxidant properties. 

Keywords: antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, Beijerinckia indica, characterisation, extracellular extracts, silver nanoparticles

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1278 Anticandidal and Antibacterial Silver and Silver(Core)-Gold(Shell) Bimetallic Nanoparticles by Fusarium graminearum

Authors: Dipali Nagaonkar, Mahendra Rai

Abstract:

Nanotechnology has experienced significant developments in engineered nanomaterials in the core-shell arrangement. Nanomaterials having nanolayers of silver and gold are of primary interest due to their wide applications in catalytical and biomedical fields. Further, mycosynthesis of nanoparticles has been proved as a sustainable synthetic approach of nanobiotechnology. In this context, we have synthesized silver and silver (core)-gold (shell) bimetallic nanoparticles using a fungal extract of Fusarium graminearum by sequential reduction. The core-shell deposition of nanoparticles was confirmed by the red shift in the surface plasmon resonance from 434 nm to 530 nm with the aid of the UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The mean particle size of Ag and Ag-Au nanoparticles was confirmed by nanoparticle tracking analysis as 37 nm and 50 nm respectively. Quite polydispersed and spherical nanoparticles are evident by TEM analysis. These mycosynthesized bimetallic nanoparticles were tested against some pathogenic bacteria and Candida sp. The antimicrobial analysis confirmed enhanced anticandidal and antibacterial potential of bimetallic nanoparticles over their monometallic counterparts.

Keywords: bimetallic nanoparticles, core-shell arrangement, mycosynthesis, sequential reduction

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1277 Antifungal Activity of Silver Colloidal Nanoparticles against Phytopathogenic Fungus (Phomopsis sp.) in Soybean Seeds

Authors: J. E. Mendes, L. Abrunhosa, J. A. Teixeira, E. R. de Camargo, C. P. de Souza, J. D. C. Pessoa

Abstract:

Among the many promising nanomaterials with antifungal properties, metal nanoparticles (silver nanoparticles) stand out due to their high chemical activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against Phomopsis sp. AgNPs were synthesized by silver nitrate reduction with sodium citrate and stabilized with ammonia. The synthesized AgNPs have further been characterized by UV/Visible spectroscopy, Biophysical techniques like Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The average diameter of the prepared silver colloidal nanoparticles was about 52 nm. Absolute inhibitions (100%) were observed on treated with a 270 and 540 µg ml-1 concentration of AgNPs. The results from the study of the AgNPs antifungal effect are significant and suggest that the synthesized silver nanoparticles may have an advantage compared with conventional fungicides.

Keywords: antifungal activity, Phomopsis sp., seeds, silver nanoparticles, soybean

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1276 Synthesis of Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles in Presence of Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate

Authors: Fereshteh Chekin, Sepideh Sadeghi

Abstract:

Nickel nanoparticles have attracted much attention because of applications in catalysis, medical diagnostics and magnetic applications. In this work, we reported a simple and low-cost procedure to synthesize nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs) by using sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and gelatin as stabilizer. The synthesized NiO-NPs were characterized by a variety of means such as transmission electron microscope (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results show that the NiO nanoparticles with high crystalline can be obtained using this simple method. The grain size measured by TEM was 16 in presence of SDS, which agrees well with the XRD data. SDS plays an important role in the formation of the NiO nanoparticles. Moreover, the NiO nanoparticles have been used as a solid phase catalyst for the decomposition of hydrazine hydrate at room temperatures. The decomposition process has been monitored by UV–vis analysis. The present study showed that nanoparticles are not poisoned after their repeated use in decomposition of hydrazine.

Keywords: nickel oxide nanoparticles, sodium dodecyl sulphate, synthesis, stabilizer

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1275 Multifunctional Polydopamine-Silver-Polydopamine Nanofilm With Applications in Digital Microfluidics and SERS

Authors: Yilei Xue, Yat-Hing Ham, Wenting Qiu, Wan Chan, Stefan Nagl

Abstract:

Polydopamine (PDA) is a popular material in biological and medical applications due to its excellent biocompatibility, outstanding physicochemical properties, and facile fabrication. In this project, a new sandwich-structured PDA and silver (Ag) hybrid material named PDA-Ag-PDA was synthesized and characterized layer-by-layer, where silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are wrapped in PDA coatings, using SEM, AFM, 3D surface metrology, and contact angle meter. The silver loading capacity is positively proportional to the roughness value of the initial PDA film. This designed film was subsequently integrated within a digital microfluidic (DMF) platform coupling with an oxygen sensor layer for on-chip antibacterial assay. The concentration of E. coli was quantified on DMF by real-time monitoring oxygen consumption during E. coli growth with the optical oxygen sensor layer. The PDA-Ag-PDA coating shows an 99.9% reduction in E. coli population under non-nutritive condition with 1-hour treatment and has a strong growth inhibition of E. coliin nutrient LB broth as well. Furthermore, PDA-Ag-PDA film maintaining a low cytotoxicity effect to human cells. After treating with PDA-Ag-PDA film for 24 hours, 82% HEK 293 and 86% HeLa cells were viable. The SERS enhancement factor of PDA-Ag-PDA is estimated to be 1.9 × 104 using Rhodamine 6G (R6G). Multifunctional PDA-Ag-PDA coating provides an alternative platform to conjugate biomolecules and perform biological applications on DMF, in particular, for the adhesive protein and cell study.

Keywords: polydopamine, silver nanoparticles, digital microfluidic, optical sensor, antimicrobial assay, SERS

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1274 Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Different Types of Plants

Authors: Khamael Abualnaja, Hala M. Abo-Dief

Abstract:

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the subject of important recent interest, present in a large range of applications such as electronics, catalysis, chemistry, energy, and medicine. Metallic nanoparticles are traditionally synthesized by wet chemical techniques, where the chemicals used are quite often toxic and flammable. In this work, we describe an effective and environmental-friendly technique of green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using silver nitrate solution and the extract of mint, basil, orange peel and Tangerines peel which used as reducing agents. Silver Nanoparticles were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy. SEM analysis showed the average particle size of mint, basil, orange peel, Tangerines peel are 30, 20, 12, 10 nm respectively. This is for the first time that any plant extract was used for the synthesis of nanoparticles.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, green synthesis, scanning electron microscopy, plants

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1273 Applications of Sulfur Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Characterizations

Authors: Sandeep K. Shukla, Roli Jain, Soumitra S. Pande, Archna Pandey

Abstract:

Sulfur nanoparticles were prepared by different methods with different sizes and shapes. When the sulfur is present as nanoparticles they have many practical applications in our life. This research discusses sulfur nanoparticles synthesis, characterizations and applications. With dandruff being a common everyday problem and the market is loaded with antidandruff shampoos and such skin care products, it is obvious to assume resourceful research into this area would be both objective to present scenario and potentially lucrative. Nanoparticles are frequently in use in some very powerful antimicrobial, antifungal cosmetics nowadays, especially silver. To check its antidandruff activity, experiments have been conducted on Malassezia furfur the causal organism for seborrheaic dermatitis or dandruff, which have been cultured for such study in our lab.

Keywords: CTAB surfactant SEM, sulfur nanoparticles (S-NPs), XRD, polymeric surfactant

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1272 Inhibitory Mechanism of Ag and Fe Colloidal Nanoparticles on P. aeruginosa and E.coli Growth

Authors: Fatemeh Moradian, Razieh Ghorbani, Poria Biparva

Abstract:

Growing resistance of microorganisms to potent antibiotics has renewed a great interest towards investigating bactericidal properties of nanoparticles and their Nano composites as an alternative. The use of metal nanoparticles to combat bacterial infections is one of the most wide spread applications of nanotechnology in the field of antibacterial. Nanomaterials have unique properties compared to their bulk counterparts. In this report, we demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of zerovalent Iron(ZVI) and Ag(silver) nanoparticles against Gram-negative bacteria E.coli(DH5α) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. At first ZVI and Ag nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction method and using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) the nanoparticle size determined. Different concentrations of Ag and ZVI nanoparticles were added to bacteria on nutrient agar medium. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Ag and Fe nanoparticles for P. aeruginosa were 5µM and 1µg as well as for E.coli were 6µM. and 10 µg, respectively. Among the two nanoparticles, ZVI showed that the greatest antimicrobial activity against E.coli and Ag nanoparticle on P.aeruginosa. Results suggested that the bactericidal effect of metal nanoparticles has been attributed to their small size as well as high surface to volume ratio and NPs could be used as an effective antibacterial material.

Keywords: bactericidal properties, MIC, nanoparticle, SEM

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1271 Synthesis of Biostabilized Gold Nanoparticles Using Garcinia indica Extract and Its Antimicrobial and Anticancer Properties

Authors: Rebecca Thombre, Aishwarya Borate

Abstract:

Chemical synthesis of nanoparticles produces toxic by-products, as a result of which eco-friendly methods of synthesis are gaining importance. The synthesis of nanoparticles using plant derived extracts is economical, safe and eco-friendly. Biostabilized gold nanoparticles were synthesized using extracts of Garcinia indica. The gold nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry and demonstrated a peak at 527 nm. The presence of plant derived peptides and phytoconstituents was confirmed using the FTIR spectra. TEM analysis revealed formation of gold nanopyramids and nanorods. The SAED analysis confirmed the crystalline nature of nanoparticles. The gold nanoparticles demonstrated antibacterial and antifungal activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger and Pichia pastoris. The cytotoxic activity of gold nanoparticles was studied using HEK, Hela and L929 cancerous cell lines and the apoptosis of cancerous cells were observed using propidium iodide staining. Thus, a simple and eco-friendly method for synthesis of biostabilized gold nanoparticles using fruit extracts of Garcinia indica was developed and the nanoparticles had potent antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer properties.

Keywords: cytotoxic, gold nanoparticles, green synthesis, Garcinia indica, anticancer

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1270 Nano Gold and Silver for Control of Mosquitoes Manipulating Nanogeometries

Authors: Soam Prakash, Namita Soni

Abstract:

The synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an active area of academic and more significantly, applied research in nanotechnology. Currently, nanoparticle research is an area of intense scientific interest. Silver (Ag) and Gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) have been the focus of fungi and plant based syntheses. Silver and gold nanoparticles are nanoparticles of silver and gold. These particles are of between 1 nm and 100 nm in size. Silver and gold have been use in the wide variety of potential applications in biomedical, optical, electronic field, treatment of burns, wounds, and several bacterial infections. There is a crucial need to produce new insecticides due to resistance and high-cost of organic insecticides which are more environmentally-friendly, safe, and target-specific. Synthesizing nanoparticles using plants and microorganisms can eliminate this problem by making the nanoparticles more biocompatible. Here we reviewed the mosquitocidal and antimicrobials activity of silver and gold nanoparticles using fungi, plants as well as bacteria.

Keywords: nano gold, nano silver, Malaria, Chikengunia, dengue control

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1269 Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles as MRI Contrast Agents

Authors: Suhas Pednekar, Prashant Chavan, Ramesh Chaughule, Deepak Patkar

Abstract:

Iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are one of the most attractive nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. An important potential medical application of polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) is as imaging agents. Composition, size, morphology and surface chemistry of these nanoparticles can now be tailored by various processes to not only improve magnetic properties but also affect the behavior of nanoparticles in vivo. MNPs are being actively investigated as the next generation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. Also, there is considerable interest in developing magnetic nanoparticles and their surface modifications with therapeutic agents. Our study involves the synthesis of biocompatible cancer drug coated with iron oxide nanoparticles and to evaluate their efficacy as MRI contrast agents. A simple and rapid microwave method to prepare Fe3O4 nanoparticles has been developed. The drug was successfully conjugated to the Fe3O4 nanoparticles which can be used for various applications. The relaxivity R2 (reciprocal of the spin-spin relaxation time T2) is an important factor to determine the efficacy of Fe nanoparticles as contrast agents for MRI experiments. R2 values of the coated magnetic nanoparticles were also measured using MRI technique and the results showed that R2 of the Fe complex consisting of Fe3O4, polymer and drug was higher than that of bare Fe nanoparticles and polymer coated nanoparticles. This is due to the increase in hydrodynamic sizes of Fe NPs. The results with various amounts of iron molar concentrations are also discussed. Using MRI, it is seen that the R2 relaxivity increases linearly with increase in concentration of Fe NPs in water.

Keywords: cancer drug, hydrodynamic size, magnetic nanoparticles, MRI

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
1268 The Green Synthesis AgNPs from Basil Leaf Extract

Authors: Wanida Wonsawat

Abstract:

Bioreduction of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver ions (Ag+) using water extract of Thai basil leaf was successfully carried out. The basil leaf extract provided a reducing agent and stabilizing agent for a synthesis of metal nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles received from cut and uncut basil leaf was compared. The resulting silver nanoparticles are characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The maximum intensities of silver nanoparticle from cut and uncut basil leaf were 410 and 420, respectively. The techniques involved are simple, eco-friendly and rapid.

Keywords: basil leaves, silver nanoparticles, green synthesis, plant extract

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
1267 Multifunctional Coating of Nylon Using Nano-Si, Nano-Ti and SiO2-TiO2 Nancomposite :Properties of Colorimetric and Flammability

Authors: E. Fereydouni, Laleh Maleknia , M. E. Olya

Abstract:

The present research, nylon fabric dyed by pressure method with nano-Si, nano-Ti particles and SiO2-TiO2 nancomposite. The influence of the amount of Si, Ti and SiO2-TiO2 on the performance of nylon fabric was investigated by the use of Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR), horizontal flammability apparatus (HFA), scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDX), water contact angle tester (WCA) and CIE LAB colorimetric system. The possible interactions between particles and nylon fiber were elucidated by the FTIR spectroscopy. Results indicated that the stabilized nanoparticles and nanocomposite enhances flame retardancy of nylon fabrics. Also, the prominet features of nanoparticles and nanocomposite treatment can note increase of adsorption and fixation of dye.

Keywords: nano-Si, nano- Ti, SiO2-TiO2 nancomposite, nylon fabric, flame retardant nylon

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
1266 Gum Arabic-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles for Methylene Blue Removal

Authors: Eman Alzahrani

Abstract:

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were fabricated using the chemical co-precipitation method followed by coating the surface of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with gum arabic (GA). The fabricated magnetic nanoparticles were characterised using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) which showed that the Fe3O4 nanoparticles and GA-MNPs nanoparticles had a mean diameter of 33 nm, and 38 nm, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the MNPs modified with GA had homogeneous structure and agglomerated. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) spectrum showed strong peaks of Fe and O. X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) indicated that the naked magnetic nanoparticles were pure Fe3O4 with a spinel structure and the covering of GA did not result in a phase change. The covering of GA on the magnetic nanoparticles was also studied by BET analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Moreover, the present study reports a fast and simple method for removal and recovery of methylene blue dye (MB) from aqueous solutions by using the synthesised magnetic nanoparticles modified with gum arabic as adsorbent. The experimental results show that the adsorption process attains equilibrium within five minutes. The data fit the Langmuir isotherm equation and the maximum adsorption capacities were 8.77 mg mg-1 and 14.3 mg mg-1 for MNPs and GA-MNPs, respectively. The results indicated that the homemade magnetic nanoparticles were quite efficient for removing MB and will be a promising adsorbent for the removal of harmful dyes from waste-water.

Keywords: Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles, gum arabic, co-precipitation, adsorption dye, methylene blue, adsorption isotherm

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
1265 Comparison of Pbs/Zns Quantum Dots Synthesis Methods

Authors: Mahbobeh Bozhmehrani, Afshin Farah Bakhsh

Abstract:

Nanoparticles with PbS core of 12 nm and shell of approximately 3 nm were synthesized at PbS:ZnS ratios of 1.01:0.1 using Merca Ptopropionic Acid as stabilizing agent. PbS/ZnS nanoparticles present a dramatically increase of Photoluminescence intensity, confirming the confinement of the PbS core by increasing the Quantum Yield from 0.63 to 0.92 by the addition of the ZnS shell. In this case, the synthesis by microwave method allows obtaining nanoparticles with enhanced optical characteristics than those of nanoparticles synthesized by colloidal method.

Keywords: Pbs/Zns, quantum dots, colloidal method, microwave

Procedia PDF Downloads 192